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Postgraduate Opportunities with Birmingham Law School

This Postgraduate Virtual Open Day is designed to inform prospective postgraduate students and current applicants about the postgraduate opportunities available within the Birmingham Law School.

  • LLM (General)
  • LLM Commercial Law
  • LLM International Commercial Law
  • LLM International Law and Globalisation
  • LLM Criminal Law and Criminal Justice
  • LLM International Law: Crime, Justice and Human Rights
  • LLM International Trade Law
  • MA International Law, Ethics and Politics
  • Law PhD / PhD by Distance Learning / MPhil / MJur

Birmingham Law School has a long tradition of producing cutting-edge research that has real-world impact and informs the challenging and exciting learning environment our students experience. Our academic staff are amongst the country’s most eminent legal scholars and are regular contributors to the scholarly literature on the law.

Jessica Bowen, admissions manager at the Birmingham Law School, and Gemma Cullen, admissions coordinator at the Birmingham Law School, will be available online between 11:00-13:00 for the Live Q&A to answer your questions about studying in the Birmingham Law School.

You are very welcome to ask our current and past students about their experience in studying Law  with the Birmingham Law School.

More information about the Birmingham Law School programmes

View related Virtual Tour

Speaker profiles

  • Jessica Bowen

    Jessica is the Admissions Manager at the Birmingham Law School. (Live Q&A 11:00-13:00)

  • Gemma Cullen

    Gemma is the Admissions Coordinator at the Birmingham Law School. (Live Q&A 11:00-13:00)

Q&A Archive

These were the questions asked during the Postgraduate Opportunities with Birmingham Law School live event.

We’ve come to the end of our Q&A session today. Thank you very much to everyone who took part – I hope we managed to be of assistance and provide the information that you were looking for.

We will hold many more of these virtual open day events over the coming months so please check  www.pg.bham.ac.uk  now and again to see what we’ve got lined up for the future. If you’d like to visit our campus (in real life!), our next  Postgraduate Open Day  will take place on 24 November 2018. We also run bespoke  campus tours  throughout term time and  Cafés  at which you can meet current students.

Naomi M asked:

Hello Gemma, Thank you for answering my question. You stated that you may accept an employers’ reference, what criteria would they need to meet for you to accept them please?

Gemma replied:

Hi Naomi, we would require a reference from an employer preferably within the legal sector or an area that’s relevant to your degree. All references must be signed and on headed paper.

Gemma

faisal asked:

can you please confirm in which area you can provide supervision in PHD law

Jessica Bowen replied:

Hello Faisal,

Our academic staff are amongst the country’s most eminent legal scholars. Our academics explore a range of rich and diverse research issues. You can find out more about the research areas our staff can supervise on the course page . You can read in depth about the areas of research for each academic on their staff profile page.

Jessica

Naomi M asked:

Hello, I would like to apply for the General LLM pathway. The FAQ’s state that some courses require 1 reference whilst others require 2. How many references do I need for the General LLM? I am finding it rather difficult to get in contact with my university personal tutor as they are abroad but I have managed to get my advocacy professor’s reference.

Gemma replied:

Hello Naomi,

You will need to provide two references to support your application for the LLM.  We may be able to accept a relevant employer reference if you’re unable to obtain a second academic reference.

I hope this helps.

Gemma

Faisal asked:

i wat to get admission in Phd

Jessica Bowen replied:

Hello Faisal,

For information on our doctoral research programme including the academics research interests and  entry requirements, please visit the course page .

By clicking on the specific programme you wish to apply for you will be directed to an application specifically designed for your programme where you will create your account with the University and submit your application and supporting documents online. You can find out more the application process and what should be included through the ‘How to Apply’ section.

Jessica

Download Transcripts

  • LLM (General) – Zoe Smith
  • Introduction to the LLM (General) – Martin Trybus
  • LLM (General) – Jaime Gordon
  • Introduction to LLM International Commercial Law – No transcript available
  • LLM International Commercial Law – Semone Lamba
  • Introduction to LLM International Law: Criminal Justice and Human Rights – Robert Cryer
  • LLM International Law, Crime, Justice and Human Rights – Martina Salerno
  • LLM International Law, Crime, Justice and Human Rights – Blerina Bulica
  • LLM International Law – Jeannette Rodgers
  • Introduction to LLM Criminal Law and Criminal Justice – No transcript available
  • LLM Criminal Law and Criminal Justice – Rachael Toon
  • Applying for a taught Masters – Emily Rozier
  • Introduction to Funding 2017-18 – Josh Rudd
  • PhD Law – Matthew Ayibakuro
  • Introduction to the College of Arts and Law Graduate School
  • Six steps of applying for a research programme
  • Research proposal as part of your application
  • Funding for postgraduate research programmes
  • A place to call home – No transcript available

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Church and civil courts in late medieval and early modern Scotland

Aberdeen University



School of Divinity, History & Philosophy

 
Dr J Armstrong, Dr A Wilson

Applications accepted all year round

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Scottish Diplomacy in the Fifteenth Century

Aberdeen University



School of Divinity, History & Philosophy

 
Dr A MacDonald

Applications accepted all year round

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Law PhD at Anglia Ruskin University

Anglia Ruskin University



Faculty of Arts, Law and Social Sciences

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PhD Dean’s Scholarship in Law

Aston University



Aston Law School

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Aston Business School – PhD/MPhil in Business and Management

Aston University

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PhD opportunities in Law at Brunel University London

Brunel University London

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PhD opportunities in Politics and History at Brunel University London

Brunel University London

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Cardiff University School of Social Sciences – PhD Opportunities

Cardiff University



School of Social Sciences

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Cardiff University School of Law and Politics – PhD Opportunities

Cardiff University

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Fully-funded four-year Ph.D. in Law

European University Institute Florence

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buddhism history wiki

Early Buddhism

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Early Buddhism
Scriptures
  • Early Buddhist Texts
  • Bhāṇaka
  • Tripiṭaka
  • Pāli Canon
  • Āgamas
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  • Jataka tales
  • Avadana
Councils
  • 1st Council
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Early Buddhist schools
  • Pre-sectarian Buddhism
    • Mahāsāṃghika
      • Ekavyāvahārika
        • Lokottaravāda
      • Gokulika
        • Bahuśrutīya
        • Prajñaptivāda
      • Caitika
      • (Haimavata)
    • Sthaviras
      • Pudgalavada
        • Vātsīputrīya
        • Saṃmitīya
      • Sarvāstivāda
        • (Haimavata)
        • ( Kāśyapīya )
        • ( Mahīśāsaka )
          • ( Dharmaguptaka )
        • Sautrāntika
        • Mulasarvastivada
        • Vaibhāṣika
      • Vibhajyavāda
        • Theravāda
        • ( Kāśyapīya )
        • ( Mahīśāsaka )
          • ( Dharmaguptaka )
  • v
  • t
  • e

The term Early Buddhism can refer to two distinct periods, both of which are covered in a separate article:

  • Pre-sectarian Buddhism , which refers to the Teachings and monastic organization and structure, founded by Gautama Buddha . Lambert Schmithausen (1987): “the canonical period prior to the development of different schools with their different positions.” [1]
  • The Early Buddhist schools , into which pre-sectarian Buddhism split (without formal schisms, in the sense of Vinaya ).

Contents

  • 1 Time-span
  • 2 Pre-sectarian Buddhism
  • 3 Early Buddhist Schools
    • 3.1 Formation
    • 3.2 Teachings
      • 3.2.1 Ideological differences
        • 3.2.1.1 Literalism
        • 3.2.1.2 Preservation of older ideas
        • 3.2.1.3 Newly introduced concepts
      • 3.2.2 Newly composed scriptures
        • 3.2.2.1 Abhidhamma
        • 3.2.2.2 Parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya
        • 3.2.2.3 Parivara
        • 3.2.2.4 Other later writings
  • 4 Timeline
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
  • 7 Sources
    • 7.1 Printed sources
    • 7.2 Web-sources
  • 8 External links

Time-span[ edit ]

The period of “Early Buddhism” in the sense of pre-sectarian Buddhism is considered by scholars such as Paul J. Griffiths and Steven Collins to be from the time of the historical Buddha to the reign of Ashoka (c. 268 to 232 BCE). [2] [3] Lamotte and Hirakawa both maintain that the first schism in the Buddhist sangha occurred during the reign of Ashoka. [4] [5]

The various splits within the monastic organization went together with the introduction and emphasis on Abhidhammic literature by some schools. This literature was specific to each school, and arguments and disputes between the schools were often based on these Abhidhammic writings. However, actual splits were originally based on disagreements on vinaya (monastic discipline), though later on, by about 100 CE or earlier, they could be based on doctrinal disagreement. [6] Pre-sectarian Buddhism, however, did not have Abhidhammic scriptures, except perhaps for a basic framework, and not all of the early schools developed an Abhidhamma literature.

Pre-sectarian Buddhism[ edit ]

Pre-sectarian Buddhism, [7] also called “early Buddhism”, [8] [9] “the earliest Buddhism”, [10] [11] and “original Buddhism”, [12] is the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. [web 1]

Some of the contents and teachings of this pre-sectarian Buddhism may be deduced from the earliest Buddhist texts , which by themselves are already sectarian. [note 1] [note 2] [note 3]

Early Buddhist Schools[ edit ]

The early Buddhist schools are those schools into which the Buddhist monastic saṅgha initially split, due originally to differences in vinaya and later also due to doctrinal differences and geographical separation of groups of monks.

Formation[ edit ]

The original saṅgha split into the first early schools (generally believed to be the Sthavira nikāya and the Mahāsāṃghika ) a significant number of years after the death of Gautama Buddha . According to scholar Collett Cox “most scholars would agree that even though the roots of the earliest recognized groups predate Aśoka , their actual separation did not occur until after his death.” [14] Later, these first early schools split into further divisions such as the Sarvāstivādins and the Dharmaguptakas , and ended up numbering, traditionally, about 18 or 20 schools. In fact, there are several overlapping lists of 18 schools preserved in the Buddhist tradition, totaling about twice as many, though some may be alternative names. It is thought likely that the number is merely conventional.

Teachings[ edit ]

After the Sangha split into the various early Buddhist schools and the Mahayana , further elaborations and interpretations of the preserved teachings, and various new doctrines, scriptures and practices. They were composed and developed by the monastic communities, concerning issues deemed important at the time. [note 4]

Ideological differences[ edit ]

The schools sometimes split over ideological differences concerning the “real” meaning of teachings in the Sutta Piṭaka , and sometimes over disagreement concerning the proper observance of vinaya. These ideologies became embedded in large works such as the Abhidhamma s and commentaries. Comparison of existing versions of the Suttapiṭaka of various sects shows evidence that ideologies from the Abhidhammas sometimes found their way back into the Suttapiṭakas to support the statements made in those Abhidhammas.[ citation needed ]

Literalism[ edit ]

Some of these developments may be seen as later elaborations on the teachings. According to Gombrich, unintentional literalism was a major force for change in the early doctrinal history of Buddhism. This means that texts were interpreted paying too much attention to the precise words used and not enough to the speaker’s intention, the spirit of the text. Some later doctrinal developments in the early Buddhist schools show scholastic literalism, which is a tendency to take the words and phrases of earlier texts (maybe the Buddha’s own words) in such a way as to read in distinctions which it was never intended to make. [note 5]

Preservation of older ideas[ edit ]

The later Mahayana schools may have preserved ideas which were abandoned by the “orthodox” Theravada, such as the Three Bodies doctrine, the idea of consciousness (vijnana) as a continuum, and devotional elements such as the worship of saints. [16] [17] [note 6]

Newly introduced concepts[ edit ]

Some Buddhist concepts that were not existent in the time of pre-sectarian Buddhism are:

  • “Building paramis ” or paramitas . The ten paramis are described in Theravadin texts of late origin, [note 7] [note 8] while the (Mahayana) paramitas are found in the Mahayana Sutras such as the Dasabhumika Sutra and the Surangama Sutra , also of late origin.
  • The Bodhisattva vows , which is only found in the Mahayana Sutras .

Newly composed scriptures[ edit ]

In later times, the arguments between the various schools were based in these newly introduced teachings, practices and beliefs, and monks sought to validate these newly introduced teachings and concepts by referring to the older texts ( Sutta-pitaka and Vinaya-pitaka ). Most often, the various new Abhidhamma and Mahayana teachings were bases for arguments between sects.[ citation needed ]

Abhidhamma[ edit ]

As the last major division of the canon, the Abhidhamma Pitaka has had a checkered history. It was not accepted as canonical by the Mahasanghika school [18] [19] and several other schools. [note 9] Another school included most of the Khuddaka Nikaya within the Abhidhamma Pitaka. [18] Also, the Pali version of the Abhidhamma is a strictly Theravada collection, and has little in common with the Abhidhamma works recognized by other Buddhist schools. [20] The various Abhidhamma philosophies of the various early schools have no agreement on doctrine [21] and belong to the period of ‘Divided Buddhism’ [21] (as opposed to Undivided Buddhism). The earliest texts of the Pali Canon (the Sutta Nipata and parts of the Jataka ), together with the first four (and early) Nikayas of the Suttapitaka , have no mention of (the texts of) the Abhidhamma Pitaka. [22] The Abhidhamma is also not mentioned at the report of the First Buddhist Council , directly after the death of the Buddha. This report of the first council does mention the existence of the Vinaya and the five Nikayas (of the Suttapitaka ). [23] [24]

Although the literature of the various Abhidhamma Pitakas began as a kind of commentarial supplement upon the earlier teachings in the Suttapitaka , it soon led to new doctrinal and textual developments and became the focus of a new form of scholarly monastic life. [note 10] [25] The various Abhidhamma works were starting to be composed from about 200 years after the passing away of the Buddha. [note 11]

Traditionally, it is believed (in Theravadin culture) that the Abhidhamma was taught by Buddha to his late mother who was living in Tavatimsa heaven. However, this is rejected by scholars, who believe that only small parts of the Abhidhamma literature may have been existent in a very early form. [note 12] Some schools of Buddhism had important disagreements on subjects of Abhidhamma, while having a largely similar Sutta-pitaka and Vinaya-pitaka. The arguments and conflicts between them were thus often on matters of philosophical Abhidhammic origin, not on matters concerning the actual words and teachings of Buddha.

One impetus for composing new scriptures like the Adhidhammas of the various schools, according to some scholars[ who? ], was that Buddha left no clear statement about the ontological status of the world – about what really exists. [note 13] Subsequently, later Buddhists have themselves defined what exists and what not (in the Abhidhammic scriptures), leading to disagreements.

Parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya[ edit ]

Oliver Abeynayake has the following to say on the dating of the various books in the Khuddaka Nikaya:

‘The Khuddaka Nikaya can easily be divided into two strata, one being early and the other late. The texts Sutta Nipata , Itivuttaka , Dhammapada , Therigatha ( Theragatha ), Udana , and Jataka tales belong to the early stratum. The texts Khuddakapatha, Vimanavatthu, Petavatthu, Niddesa, Patisambhidamagga, Apadana, Buddhavamsa and Cariyapitaka can be categorized in the later stratum.’ [26]

The texts in the early stratum date from before the second council (earlier than 100 years after Buddha’s parinibbana), while the later stratum is from after the second council, which means they are definitely later additions to the Sutta Pitaka, and that they might not have been the original teachings by the Buddha, but later compositions by disciples.

The following books of the Khuddaka Nikaya can thus be regarded as later additions:

  • the Khuddakapatha
  • the Vimanavatthu
  • the Petavatthu
  • the Niddesa
  • the Patisambhidamagga
  • the Apadana
  • the Buddhavamsa
  • the Cariyapitaka

and the following three which are included in the Burmese Canon

  • the Milindapanha
  • the Nettippakarana
  • the Petakopadesa

The original verses of the Jatakas are recognized as being amongst the earliest part of the Canon, [22] but the accompanying (and more famous) Jataka Stories are purely commentarial, an obvious later addition.

Parivara[ edit ]

The Parivara , the last book of the Vinaya Pitaka , is a later addition to the Vinaya Pitaka. [27]

Other later writings[ edit ]
  • all literature of the Mahayana (the Mahayana Sutras ). [28]
  • all commentarial works ( atthakatha ) of Theravada and other early Buddhist schools .

Timeline[ edit ]

Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions
(ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE)

 450 BCE [note 14] 250 BCE100 CE500 CE700 CE800 CE1200 CE [note 15]

 

India

Early
Sangha

 

 

 

Early Buddhist schools Mahāyāna Vajrayāna

 

 

 

 

 

Sri Lanka  &
Southeast Asia

 

 

 

 

Theravāda

 

 

 

 

Tibetan Buddhism

 

Nyingma

 

Kadam
Kagyu

 

Dagpo
Sakya
  Jonang

 

East Asia

 

Early Buddhist schools
and Mahāyāna
(via the silk road
to China , and ocean
contact from India to Vietnam )

Tangmi

Nara (Rokushū)

Shingon

Chan

 

Thiền , Seon
  Zen
Tiantai / Jìngtǔ

 

Tendai

 

 

Nichiren

 

Jōdo-shū

 

Central Asia & Tarim Basin

 

Greco-Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

 

 450 BCE250 BCE100 CE500 CE700 CE800 CE1200 CE
 Legend: = Theravada  = Mahayana  = Vajrayana  = Various / syncretic

Notes[ edit ]

  1. ^ Leon Hurvitz: “… stressed that the written canon in Buddhism is sectarian from the outset, and that presectarian Buddhism must be deduced from the writings as they now exist.” [7] (quote via Google Scholar search-engine)
  2. ^ J.W. De Jong: “It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism […] the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas.” [11]
  3. ^ A.K Warder: “…a reconstruction of the original Buddhism presupposed by the traditions of the different schools known to us.” [13]
  4. ^ “By several centuries after the death of the Buddha, the itinerant mendicants following his way had formed settled communities and had changed irrevocably their received methods of both teaching and praxis. These changes were inevitable, a consequence of the growth and geographic dispersion of the practicing communities. Confronted with new challenges and opportunities in an increasingly organized institutional setting, monks expanded and elaborated both doctrine and disciplinary codes, created new textual genres, developed new forms of religious praxis, and eventually divided into numerous sects or schools.” [15]
  5. ^ “I would also argue that unintentional literalism has been a major force for change in the early doctrinal history of Buddhism. Texts have been interpreted with too much attention to the precise words used and not enough to the speaker’s intention, the spirit of the text. In particular I see in some doctrinal developments what I call scholastic literalism, which is a tendency to take the words and phrases of earlier texts (maybe the Buddha’s own words) in such a way as to read in distinctions which it was never intended to make.” How Buddhism Began, Richard F. Gombrich, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1997, p. 21-22
  6. ^ See also Atthakavagga and Parayanavagga
  7. ^ “Theravada Buddhism, in texts such as Cariyapitaka , Buddhavamsa , and Dhammapadatthakatha , postulates the following ten perfections”, Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 632
  8. ^ “It is evident that the Hinayanists, either to popularize their religion or to interest the laity more in it, incorporated in their doctrines the conception of Bodhisattva and the practice of paramitas. This was effected by the production of new literature: the Jatakas and Avadanas.’ Buddhist Sects in India, Nalinaksha Dutt, Motilal Banararsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition, 1978, p. 251. The term ‘Semi-Mahayana’ occurs here as a subtitle.
  9. ^ “several schools rejected the authority of abhidharma and claimed that abhidharma treatises were composed by fallible, human teachers.” in: Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (2004), page 2. (A similar statement can be found on pages 112 and 756.)
  10. ^ “Although begun as a pragmatic method of elaborating the received teachings, this scholastic enterprise soon led to new doctrinal and textual developments and became the focus of a new form of scholarly monastic life.”
  11. ^ “Independent abhidharma treatises were composed over a period of at least seven hundred years (ca. third or second centuries B.C.E. to fifth century C.E.).”, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 2
  12. ^ “These similarities (between the Abhidhammas of the various schools) suggest either contact among the groups who composed and transmitted these texts, or a common ground of doctrinal exegesis and even textual material predating the emergence of the separate schools.”, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 2
  13. ^ “If I am right in thinking that the Buddha left no clear statement about the ontological status of the world – about what ‘really’ exists – this would explain how later Buddhists could disagree about this question.” How Buddhism Began, Richard F. Gombrich, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1997, p. 34
  14. ^ Cousins, L.S. (1996); Buswell (2003), Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish (2004), p. 107. See also, Gombrich (1988/2002), p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450, more likely later rather than earlier.”
  15. ^ Williams (2000, pp. 6-7) writes: “As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia.” [29] (Originally 1958), “Chronology,” p. xxix: “c. 1000-1200: Buddhism disappears as [an] organized religious force in India.” See also, Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982), pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey (1990/2007), pp. 139-40.

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ Schmithausen (1987) “Part I: Earliest Buddhism,” Panels of the VIIth World Sanskrit Conference Vol. II: Earliest Buddhism and Madhyamaka, ed. David Seyfort Ruegg and Lambert Schmithausen, Leiden: Kern Institute, pp. 1–4.
  2. ^ Griffiths, Paul J. (1983) “Buddhist Jhana: A Form-Critical Study”, Religion 13, pp. 55–68.
  3. ^ Collins, Steven (1990) “On the Very Idea of the Pali Canon”, Journal of the Pali Text Society 15, pp. 89–126.
  4. ^ Lamotte, Étienne (1988) History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Maka Era, translated
    from the French by Sara Webb-Boin, Louvain: Peeters Press
  5. ^ Hirakawa, Akira (1990) A History of Indian Buddhism: From MAkyamuni to Early MahAyAna, tr. Paul Groner, University of Hawaii Press
  6. ^ Harvey,Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 74
  7. ^ a b Hurvitz 1976 .
  8. ^ Nakamura 1989 .
  9. ^ Hirakawa 1990 .
  10. ^ Gombrich 1997 , p. 11-12.
  11. ^ a b Jong 1993 , p. 25.
  12. ^ Warder 2000 .
  13. ^ Warder 1999 .
  14. ^ Disputed Dharmas: Early Buddhist Theories on Existence. by Collett Cox. The Institute for Buddhist Studies. Tokyo: 1995. ISBN   4-906267-36-X pg 23
  15. ^ MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 501
  16. ^ Lindtner 1997 .
  17. ^ Lindtner 1999 .
  18. ^ a b “Abhidhamma Pitaka.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  19. ^ Buddhist Sects in India, Nalinaksha Dutt, 1978, page 58
  20. ^ “Buddhism.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  21. ^ a b Kanai Lal Hazra, Pali Language and Literature – A Systematic Survey and Historical Survey, 1994, Vol. 1, page 415
  22. ^ a b Kanai Lal Hazra, Pali Language and Literature – A Systematic Survey and Historical Survey, 1994, Vol. 1, page 412
  23. ^ I.B. Horner, Book of the Discipline, Volume 5, page 398
  24. ^ The Mahisasaka Account of the First Council mentions the four agamas here. see http://santifm1.0.googlepages.com/thefirstcouncil(mahisasakaversion)
  25. ^ MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 1.
  26. ^ A textual and Historical Analysis of the Khuddaka Nikaya – Oliver Abeynayake Ph.D. , Colombo, First Edition – 1984, p. 113.
  27. ^ This work (the Parivara) is in fact a very much later composition, and probably the work of a Ceylonese Thera. from: Book of the Discipline, volume VI, page ix (translators’ introduction)
  28. ^ would throw the earliest phase of this literature (the Mahayana Sutras) back to about the beginning of the common era ., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 493
  29. ^ Embree 1988 .

Sources[ edit ]

Printed sources[ edit ]

  • Buswell, Jr., Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (MacMillan). ISBN   0-02-865718-7 .
  • Cousins, L.S. (1996). “The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article” in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series 3, 6.1 (1996): 57-63. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from “Indology” at https://www.webcitation.org/5vDULzfTE?url=http://indology.info/papers/cousins/
  • Embree, Ainslie T. (ed.), Stephen N. Hay (ed.), Wm. Theodore de Bary (ed.), A.L. Bashram, R.N. Dandekar, Peter Hardy, J.B. Harrison, V. Raghavan, Royal Weiler, and Andrew Yarrow (1958; 2nd ed. 1988). Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. 1). NY: Columbia U. Press. ISBN   0-231-06651-1 .
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (1988; 6th reprint, 2002). Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). ISBN   0-415-07585-8 .
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism Began, Munshiram Manoharlal 
  • Harvey, Peter (1990; 15th printing, 2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN   0-521-31333-3 .
  • Hirakawa (1990), History of Indian Buddhism, volume 1, Hawai’i University Press 
  • Hurvitz, Leon (1976), Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, Columbia University Press 
  • Jong, J.W. de (1993), “The Beginnings of Buddhism”, The Eastern Buddhist, 26 (2) 
  • Keown, Damien and Charles S Prebish (eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (London: Routledge). ISBN   978-0-415-31414-5 .
  • Lindtner, Christian (1997), “The Problem of Precanonical Buddhism” , Buddhist Studies Review, 14: 2 
  • Lindtner, Christian (1999), “From Brahmanism to Buddhism”, Asian Philosophy, 9 (1) 
  • Nakamura (1989), Indian Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidas 
  • Robinson, Richard H. and Willard L. Johnson (1970; 3rd ed., 1982). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing). ISBN   0-534-01027-X .
  • Williams, Paul with Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought (London: Routledge). ISBN   0-415-20701-0 . Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from “Google Books” at https://books.google.com/books?id=v0Rpvycf1t0C .
  • Sects & Sectarianism: The Origins of Buddhist Schools, Santi Forest Monastery, 2006 by Bhikkhu Sujato

Web-sources[ edit ]

  1. ^ Bhikkhu Sujato, Sects & Sectarianism. The origins of Buddhist Schools. Conclusion

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      Chinese Buddhism

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      “Buddhism in China” redirects here. For branches of Buddhism in China other than Han Chinese Buddhism, see Tibetan Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism .
      Institutions of Chinese Buddhism
      ❶ Monasticism : Buddhist monks at Jintai Temple in Zhuhai , Guangdong , mainland China .
      ❷ Cross-schools cultural centres: Inner view of the Brahma Palace of the Buddhist Vatican (梵宫) in Wuxi , Jiangsu , mainland China, focus of Chinese Buddhist and other East Asian Buddhist schools.
      ❸ Lay movements: A Buddhist house church (居士林 jūshìlín), part of a movement of lay Buddhist congregations, in Beijing .
      Part of a series on
      Chinese Buddhism
      汉传佛教 / 漢傳佛教
      Chinese: "Buddha"
      History
      • Gandhara
      • Kushan Empire
      • Dharmaguptaka
      • Silk Road transmission
      Major figures
      • Kumārajīva
      • Xuanzang
      • Huiyuan
      • Zhiyi
      • Bodhidharma
      • Huineng
      • Taixu
      • Hsu Yun
      • Hsuan Hua
      • Nan Huai-Chin
      Traditions
      • Chan
      • Tiantai
      • Huayan
      • Pure Land
      • Weishi
      • Sanlun
      • Tangmi
      Texts
      • Chinese Buddhist canon
      • Taishō Tripiṭaka
      Architecture
      • Buddhist architecture in China
      Bodhimaṇḍas
      • Wutai
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      • Jiuhua
      • Putuo
      Culture
      • Buddhist Association of China
      • Cuisine
      • Martial arts
      • Diyu
      • v
      • t
      • e

      Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art , politics, literature , philosophy , medicine , and material culture.

      The translation of a large body of Indian Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and the inclusion of these translations together with works composed in China into a printed canon had far-reaching implications for the dissemination of Buddhism throughout the Chinese cultural sphere , including Korea , Japan , Taiwan and Vietnam . Chinese Buddhism is also marked by the interaction between Indian religions , Chinese religion , and Taoism .

      Contents

      • 1 History
        • 1.1 Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)
          • 1.1.1 Earliest historical arrivals
          • 1.1.2 Traditional accounts
          • 1.1.3 The first translations
          • 1.1.4 Early Buddhist schools
        • 1.2 Six Dynasties (220–589)
          • 1.2.1 Early translation methods
          • 1.2.2 The arrival of Kumārajīva (334–413 CE)
          • 1.2.3 A completed Sūtra Piṭaka
          • 1.2.4 Early Chinese Buddhist traditions
        • 1.3 Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589) and Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE)
          • 1.3.1 Chán: pointing directly to the mind
        • 1.4 Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)
          • 1.4.1 Xuanzang’s journey to the west
          • 1.4.2 Caves, art, and technology
          • 1.4.3 Arrival of Esoteric Buddhism
          • 1.4.4 Tang state repression of 845
        • 1.5 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960/979)
        • 1.6 Song Dynasty (960–1279)
        • 1.7 Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368)
        • 1.8 Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
        • 1.9 Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
        • 1.10 Republic of China (established 1912)
        • 1.11 People’s Republic of China (established 1949)
          • 1.11.1 Chinese Buddhist Association
          • 1.11.2 Reform and opening up – Second Buddhist Revival
        • 1.12 Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia
        • 1.13 Chinese Buddhism in the West
      • 2 Sects
        • 2.1 Esoteric Buddhism
        • 2.2 Unrecognised sects
      • 3 Teachings
        • 3.1 Basic concepts
        • 3.2 Incense burning
        • 3.3 Laypeople in Chinese Buddhism
        • 3.4 Festivals
      • 4 See also
      • 5 Notes
      • 6 References
        • 6.1 Citations
        • 6.2 Sources
      • 7 Further reading
        • 7.1 History
        • 7.2 First Buddhist revival
        • 7.3 Contemporary Chinese Buddhism
      • 8 External links

      History[ edit ]

      Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE)[ edit ]

      Further information: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism

      Earliest historical arrivals[ edit ]

      Transmission of Buddhism Silk Road .

      Various legends tell of the presence of Buddhism in Chinese soil in very ancient times. Nonetheless, the scholarly consensus is that Buddhism first came to China in the first century CE during the Han dynasty , through missionaries from India .

      Generations of scholars have debated whether Buddhist missionaries first reached Han China via the maritime or overland routes of the Silk Road . The maritime route hypothesis, favored by Liang Qichao and Paul Pelliot , proposed that Buddhism was originally practiced in southern China, the Yangtze River and Huai River region, where prince Ying of Chu (present day Jiangsu ) was jointly worshipping the Yellow Emperor , Laozi , and Buddha in 65 CE.[ citation needed ] The overland route hypothesis, favored by Tang Yongtong, proposed that Buddhism disseminated through Central Asia – in particular, the Kushan Empire , which was often known in ancient Chinese sources as Da Yuezhi (“Great Yuezhi”), after the founding tribe. According to this hypothesis, Buddhism was first practiced in China in the Western Regions and the Han capital Luoyang (present day Henan ), where Emperor Ming of Han established the White Horse Temple in 68 CE.

      In 2004, Rong Xinjiang, a history professor at Peking University , reexamined the overland and maritime hypotheses through a multi-disciplinary review of recent discoveries and research, including the Gandhāran Buddhist Texts , and concluded:

      The view that Buddhism was transmitted to China by the sea route comparatively lacks convincing and supporting materials, and some arguments are not sufficiently rigorous. Based on the existing historical texts and the archaeological iconographic materials discovered since the 1980s, particularly the first-century Buddhist manuscripts recently found in Afghanistan, the commentator believes that the most plausible theory is that Buddhism reached China from the Greater Yuezhi of northwest India and took the land route to reach Han China. After entering into China, Buddhism blended with early Daoism and Chinese traditional esoteric arts and its iconography received blind worship. [1]

      Traditional accounts[ edit ]

      White Horse Temple , traditionally held to be at the origin of Chinese Buddhism.

      A number of popular accounts in historical Chinese literature have led to the popularity of certain legends regarding the introduction of Buddhism into China. According to the most popular one, Emperor Ming of Han (28–75 CE) precipitated the introduction of Buddhist teachings into China. The (early 3rd to early 5th century) Mouzi Lihuolun first records this legend:

      In olden days Emperor Ming saw in a dream a god whose body had the brilliance of the sun and who flew before his palace; and he rejoiced exceedingly at this. The next day he asked his officials: “What god is this?” the scholar Fu Yi said: “Your subject has heard it said that in India there is somebody who has attained the Dao and who is called Buddha; he flies in the air, his body had the brilliance of the sun; this must be that god.” [2]

      The emperor then sent an envoy to Tianzhu (Southern India) to inquire about the teachings of the Buddha. [3] Buddhist scriptures were said to have been returned to China on the backs of white horses, after which White Horse Temple was named. Two Indian monks also returned with them, named Dharmaratna and Kaśyapa Mātaṅga .

      An 8th-century Chinese fresco at Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu portrays Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BCE) worshiping statues of a golden man; “golden men brought in 121 BCE by a great Han general in his campaigns against the nomads”. However, neither the Shiji nor Book of Han histories of Emperor Wu mentions a golden Buddhist statue (compare Emperor Ming above).

      The first translations[ edit ]

      Mogao Caves 8th-century mural depicting the legend of Emperor Wu of Han worshipping buddha statues

      The first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures from various Indian languages into Chinese occurs in 148 CE with the arrival of the Parthian prince-turned-monk An Shigao (Ch. 安世高). He worked to establish Buddhist temples in Luoyang and organized the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, testifying to the beginning of a wave of Central Asian Buddhist proselytism that was to last several centuries. An Shigao translated Buddhist texts on basic doctrines, meditation , and abhidharma . An Xuan (Ch. 安玄), a Parthian layman who worked alongside An Shigao, also translated an early Mahāyāna Buddhist text on the bodhisattva path.

      Mahāyāna Buddhism was first widely propagated in China by the Kushan monk Lokakṣema (Ch. 支婁迦讖, active c. 164–186 CE), who came from the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhāra . Lokakṣema translated important Mahāyāna sūtras such as the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, as well as rare, early Mahāyāna sūtras on topics such as samādhi , and meditation on the buddha Akṣobhya . These translations from Lokakṣema continue to give insight into the early period of Mahāyāna Buddhism. This corpus of texts often includes emphasizes ascetic practices and forest dwelling, and absorption in states of meditative concentration: [4]

      Paul Harrison has worked on some of the texts that are arguably the earliest versions we have of the Mahāyāna sūtras, those translated into Chinese in the last half of the second century CE by the Indo-Scythian translator Lokakṣema. Harrison points to the enthusiasm in the Lokakṣema sūtra corpus for the extra ascetic practices, for dwelling in the forest, and above all for states of meditative absorption (samādhi). Meditation and meditative states seem to have occupied a central place in early Mahāyāna, certainly because of their spiritual efficacy but also because they may have given access to fresh revelations and inspiration.

      Early Buddhist schools[ edit ]

      Jiangnan funerary jar , ca. 250–300 CE, Jin Dynasty , decorated with a row of Buddhas seated on lotus thrones. [5]

      During the early period of Chinese Buddhism, the Indian early Buddhist schools recognized as important, and whose texts were studied, were the Dharmaguptakas , Mahīśāsakas , Kāśyapīyas , Sarvāstivādins , and the Mahāsāṃghikas . [6]

      The Dharmaguptakas made more efforts than any other sect to spread Buddhism outside India, to areas such as Afghanistan , Central Asia , and China, and they had great success in doing so. [7] Therefore, most countries which adopted Buddhism from China, also adopted the Dharmaguptaka vinaya and ordination lineage for bhikṣus and bhikṣuṇīs . According to A.K. Warder , in some ways in those East Asian countries, the Dharmaguptaka sect can be considered to have survived to the present. [8] Warder further writes that the Dharmaguptakas can be credited with effectively establishing Chinese Buddhism during the early period: [9]

      It was the Dharmaguptakas who were the first Buddhists to establish themselves in Central Asia. They appear to have carried out a vast circling movement along the trade routes from Aparānta north-west into Iran and at the same time into Oḍḍiyāna (the Suvastu valley , north of Gandhāra , which became one of their main centres). After establishing themselves as far west as Parthia they followed the “silk route”, the east-west axis of Asia, eastwards across Central Asia and on into China, where they effectively established Buddhism in the second and third centuries A.D. The Mahīśāsakas and Kāśyapīyas appear to have followed them across Asia into China. […] For the earlier period of Chinese Buddhism it was the Dharmaguptakas who constituted the main and most influential school, and even later their Vinaya remained the basis of the discipline there.

      Six Dynasties (220–589)[ edit ]

      See also: Six Dynasties

      Early translation methods[ edit ]

      Statue of Kumārajīva in front of the Kizil Caves in Kuqa , Xinjiang province, China

      The Tripiṭaka Koreana , an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81,000 wood printing blocks

      Initially, Buddhism in China faced a number of difficulties in becoming established. The concept of monasticism and the aversion to social affairs seemed to contradict the long-established norms and standards established in Chinese society. Some even declared that Buddhism was harmful to the authority of the state, that Buddhist monasteries contributed nothing to the economic prosperity of China, that Buddhism was barbaric and undeserving of Chinese cultural traditions. [10] However, Buddhism was often associated with Daoism in its ascetic meditative tradition, and for this reason a concept-matching system was used by some early Indian translators, to adapt native Buddhist ideas onto Daoist ideas and terminology. [11] [12]

      Buddhism appealed to Chinese intellectuals and elites and the development of gentry Buddhism was sought as an alternative to Confucianism and Daoism, since Buddhism’s emphasis on morality and ritual appealed to Confucianists and the desire to cultivate inner wisdom appealed to Daoists. Gentry Buddhism was a medium of introduction for the beginning of Buddhism in China, it gained imperial and courtly support. By the early 5th century Buddhism was established in south China. [13]
      During this time, Indian monks continued to travel along the Silk Road to teach Buddhism, and translation work was primarily done by foreign monks rather than Chinese.

      The arrival of Kumārajīva (334–413 CE)[ edit ]

      When the famous monk Kumārajīva was captured during the Chinese conquest of the Buddhist kingdom of Kucha , he was imprisoned for many years. When he was released in AD 401, he immediately took a high place in Chinese Buddhism and was appraised as a great master from the West. He was especially valued by Emperor Yao Xing of the state of Later Qin , who gave him an honorific title and treated him like a god. Kumārajīva revolutionized Chinese Buddhism with his high quality translations (from AD 402–413), which are still praised for their flowing smoothness, clarity of meaning, subtlety, and literary skill. Due to the efforts of Kumārajīva, Buddhism in China became not only recognized for its practice methods, but also as high philosophy and religion. The arrival of Kumārajīva also set a standard for Chinese translations of Buddhist texts, effectively doing away with previous concept-matching systems.

      The translations of Kumārajīva have often remained more popular than those of other translators. Among the most well-known are his translations of the Diamond Sutra , the Amitabha Sutra , the Lotus Sutra , the Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra , the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā , and the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra .

      A completed Sūtra Piṭaka[ edit ]

      Around the time of Kumārajīva, the four major Sanskrit āgamas were also translated into Chinese. Each of the āgamas was translated independently by a different Indian monk. These āgamas comprise the only other complete surviving Sūtra Piṭaka , which is generally comparable to the Pali Sutta Pitaka of Theravada Buddhism. The teachings of the Sūtra Piṭaka are usually considered to be one of the earliest teachings on Buddhism and a core text of the Early Buddhist Schools in China.

      Early Chinese Buddhist traditions[ edit ]

      Due to the wide proliferation of Buddhist texts available in Chinese and the large number of foreign monks who came to teach Buddhism in China, much like new branches growing from a main tree trunk, various specific focus traditions emerged. Among the most influential of these was the practice of Pure Land Buddhism established by Hui Yuan , which focused on Amitābha Buddha and his western pure land of Sukhāvatī . Other early traditions were the Tiantai , Huayan and the Vinaya school . [14] Such schools were based upon the primacy of the Lotus Sūtra , the Avataṃsaka Sūtra , and the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, respectively, along with supplementary sūtras and commentaries. The Tiantai founder Zhiyi wrote several works that became important and widely read meditation manuals in China such as the “Concise samatha-vipasyana”, and the ” Great samatha-vipasyana .”

      Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589) and Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE)[ edit ]

      See also: Southern and Northern Dynasties and Sui Dynasty

      Chán: pointing directly to the mind[ edit ]

      Main article: Chinese Chán

      A traditional Chinese Chán Buddhist master in Taiwan , sitting in meditation

      In the 5th century, the Chán (Zen) teachings began in China, traditionally attributed to the Buddhist monk Bodhidharma , a legendary figure. [note 1] The school heavily utilized the principles found in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra , a sūtra utilizing the teachings of Yogācāra and those of Tathāgatagarbha , and which teaches the One Vehicle (Skt. Ekayāna ) to buddhahood . In the early years, the teachings of Chán were therefore referred to as the “One Vehicle School.” [26] The earliest masters of the Chán school were called “Laṅkāvatāra Masters”, for their mastery of practice according to the principles of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.

      The principal teachings of Chán were later often known for the use of so-called encounter stories and koans , and the teaching methods used in them. Nan Huai-Chin identifies the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra and the Diamond Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) as the principle texts of the Chán school, and summarizes the principles succinctly:

      The Zen teaching was a separate transmission outside the scriptural teachings that did not posit any written texts as sacred. Zen pointed directly to the human mind to enable people to see their real nature and become buddhas. [27]

      Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)[ edit ]

      See also: Buddhism in Khotan

      Xuanzang’s journey to the west[ edit ]

      The ruins of Nalanda University in India where Xuanzang studied.

      Statue of Xuanzang at the Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi’an .

      During the early Tang dynasty , between 629 and 645, the monk Xuanzang journeyed to India and visited over one hundred kingdoms, and wrote extensive and detailed reports of his findings, which have subsequently become important for the study of India during this period. During his travels he visited holy sites, learned the lore of his faith, and studied with many famous Buddhist masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at Nālanda University . When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit texts. Xuanzang also returned with relics, statues, and Buddhist paraphernalia loaded onto twenty-two horses. [28] With the emperor’s support, he set up a large translation bureau in Chang’an (present-day Xi’an ), drawing students and collaborators from all over East Asia . He is credited with the translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His strongest personal interest in Buddhism was in the field of Yogācāra , or “Consciousness-only”.

      The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive for a long time, its theories regarding perception , consciousness , karma , rebirth , etc. found their way into the doctrines of other more successful schools. Xuanzang’s closest and most eminent student was Kuiji who became recognized as the first patriarch of the Faxiang school. Xuanzang’s logic, as described by Kuiji, was often misunderstood by scholars of Chinese Buddhism because they lack the necessary background in Indian logic . [29] Another important disciple was the Korean monk Woncheuk .

      Xuanzang’s translations were especially important for the transmission of Indian texts related to the Yogācāra school. He translated central Yogācāra texts such as the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra and the Yogācārabhūmi Śāstra , as well as important texts such as the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra and the Bhaiṣajyaguruvaidūryaprabharāja Sūtra (Medicine Buddha Sūtra). He is credited with writing or compiling the Cheng Weishi Lun (Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi Śāstra) as a commentary on these texts. His translation of the Heart Sūtra became and remains the standard in all East Asian Buddhist sects. The proliferation of these sūtras expanded the Chinese Buddhist canon significantly with high quality translations of some of the most important Indian Buddhist texts.

      Caves, art, and technology[ edit ]

      Massive Tang Dynasty statues of a bodhisattva Guanyin , an arhat Kshitigarbha , and Vairocana Buddha . Longmen Grottoes , Henan province, China

      The popularization of Buddhism in this period is evident in the many scripture-filled caves and structures surviving from this period. The Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu province, the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang in Henan and the Yungang Grottoes near Datong in Shanxi are the most renowned examples from the Northern , Sui and Tang Dynasties . The Leshan Giant Buddha , carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world.

      Monks and pious laymen spread Buddhist concepts through story-telling and preaching from sutra texts. These oral presentations were written down as bianwen (transformation stories) which influenced the writing of fiction by their new ways of telling stories combining prose and poetry . Popular legends in this style included Mulian Rescues His Mother , in which a monk descends into hell in a show of filial piety .

      Making duplications of Buddhist texts was considered to bring meritorious karma . Printing from individually carved wooden blocks and from clay or metal movable type proved much more efficient than hand copying and eventually eclipsed it. The Diamond Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) of 868 CE, a Buddhist scripture discovered in 1907 inside the Mogao Caves, is the first dated example of block printing. [30]

      Arrival of Esoteric Buddhism[ edit ]

      Chinese use of the Siddhaṃ script for the Pratisara Mantra , from the Later Tang . 927 CE

      The Kaiyuan’s Three Great Enlightened Masters, Śubhakarasiṃha , Vajrabodhi , and Amoghavajra , established Esoteric Buddhism in China from AD 716 to 720 during the reign of emperor Xuanzong . They came to Daxing Shansi (大兴善寺, Great Propagating Goodness Temple), which was the predecessor of Temple of the Great Enlightener Mahavairocana . Daxing Shansi was established in the ancient capital Chang’an, today’s Xi’an, and became one of the four great centers of scripture translation supported by the imperial court. They had translated many Buddhist scriptures, sutra and tantra, from Sanskrit to Chinese. They had also assimilated the prevailing teachings of China: Daoism and Confucianism, with Buddhism, and had further evolved the practice of the Esoteric school.

      They brought to the Chinese a mysterious, dynamic, and magical teaching, which included mantra formula and detailed rituals to protect a person or an empire, to affect a person’s fate after death, and, particularly popular, to bring rain in times of drought. It is not surprising, then, that all three masters were well received by the emperor Tang Xuanzong, and their teachings were quickly taken up at the Tang court and among the elite. Mantrayana altars were installed in temples in the capital, and by the time of emperor Tang Daizong (r. 762–779) its influence among the upper classes outstripped that of Daoism. However, relations between Amoghavajra and Daizong were especially good. In life the emperor favored Amoghavajra with titles and gifts, and when the master died in 774, he honored his memory with a stupa, or funeral monument. The Esoteric Buddhist lineage of China (and almost all of Buddhism in China at the time) was nearly wiped out by the Emperor Tang Wuzong , leading to the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution . Historically, the Hanmi Chinese Esoteric School of Buddhism was also thought to have been lost when Emperor Tang Wuzong banned the teaching. Huiguo , the last known disciple of Amoghavajra, left China with Kukai traveling to Japan to establish the Japanese Esoteric school of Buddhism, later known as Shingon .

      A disciple of Amoghavajra, Huisu, secretly continued the lineage in China and has been passed on through one master per generation. In 1989 the 48th Maha-Acharya Master Huiling of the Chinese Esoteric School passed the teaching to the 49th Lineage Bearer Master Yu Tian Jian who revived the school.

      The Esoteric Buddhist lineages transmitted to Japan under the auspices of the monks Kūkai and Saicho , later formulated the teachings transmitted to them to create the Shingon sect and the Tendai sect .

      Tang state repression of 845[ edit ]

      Blue-eyed Central Asian monk teaching East-Asian monk, Bezeklik , Turfan , eastern Tarim Basin , China, 9th century; the monk on the left is possibly Tocharian , [31] although more likely Sogdian . [32] [33]

      There were several components that led to opposition of Buddhism. One factor is the foreign origins of Buddhism, unlike Daoism and Confucianism . Han Yu wrote, “Buddha was a man of the barbarians who did not speak the language of China and wore clothes of a different fashion. His sayings did not concern the ways of our ancient kings, nor did his manner of dress conform to their laws. He understood neither the duties that bind sovereign and subject, nor the affections of father and son.”

      Other components included the Buddhists’ withdrawal from society, since the Chinese believed that Chinese people should be involved with family life. Wealth, tax-exemption status and power of the Buddhist temples and monasteries also annoyed many critics.

      As mentioned earlier, persecution came during the reign of Emperor Wuzong in the Tang Dynasty. Wuzong was said to hate the sight of Buddhist monks, who he thought were tax-evaders. In 845, he ordered the destruction of 4,600 Buddhist monasteries and 40,000 temples. More than 400,000 Buddhist monks and nuns then became peasants liable to the Two Taxes (grain and cloth). [34] Wuzong cited that Buddhism was an alien religion, which is the reason he also persecuted the Christians in China. David Graeber argues that Buddhist institutions had accumulated so much precious metals which the government needed to secure the money supply. [35] Ancient Chinese Buddhism never fully recovered from the persecution. [36] [37]

      Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960/979)[ edit ]

      Vaishravana riding across the waters, Dunhuang , Mogao Caves , Cave 17, 10th century, Five Dyasties era , British Museum

      The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period ( simplified Chinese : 五代十国; traditional Chinese : 五代十國; pinyin : Wǔdài Shíguó) was an era of political upheaval in China , between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the founding of the Song Dynasty . During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12 independent states were established, mainly in the south. However, only ten are traditionally listed, hence the era’s name, “Ten Kingdoms”. Some historians, such as Bo Yang , count eleven, including Yan and Qi , but not Northern Han , viewing it as simply a continuation of Later Han. This era also led to the founding of the Liao Dynasty .

      After the fall of the Tang Dynasty , China was without effective central control during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period . China was divided into several autonomous regions. Support for Buddhism was limited to a few areas. The Hua-yen and T’ien-t’ai schools suffered from the changing circumstances, since they had depended on imperial support. The collapse of T’ang society also deprived the aristocratic classes of wealth and influence, which meant a further drawback for Buddhism. Shenxiu’s Northern Chán School and Henshui’s Southern Chán School didn’t survive the changing circumstances. Nevertheless, Chán emerged as the dominant stream within Chinese Buddhism, but with various schools developing various emphasises in their teachings, due to the regional orientation of the period. The Fayan school , named after Fa-yen Wen-i (885–958) became the dominant school in the southern kingdoms of Nan-T’ang ( Jiangxi , Chiang-hsi) and Wuyue (Che-chiang). [38]

      Song Dynasty (960–1279)[ edit ]

      Seated Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara ( Guanyin ), wood and pigment, 11th century, Chinese Northern Song dynasty , St. Louis Art Museum

      The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song ( Chinese : 北宋, 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng ) and the dynasty controlled most of inner China . The Southern Song ( Chinese : 南宋, 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin dynasty . During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin’an (now Hangzhou ). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River , the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China’s population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. [39]

      During the Song Dynasty, Chán (禪) was used by the government to strengthen its control over the country, and Chán grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism. An ideal picture of the Chán of the Tang period was produced, which served the legacy of this newly acquired status. [40]

      In the early Song Dynasty “Chán-Pure Land syncretism became a dominant movement.” [41]
      Buddhist ideology began to merge with Confucianism and Daoism, due in part to the use of existing Chinese philosophical terms in the translation of Buddhist scriptures. Various Confucian scholars of the Song dynasty , including Zhu Xi ( wg: Chu Hsi ), sought to redefine Confucianism as Neo-Confucianism .

      During the Song Dynasty, in 1021 CE, it is recorded that there were 458,855 Buddhist monks and nuns actively living in monasteries. [34] The total number of monks was 397,615, while the total number of nuns was recorded as 61,240. [34]

      Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368)[ edit ]

      During the Yuan Dynasty , the Mongol emperors made Esoteric Buddhism an official religion of China, and Tibetan lamas were given patronage at the court. [42] A common perception was that this patronage of lamas caused corrupt forms of tantra to become widespread. [42] When the Mongol Yuan Dynasty was overthrown and the Ming Dynasty was established, the Tibetan lamas were expelled from the court, and this form of Buddhism was denounced as not being an orthodox path. [42]

      Ming dynasty (1368–1644)[ edit ]

      Hanshan Deqing , a leading Buddhist monk of the Ming Dynasty

      According to Weinstein, by the Ming Dynasty , the Chan school was so firmly established that all monks were affiliated with either the Linji school or the Caodong school . [43]

      During the Ming Dynasty, Hanshan Deqing was one of the great reformers of Chinese Buddhism. [44] Like many of his contemporaries, he advocated the dual practice of the Chán and Pure Land methods, and advocated the use of the nianfo (“Mindfulness of the Buddha”) technique to purify the mind for the attainment of self-realization. [44] He also directed practitioners in the use of mantras as well as scripture reading. He was also renowned as a lecturer and commentator, and admired for his strict adherence to the precepts. [44]

      According to Jiang Wu, for Chan masters in this period such as Hanshan Deqing, training through self-cultivation was encouraged, and clichéd or formulaic instructions were despised. [45] Eminent monks who practiced meditation and asceticism without proper Dharma transmission were acclaimed for having acquiring “wisdom without a teacher.” [45]

      Qing dynasty (1644–1911)[ edit ]

      Chinese Buddhist monks of the Qing Dynasty

      The Qing court endorsed the Gelukpa School of Tibetan Buddhism. [46] Early in the Taiping rebellion , the Taiping rebels targeted Buddhism. In the Battle of Nanjing (1853) , the Taiping army butchered thousands of monks in Nanjing [ citation needed ]. But from the middle of the Taiping rebellion , Taiping leaders took a more moderate approach, demanding that monks should have licences .[ citation needed ]

      Around 1900, Buddhists from other Asian countries showed a growing interest in Chinese Buddhism. Anagarika Dharmapala visited Shanghai in 1893, [47] intending “to make a tour of China, to arouse the Chinese Buddhists to send missionaries to India to restore Buddhism there, and then to start a propaganda throughout the whole world”, but eventually limiting his stay to Shanghai. [47] Japanese Buddhist missionaries were active in China in the beginning of the 20th century. [47]

      Republic of China (established 1912)[ edit ]

      See also: Republic of China (1912–1949) and History of Taiwan since 1945
      Main article: Buddhism in Taiwan

      Venerable Chin Kung , a Buddhist monk and teacher from Taiwan

      Venerable Hsuan Hua , the first to widely teach Chinese Buddhism in the West

      The modernisation of China led to the end of the Chinese Empire, and the installation of the Republic of China, which lasted on the mainland until the Communist Revolution and the installation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 which also led to the ROC government’s exodus to Taiwan.

      Under influence of the western culture, attempts were being made to revitalize Chinese Buddhism. [48] Most notable were the Humanistic Buddhism of Taixu , and the revival of Chinese Chán by Hsu Yun . [48] Hsu Yun is generally regarded as one of the most influential Buddhist teachers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Other influential teachers in the early 20th century included Pure land Buddhist Yin Guang ( 印光 ) [49] and artist Hong Yi . Layman Zhao Puchu worked much on the revival.

      Until 1949, monasteries were built in the Southeast Asian countries, for example by monks of Guanghua Monastery, to spread Chinese Buddhism. Presently, Guanghua Monastery has seven branches in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia. [50] Several Chinese Buddhist teachers left mainland China during the Communist Revolution, and settled in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

      Master Hsing Yun (1927–present) is the founder of Fo Guang Shan monastery and lay organization the Buddha’s Light International Association . Born in Jiangsu Province in mainland China, he entered the Sangha at the age of 12, and came to Taiwan in 1949. He founded Fo Guang Shan monastery in 1967, and the Buddha’s Light International Association in 1992. These are among the largest monastic and lay Buddhist organizations in Taiwan from the late 20th to early 21st centuries. He advocates Humanistic Buddhism , which the broad modern Chinese Buddhist progressive attitude towards the religion.

      Master Sheng Yen (1930–2009) was the founder of the Dharma Drum Mountain , a Buddhist organization based in Taiwan . During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world.

      Master Wei Chueh was born in 1928 in Sichuan , mainland China, and ordained in Taiwan. In 1982, he founded Lin Quan Temple in Taipei County and became known for his teaching on Ch’an practices by offering many lectures and seven-day Ch’an retreats.

      People’s Republic of China (established 1949)[ edit ]

      Buddhist statues destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976)

      Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva . Guanyin Nunnery , Anhui province, China

      Chinese Buddhist Association[ edit ]

      Main article: Chinese Buddhist Association

      Unlike Catholicism and other branches of Christianity, there was no organization in China that embraced all monastics in China, nor even all monastics within the same sect. Traditionally each monastery was autonomous, with authority resting on each respective abbot. In 1953, the Chinese Buddhist Association was established at a meeting with 121 delegates in Beijing. The meeting also elected a chairman, 4 honorary chairmen, 7 vice-chairmen, a secretary general, 3 deputy secretaries-general, 18 members of a standing committee, and 93 directors. The 4 elected honorary chairmen were the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama, the Grand Lama of Inner Mongolia, and Venerable Master Hsu Yun. [51]

      Reform and opening up – Second Buddhist Revival[ edit ]

      Since the reform and opening up period in the 1970s, a new revival of Chinese Buddhism has been taking place. [52] [53] [54] [55] Ancient Buddhist temples are being restored and new Buddhist temples are being built.

      Chinese Buddhist temples, administrated by local governments, have become increasingly commercialized by sales of tickets, incense , or other religious items; soliciting donations; and even the listing of temples on the stock market and local governments obtain large incomes. In October 2012, the State Administration for Religious Affairs announced a crackdown on religious profiteering. [56] Many sites have done enough repairs and have already cancelled ticket fares and are receiving voluntary donation instead. [57] [58]

      The 108-metre-high Guan Yin of the South Sea of Sanya statue was enshrined on April 24, 2005 with the participation of 108 eminent monks from various Buddhist groups from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and tens of thousands of pilgrims. The delegation also included monks from the Theravada and Tibetan Buddhist traditions. [59] [60] China is one of the countries with the most of the world’s highest statues , many of which are Buddhist statues.

      In April 2006 China organized the World Buddhist Forum , an event now held every two years, and in March 2007 the government banned mining on Buddhist sacred mountains. [61] In May of the same year, in Changzhou , the world’s tallest pagoda was built and opened. [62] [63] [64] In March 2008 the Taiwan -based organizations Tzu Chi Foundation and Fo Guang Shan were approved to open a branch in mainland China. [65] [66]

      Currently, there are about 1.3 billion Chinese living in the People’s Republic. Surveys have found that around 18.2% to 20% of this population adheres to Buddhism. [67] Furthermore, PEW found that another 21% of the Chinese population followed Chinese folk religions that incorporated elements of Buddhism. [68]

      Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia[ edit ]

      Main articles: Buddhism in Malaysia , Buddhism in Singapore , Buddhism in Indonesia , Buddhism in the Philippines , and Buddhism in Thailand

      Chinese Buddhism is mainly practiced by ethnic Han-Chinese in Southeast Asia.

      Chinese Buddhism in the West[ edit ]

      See also: Buddhism in the West

      The first Chinese master to teach Westerners in North America was Hsuan Hua , who taught Chán and other traditions of Chinese Buddhism in San Francisco during the early 1960s. He went on to found the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas , a monastery and retreat center located on a 237-acre (959,000 m²) property near Ukiah, California . Chuang Yen Monastery and Hsi Lai Temple are also large centers.

      Sheng Yen also founded dharma centers in the USA.

      Sects[ edit ]

      Esoteric Buddhism[ edit ]

      Main article: Tangmi

      In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore, Esoteric Buddhism is most commonly referred to as the Chinese term Mìzōng (密宗), or “Esoteric School.” Traditions of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism are most commonly referred to as referred as Tángmì (唐密), “Tang Dynasty Esoterica,” or Hànchuán Mìzōng (漢傳密宗), “Han Transmission Esoteric School” (Hànmì 漢密 for short), or Dōngmì (東密), “Eastern Esoterica,” separating itself from Tibetan and Newar traditions. These schools more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon, and in some cases, Chinese monks have traveled to Japan to train and to be given esoteric transmission at Mount Koya and Mount Hiei.

      Unrecognised sects[ edit ]

      There are many sects and organisations proclaiming a Buddhist identity and pursuit (fo or fu: “awakening”, “enlightenment”) that are not recognised as legitimate Buddhism by the Chinese Buddhist Association and the government of the People’s Republic of China. This group includes:

      • Guanyin Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] (观音佛教 Guānyīn Fójiào) or Guanyin Church (观音会 Guānyīn Huì) [69]
      • True Awakening Tradition (真佛宗 Zhēnfó Zōng) [70]

      Teachings[ edit ]

      Basic concepts[ edit ]

      Chinese Buddhism incorporates elements of traditional Buddhism and Taoism .

      Common practices include

      • praying with incense
      • paying respect to dead ancestors during Qingming and Hungry Ghost festival
      • praying to multitude of deities such as Guanyin , Deva who resides in the heavenly realm
      • recognition of existence of ghosts and hell realm
      • reincarnation (超生)
      • retribution (報應)
      • people affinity (緣份)
      • perform religious ceremonies to help the soul find peace (超渡)
      • vegetarianism and compassion towards all living beings [71]

      Incense burning[ edit ]

      During the Zhou dynasty, Chinese believed that smoke resulting from burning wood act as a bridge between the human world and the spirits. [72] When Buddhism reached China, this wood evolved into sandalwood incense which were originally burned by Indian Buddhists so they could concentrate better. [72]

      The philosophy behind incense burning is to sacrifice oneself for the benefit of others, the true spirit of Buddhism.

      It can be seen that incense burning as it is known today is a merger between Chinese culture and Buddhist culture.

      Laypeople in Chinese Buddhism[ edit ]

      Nan Huai-Chin (南怀瑾), an influential lay Buddhist teacher in modern China

      Lay Buddhists at the recitation hall (诵经堂 sòngjīngtáng) of the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees in Guangzhou , Guangdong .

      In Chinese Buddhism, lay practitioners have traditionally played an important role, and lay practice of Buddhism has had similar tendencies to those of monastic Buddhism in China. [73] Many historical biographies of lay Buddhists are available, which give a clear picture of their practices and role in Chinese Buddhism. In addition to these numerous biographies, there are accounts from Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci which provide extensive and revealing accounts to the degree Buddhism penetrated elite and popular culture in China. [73]

      Traditional practices such as meditation, mantra recitation, mindfulness of Amitābha Buddha, asceticism, and vegetarianism were all integrated into the belief systems of ordinary people. [73] It is known from accounts in the Ming Dynasty that lay practitioners often engaged in practices from both the Pure Land and Chán traditions, as well as the study of the Buddhist sūtras. The Heart Sūtra and the Diamond Sūtra were the most popular, followed by the Lotus Sūtra and the Avataṃsaka Sūtra . [73]

      Laypeople were also commonly devoted to the practice of mantras, and the Mahā Karuṇā Dhāraṇī and the Cundī Dhāraṇī were very popular. [73] Robert Gimello has also observed that in Chinese Buddhist communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī enjoyed popularity among both the populace and the elite. [74]

      Mahāyāna figures such as Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva, Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva, Amitābha Buddha, and the Medicine Buddha , were all widely known and revered. Beliefs in karma and rebirth were held at all levels of Chinese society, and pilgrimages to well-known monasteries and the four holy mountains of China were undertaken by monastics and lay practitioners alike. [73]

      Festivals[ edit ]

      Traditional Buddhist ceremony in Hangzhou , Zhejiang

      These are the holy days that Chinese Buddhists celebrate by visiting temples to make offerings of prayers, incense, fruits, flowers
      and donations. On such days they observe the moral precepts very strictly as well as a full day’s vegetarian diet, a practice
      originally from China.

      The dates given are based on the Chinese calendar system so that 8.4 means the Eighth day of the fourth month in Chinese calendar and so on.

      • 8.12 — Enlightenment Day of Śākyamuni Buddha
      • 1.1 — Birthday of Maitreya Buddha
      • 9.1 — Birthday of Śakra , Lord of the Devas
      • 8.2 — Renunciation Day of Śākyamuni Buddha
      • 15.2 — Mahāparinirvāṇa Day of Śākyamuni Buddha
      • 19.2 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara ( Guan Yin )
      • 21.2 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra
      • 4.4 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī
      • 8.4 — Birthday of Śākyamuni Buddha
      • 15.4 — Vesak Day
      • 13.5 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Sangharama (Qie Lan)
      • 3.6 — Birthday of Skanda (Wei Tuo)
      • 19.6 — Enlightenment Day of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara
      • 13.7 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Mahāsthāmaprāpta
      • 15.7 — Ullambana Festival Ghost Festival
      • 24.7 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Nagarjuna
      • 30.7 — Birthday of Bodhisattva Kṣitigarbha
      • 22.8 — Birthday of Dīpaṃkara Buddha (an ancient buddha)
      • 19.9 — Renunciation Day of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara
      • 30.9 — Birthday of Bhaiṣajyaguru Buddha (Medicine Buddha)
      • 5.10 — Anniversary of the death of Bodhidharma
      • 17.11 — Birthday of Amitābha Buddha

      See also[ edit ]

      • Budai
      • Buddhism in South Asia
      • Buddhism in Southeast Asia
      • Buddhism by country
      • Buddhism in Sri Lanka
      • Buddhist Association of China
      • Buddhist deities
      • Chan Buddhism
      • Chinese Buddhist canon
      • Chinese Buddhist cuisine
      • Chinese Esoteric Buddhism
      • Chinese philosophy
      • Dharma Drum Retreat Center
      • History of Buddhism
      • List of Buddhist Architecture in China
      • Neo-Confucianism
      • Religion in Asia
      • Religion in China
      • Shingon Buddhism
      • Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
      • Three Disasters of Wu
      • Timeline of Buddhism

      Notes[ edit ]

      1. ^ Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, and subsequent accounts became layered with legend. [15] There are three principal sources for Bodhidharma’s biography: [16] Yáng Xuànzhī’s (Yang Hsüan-chih) The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang (547), Tánlín’s preface to the Two Entrances and Four Acts (6th century CE), which is also preserved in Ching-chüeh’s Chronicle of the Lankavatar Masters (713–716), [17] and Dàoxuān’s (Tao-hsuan) Further Biographies of Eminent Monks (7th century CE).These sources, given in various translations, vary on their account of Bodhidharma being either:
        • “[A] monk of the Western Region named Bodhidharma, a Persian Central Asian” [18] c.q. “from Persia” [19] (Buddhist monasteries, 547);
        • “[A] South Indian of the Western Region. He was the third son of a great Indian king.” [20] (Tanlin, 6th century CE);
        • “[W]ho came from South India in the Western Regions, the third son of a great Brahman king” [21] c.q. “the third son of a Brahman king of South India” [19] (Lankavatara Masters, 713–716 [17] /ca. 715 [19] );
        • “[O]f South Indian Brahman stock” [22] c.q. “a Brahman monk from South India” [19] (Further Biographies, 645).

        Some traditions specifically describe Bodhidharma to be the third son of a Tamil Pallava king from Kanchipuram , [23] [24] while the Japanese tradition regards Bodhidharma to be from Persia. [25]

      References[ edit ]

      Citations[ edit ]

      1. ^ Rong Xinjiang, 2004, Land Route or Sea Route? Commentary on the Study of the Paths of Transmission and Areas in which Buddhism Was Disseminated during the Han Period , tr. by Xiuqin Zhou, Sino-Platonic Papers 144, pp. 26–27.
      2. ^ Tr. by Henri Maspero, 1981, Taoism and Chinese Religion, tr. by Frank A. Kierman Jr., University of Massachusetts Press , p. 402.
      3. ^ Hill (2009), p. 31.
      4. ^ Williams, Paul. Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. 2008. p. 30
      5. ^ Label for item no. 1992.165.21 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
      6. ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 281
      7. ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 278
      8. ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 489
      9. ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. pp. 280–281
      10. ^ Bentley, Jerry. Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times 1993. p. 82
      11. ^ Oh, Kang-nam (2000). The Taoist Influence on Hua-yen Buddhism: A Case of the Sinicization of Buddhism in China. Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal, No. 13, (2000). Source: [1] (accessed: January 28, 2008) p.286 Archived March 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine .
      12. ^ Further discussion of can be found in T’ang, Yung-t’ung, “On ‘Ko-I’,” in Inge et al. (eds.): Radhakrishnan: Comparative Studies in Philosophy Presented in Honour of His Sixtieth Birthday (London: Allen and Unwin, 1951) pp. 276–286 (cited in K. Ch’en, pp. 68 f.)
      13. ^ Jerry Bentley “Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times” (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 78.
      14. ^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
      15. ^ McRae 2003 .
      16. ^ Dumoulin 2005 , p. 85–90.
      17. ^ a b Dumoulin 2005 , p. 88.
      18. ^ Broughton 1999 , p. 54–55.
      19. ^ a b c d McRae 2003 , p. 26.
      20. ^ Broughton 1999 , p. 8.
      21. ^ Dumoulin 2005 , p. 89.
      22. ^ Dumoulin 2005 , p. 87.
      23. ^ Kambe & (year unknown) .
      24. ^ Zvelebil 1987 , p. 125–126.
      25. ^ Masato Tojo, Zen Buddhism and Persian Culture
      26. ^ The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, translated with notes by Philip B. Yampolsky, 1967, Columbia University Press , ISBN   0-231-08361-0 , page 29, note 87
      27. ^ Basic Buddhism: exploring Buddhism and Zen, Nan Huai-Chin, 1997, Samuel Weiser, page 92.
      28. ^ Jerry Bentley, “Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times” (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 81.
      29. ^ See Eli Franco, “Xuanzang’s proof of idealism.” Horin 11 (2004): 199–212.
      30. ^ “Diamond Sutra” . Landmarks in Printing. The British Library. Archived from the original on 2005-03-06. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
      31. ^ von Le Coq, Albert . (1913). Chotscho: Facsimile-Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Königlich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan in Ost-Turkistan . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Königlichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler-Institutes, Tafel 19 . (Accessed 3 September 2016).
      32. ^ Ethnic Sogdians have been identified as the Caucasian figures seen in the same cave temple (No. 9). See the following source: Gasparini, Mariachiara. ” A Mathematic Expression of Art: Sino-Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin, ” in Rudolf G. Wagner and Monica Juneja (eds), Transcultural Studies, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, No 1 (2014), pp 134–163. ISSN   2191-6411 . See also endnote #32 . (Accessed 3 September 2016.)
      33. ^ For information on the Sogdians, an Eastern Iranian people , and their inhabitation of Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th–8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th–13th century), see Hansen, Valerie (2012), The Silk Road: A New History, Oxford University Press, p. 98, ISBN   978-0-19-993921-3 .
      34. ^ a b c Gernet, Jacques. Verellen, Franciscus. Buddhism in Chinese Society. 1998. pp. 318-319
      35. ^ Graeber, David (2011). Debt: The First 5000 Years. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House. pp. 265–6. ISBN   978-1-933633-86-2 . 
      36. ^ Wm. Theodore de Bary (editor) (2008). Sources of East Asian Tradition, Vol. 1: Premodern Asia . Columbia University Press. p. 306. ISBN   0-231-14305-2 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link )
      37. ^ History of Spreading Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine .
      38. ^ Welter 2000 , p. 86–87.
      39. ^ Ebrey 2006 , p. 167.
      40. ^ McRae 1993 , p. 119–120.
      41. ^ Heng-Ching Shih (1987). Yung-Ming’s Syncretism of Pure Land and Chan, The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10 (1), p. 117
      42. ^ a b c Nan Huai-Chin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. York Beach: Samuel Weiser. 1997. p. 99.
      43. ^ Stanley Weinstein, “The Schools of Chinese Buddhism,” in Kitagawa & Cummings (eds.), Buddhism and Asian History (New York: Macmillan 1987) pp. 257–265, 264.
      44. ^ a b c Keown, Damien. A Dictionary of Buddhism. 2003. p. 104
      45. ^ a b Jiang Wu. Enlightenment in Dispute. 2008. p. 41
      46. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 358
      47. ^ a b c Lewis Hodus (1923), Buddhism and Buddhists in China. Chapter IX: Present-Day Buddhism
      48. ^ a b Huai-Chin 1999 .
      49. ^ 重現一代高僧的盛德言教
      50. ^ Voice of Longquan, Guanghua Monastery Archived December 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine .
      51. ^ Holmes, Welch (1961). “Buddhism Under the Communists”, China Quarterly, No.6, Apr-June 1961, pp. 1–14.
      52. ^ Laliberte 2011 .
      53. ^ Lai 2003 .
      54. ^ Mitch Moxley (2010), Buddhism Enjoys A Revival
      55. ^ Erica B. Mitchell (201), A Revival of Buddhism? Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine .
      56. ^ “Commercialization of temples in China prompts ban on stock listings, crackdown on profiteering” . Beijing: Washington Post. Associated Press. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012-10-26. [ dead link ]
      57. ^ 湖南29家寺院取消门票免费开放-中新网 – 中国新闻网
      58. ^ 净慧法师呼吁全国佛教名山大寺一律免费开放_佛教频道_凤凰网
      59. ^ Giant Buddhist Statue Enshrined in Hainan
      60. ^ Holy statue of Guanyin Buddha unveiled
      61. ^ “China bans mining on sacred Buddhist mountains” . Reuters. 2007-08-23. 
      62. ^ “China temple opens tallest pagoda” . BBC News. 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
      63. ^ Photo in the News: Tallest Pagoda Opens in China
      64. ^ China inaugurates ‘world’s tallest pagoda’ – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos [ permanent dead link ]
      65. ^ Tzu Chi Foundation Approved To Open Branch In Mainland China – ChinaCSR.com – Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) News and Information for China Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .
      66. ^ [2]
      67. ^ http://www.pewforum.org/global-religious-landscape-buddhist.aspx
      68. ^ http://time.com/4260593/china-buddhism-religion-religious-freedom/
      69. ^ Munro (1994) , p. 269–271.
      70. ^ Cite error: The named reference Duihua52 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ).
      71. ^ http://www.chinavegan.com/2013/09/2013090919203340.htm
      72. ^ a b https://www.sinica.edu.tw/tit/festivals/0497_Incense.html
      73. ^ a b c d e f Twitchett, Denis, and Fairbank, John. The Cambridge History of China, Volume 8, Part 2. 1998. p. 949
      74. ^ Jiang, Wu (2008). Enlightenment in Dispute: The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism in Seventeenth-Century China: p. 146

      Sources[ edit ]

      • Broughton, Jeffrey L. (1999), The Bodhidharma Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN   0-520-21972-4  
      • Chen, Kenneth Kuan Sheng. Buddhism in China: A historical survey. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1964.
      • Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History, 1: India and China, Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, ISBN   0-941532-89-5  
      • Han Yu. “Sources of Chinese Tradition. c. 800.
      • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , ISBN   0-521-66991-X   (paperback).
      • Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. John E. Hill. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN   978-1-4392-2134-1 .
      • Hodus, Lewis (1923), Buddhism and Buddhists in China  
      • Kambe, Tstuomu, Bodhidharma. A collection of stories from Chinese literature (PDF) 
      • Lai, Hongyi Harry (2003), The Religious Revival in China. In: Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 18  
      • Laliberte, Andre (2011), Buddhist Revival under State Watch, in: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 40, 2,107-134  
      • Liebenthal, Walter. Chao Lun – The Treatises of Seng-Chao Hong Kong, China, Hong Kong University Press, 1968
      • Liebenthal, Walter. Was ist chinesischer Buddhismus Asiatische Studien: Zeitschrift der Schweizerischen Asiengesellschaft, 1952 http://data.datacite.org/10.5169/seals-145467
      • McRae, John R. (2000), “The Antecedents of Encounter Dialogue in Chinese Ch’an Buddhism” , in Heine, Steven; Wright, Dale S., The Kōan: Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford University Press 
      • McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen, The University Press Group Ltd 
      • Mullin, Glenn H.The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnations (2001) Clear Light Publishers. ISBN   1-57416-092-3
      • Saunders, Kenneth J. (1923). “Buddhism in China: A Historical Sketch”, The Journal of Religion, Vol. 3.2, pp. 157–169; Vol. 3.3, pp. 256–275.
      • Welch, Holmes. The practice of Chinese Buddhism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1967.
      • Welch, Holmes. The Buddhist revival in China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968.
      • Welch, Holmes. Buddhism under Mao. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972.
      • Welter, Albert (2000), Mahakasyapa’s smile. Silent Transmission and the Kung-an (Koan) Tradition. In: Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright (eds)(2000): “The Koan. Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford: Oxford University Press 
      • Yang, Fenggang; Wei, Dedong, THE BAILIN BUDDHIST TEMPLE: THRIVING UNDER COMMUNISM (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2010 
      • Zhu, Caifang (2003), Buddhism in China Today: The Example of the Bai Lin Chan Monastery. Perspectives, Volume 4, No.2, June 2003 (PDF) [ dead link ]
      • Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1987), “The Sound of the One Hand”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 1, 107 (1): 125–126, doi : 10.2307/602960 , JSTOR   602960  

      Further reading[ edit ]

      History[ edit ]

      • Nan Huai-Chin (1998), Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen, Translated by J.C. Cleary, Red Wheel Weiser 
      • Nan Huai-Chin (1995), The Story of Chinese Zen, Translated by Thomas Cleary, Charles E. Tuttle Company 
      • Tansen Sen (2003), Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400, Association for Asian Studies & University of Hawai’i Press 
      • Shinko Mochizuki, Leo M. Pruden, Trans. (1999). Pure Land Buddhism in China: A Doctrinal History, Chapter 1: A General Survey. In: Pacific World Journal, Third Series, Number 1, 91–103. Archived from the original
      • Shinko Mochizuki, Leo M. Pruden, Trans. (2001). Pure Land Buddhism in China: A Doctrinal History, Chapter 2: The Earliest Period; Chapter 3: Hui-yuan of Mt.Lu; and Chapter 4: The Translation of Texts-Spurious Scriptures. In: Pacific World Journal, Third Series, Number 3, 241–275. Archived from the original
      • Shinko Mochizuki, Leo M. Pruden, Trans. (2002). Pure Land Buddhism in China: A Doctrinal History, Chapter Five: The Early Pure Land Faith: Southern China, and Chapter Six: The Early Pure Land Faith: Northern China. In: Pacific World Journal, Third Series, Number 4, 259–279. Archived from the original
      • Shinko Mochizuki, Leo M. Pruden, Trans. (2000). Pure Land Buddhism in China: A Doctrinal History, Chapter 7: T’an-luan. In: Pacific World Journal, Third Series, Number 2, 149–165. Archived from the original

      First Buddhist revival[ edit ]

      • Pittman, Don Alvin (2001), Toward a Modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu’s Reforms, University of Hawaii Press 
      • Daoru, Wei (n.d.), Buddhism in China and Modern Society: An Introduction Centering Around the Teachings of Taixu and Yinshun (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2013 
      • Lancashire, Douglas (n.d.), Buddhism in Modern China (PDF) 

      Contemporary Chinese Buddhism[ edit ]

      • Chau, Adam Yuet (2010), Religion in Contemporary China: Revitalization and Innovation, Taylor & Francis 
      • Miller, James (2006), Chinese Religions in Contemporary Societies, ABC-CLIO 
      • Baumer, Christoph (2011), China’s Holy Mountain: An Illustrated Journey into the Heart of Buddhism, London: I.B.Tauris, ISBN   978-1-84885-700-1  
      • Master Sheng Yen (2007), Orthodox Chinese Buddhism, Translated by Douglas Gildow and Otto Chang, North Atlantic Books 
      • Munro, Robin; Mickey Spiegel (1994). Detained in China and Tibet: A Directory of Political and Religious Prisoners . Human Rights Watch. ISBN   1564321053 . 
        • List first published in: “Appendix: Sects and Societies Recently or Currently Active in the PRC” . Chinese Sociology & Anthropology. 21 (4): 103–104. 1989. doi : 10.2753/CSA0009-46252104102 . 

      External links[ edit ]

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              DAZZLERS TRIUMPH IN UDA NATIONALS

              The++Seminole+Dazzlers+performed+in+the+UDA+National+Dance+Team+Championship.

              The Seminole Dazzlers performed in the UDA National Dance Team Championship.

              The Seminole Dazzlers performed in the UDA National Dance Team Championship.

              Caitlyn Drazen

              Caitlyn Drazen

              The Seminole Dazzlers performed in the UDA National Dance Team Championship.

              Malavika Kannan , Reporter
              February 8, 2016

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              On Jan. 30th- Feb. 1st, Seminole High School’s renowned Dazzlers were ready to high-kick, twirl, and pirouette into victory at the UDA National Dance Team Championship. The competition was held at Walt Disney World’s Resort, and the Dazzlers competed against notable dance teams from all over the country.

              “[Nationals] is important to us because it’s where we earn our titles. We’ve always [competed] here and done well,” says JV Dazzler Anna Cannavino, a sophomore.

              The Dazzlers dominated the Florida Regionals, held in Disney on Jan. 18th. Their performance qualified them to compete in the Nationals later this month. The Dazzlers are looking forward to the new challenge.

              “We [were] motivated to learn from the judges’ comments [in Regionals] and [to] improve our routines for UDA Nationals,” says choreographer and coach Maureen Maguire.

              The Junior Varsity (JV) and Varsity dance teams practiced from November up until the competition to perfect the two dances that each team performed. “In JV, we’ve been working hard on a high kick routine and pom routine, which are very high energy dances,” says Cannavino.

              In the competition, dancers were divided based on their age, whether they are JV or Varsity, and their style of dance: kick, pom, jazz/lyrical, and hip-hop. “Dancers are ranked according to scores in their style of dance,” says Maguire. “We compete against other varsity teams.”

              To prepare, the Dazzlers put in long hours of work in order to fine-tune the routines that they presented. The dancers spend two class periods each day dancing, in addition to multiple after-school practices. “We have been working since June to perfect our work,” says Cannavino.

              This is not the Dazzlers’ first year competing. According to Maguire, they have competed every year since the UDA competition began in 2008, and have established a tradition of bringing home awards. They have won in the Kick divisions every year, with high ranks in Jazz and Pom as well.

              The JV team finished 10th in the Pom category, and the Varsity finished 4th in the Jazz category. Both teams secured a first place win in the Kick category for the fifth year in a row.

              “These Dazzlers represented their school and themselves with a lot of Seminole pride. They spent countless hours in practice and their dedication, perseverance and teamwork was evident on the competition floor,” says Maguire.

              The event started with performances beginning Saturday 8:00 am in four different venues and didn’t finish until 10:00 pm on Sunday.

              “Dancing makes us determined. It gives us work ethic, something to work for,” says Cannavino. “I love performing, and it’s fun at the end to know that our hard work paid off.”

              After a successful performance in the UDA Regionals, the Dazzlers competed with teams from across the country in the UDA Nationals, upholding a legacy of Seminole excellence for the fifth  year in a row.

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              Tags: Anna Cannavino , dance , Dance competition , Dazzlers , Malavika Kannan , Maureen Maguire , Seminole High School , UDA National Dance

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              2018/2019 Northallerton College Holidays and Term Dates


              Term / HolidayFirst DayLast Day
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 4 September, 2017Friday 20 October, 2017
              Autumn Half TermSaturday 21 October, 2017Sunday 29 October, 2017
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 30 October, 2017Friday 22 December, 2017
              Christmas HolidaysSaturday 23 December, 2017Sunday 7 January, 2018
              Spring Term DatesMonday 8 January, 2018Friday 9 February, 2018
              Spring Half TermSaturday 10 February, 2018Sunday 18 February, 2018
              Spring Term DatesMonday 19 February, 2018Friday 30 March, 2018
              Easter HolidaysSaturday 31 March, 2018Sunday 15 April, 2018
              Summer Term DatesMonday 16 April, 2018Friday 25 May, 2018
              Summer Half TermSaturday 26 May, 2018Sunday 3 June, 2018
              Summer Term DatesMonday 4 June, 2018Friday 20 July, 2018
              Summer HolidaysSaturday 21 July, 2018

              2018/2019 Dates –
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              2018/2019 Northallerton College Holidays and Term Dates


              Term / HolidayFirst DayLast Day
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 3 September, 2018Thursday 18 October, 2018
              Autumn Half TermFriday 19 October, 2018Sunday 29 October, 2017
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 30 October, 2017Friday 21 December, 2018
              Christmas HolidaysSaturday 22 December, 2018Sunday 6 January, 2019
              Spring Term DatesMonday 7 January, 2019Friday 15 February, 2019
              Spring Half TermSaturday 16 February, 2019Saturday 23 February, 2019
              Spring Term DatesSunday 24 February, 2019Friday 5 April, 2019
              Easter HolidaysSaturday 6 April, 2019Sunday 15 April, 2018
              Summer Term DatesMonday 16 April, 2018Friday 24 May, 2019
              Summer Half TermSaturday 25 May, 2019Sunday 2 June, 2019
              Summer Term DatesMonday 3 June, 2019Thursday 25 July, 2019
              Summer HolidaysFriday 26 July, 2019

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              Nearby Schools
              • Mill Hill Community Primary School
              • Applegarth Primary School
              • Hambleton Richmondshire Pupil
              • Broomfield School North Yorkshire
              • Sacred Heart RC Primary School North
              • Northallerton School and Sixth Form
              • Alverton Primary School North
              • Allertonshire School
              • Romanby Primary School
              • Brompton Community Primary School
              • The Dales School North Yorkshire
              • Ainderby Steeple Church of England
              • South Otterington Church of England
              • Leeming RAF Community Primary School
              • Knayton CofE Primary School
              • Kirkby Fleetham Church of England
              • Leeming and Londonderry Community
              • Osmotherley Primary School
              • Aiskew Leeming Bar Church of England

              These Dates are Awaiting Verification.

              The School Holidays Dates for Northallerton College are;

              October Half Term 2016 from

              Saturday, October 21st to
              Sunday, October 29th,

              Christmas Holiday 2016 runs from
              Saturday, December 23rd to
              Sunday, January 7th,

              February Half Term 2017 from

              Saturday, February 10th
              to

              Sunday, February 18th,

              Easter Holidays 2017 from

              Saturday, March 31st to
              Sunday, April 15th,

              May Half Term 2017 from

              Saturday, May 26th
              to

              Sunday, June 3rd

              and the

              2017 Summer Holiday from

              Saturday, July 21st to
              Sunday, September 2nd.

              Northallerton College is a Voluntary Aided School located in the Yorkshire and The Humber Region in the local authority of North Yorkshire. It is
              a Secondary School for Boys and Girls with 723 pupils.
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              2017/2018 –
              LEA Verified

              2018/2019 –
              Awaiting Verification

              2018/2019 Northallerton College Holidays and Term Dates


              Term / HolidayFirst DayLast Day
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 4 September, 2017Friday 20 October, 2017
              Autumn Half TermSaturday 21 October, 2017Sunday 29 October, 2017
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 30 October, 2017Friday 22 December, 2017
              Christmas HolidaysSaturday 23 December, 2017Sunday 7 January, 2018
              Spring Term DatesMonday 8 January, 2018Friday 9 February, 2018
              Spring Half TermSaturday 10 February, 2018Sunday 18 February, 2018
              Spring Term DatesMonday 19 February, 2018Friday 30 March, 2018
              Easter HolidaysSaturday 31 March, 2018Sunday 15 April, 2018
              Summer Term DatesMonday 16 April, 2018Friday 25 May, 2018
              Summer Half TermSaturday 26 May, 2018Sunday 3 June, 2018
              Summer Term DatesMonday 4 June, 2018Friday 20 July, 2018
              Summer HolidaysSaturday 21 July, 2018

              2018/2019 Dates –
              LEA Verified

              2018/2019 Northallerton College Holidays and Term Dates


              Term / HolidayFirst DayLast Day
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 3 September, 2018Thursday 18 October, 2018
              Autumn Half TermFriday 19 October, 2018Sunday 29 October, 2017
              Autumn Term DatesMonday 30 October, 2017Friday 21 December, 2018
              Christmas HolidaysSaturday 22 December, 2018Sunday 6 January, 2019
              Spring Term DatesMonday 7 January, 2019Friday 15 February, 2019
              Spring Half TermSaturday 16 February, 2019Saturday 23 February, 2019
              Spring Term DatesSunday 24 February, 2019Friday 5 April, 2019
              Easter HolidaysSaturday 6 April, 2019Sunday 15 April, 2018
              Summer Term DatesMonday 16 April, 2018Friday 24 May, 2019
              Summer Half TermSaturday 25 May, 2019Sunday 2 June, 2019
              Summer Term DatesMonday 3 June, 2019Thursday 25 July, 2019
              Summer HolidaysFriday 26 July, 2019

              Things To Do

              Geocaching Locations for Children

              FREE Family Festivals in July & August

              The Best Farms to Visit in the UK

              Make School Holidays Educational

              Top 11 Theme Parks in the UK

              The Top 7 Zoo’s in the UK

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              25% OFF

              Huntfun Northallerton

              2 FOR THE PRICE OF 1

              Falconry UK Birds of Prey

              25% OFF

              Huntfun Bedale Treasure

              25% OFF

              Huntfun Thirsk Treasure

              30% OFF ENTRY

              Paintball Middlesbrough

              100 FREE PAINTBALLS

              Battlezone Paintball

              2017/2018 Dates –
              LEA Verified
              2018/2019 Dates –
              Awaiting Verification

              When are the Bank Holidays in 2017/2018?
              100’s of FREE Vouchers – Up to 80% OFF

              Term Time Holiday Law

              High Court Victory for Parents

              What is the Law on Term Time Holidays?

              Legal Action to Ensure School Attendance

              Nearby Schools
              • Mill Hill Community Primary School
              • Applegarth Primary School
              • Hambleton Richmondshire Pupil
              • Broomfield School North Yorkshire
              • Sacred Heart RC Primary School North
              • Northallerton School and Sixth Form
              • Alverton Primary School North
              • Allertonshire School
              • Romanby Primary School
              • Brompton Community Primary School
              • The Dales School North Yorkshire
              • Ainderby Steeple Church of England
              • South Otterington Church of England
              • Leeming RAF Community Primary School
              • Knayton CofE Primary School
              • Kirkby Fleetham Church of England
              • Leeming and Londonderry Community
              • Osmotherley Primary School
              • Aiskew Leeming Bar Church of England

              These Dates are Awaiting Verification.

              The School Holidays Dates for Northallerton College are;

              October Half Term 2016 from

              Saturday, October 21st to
              Sunday, October 29th,

              Christmas Holiday 2016 runs from
              Saturday, December 23rd to
              Sunday, January 7th,

              February Half Term 2017 from

              Saturday, February 10th
              to

              Sunday, February 18th,

              Easter Holidays 2017 from

              Saturday, March 31st to
              Sunday, April 15th,

              May Half Term 2017 from

              Saturday, May 26th
              to

              Sunday, June 3rd

              and the

              2017 Summer Holiday from

              Saturday, July 21st to
              Sunday, September 2nd.

              Northallerton College is a Voluntary Aided School located in the Yorkshire and The Humber Region in the local authority of North Yorkshire. It is
              a Secondary School for Boys and Girls with 723 pupils.
              Print 2017/2018 Holiday Dates >

              Term Dates

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              Click here to view our Ofsted Inspection letter.  Click here to view our latest vlog – an update on the sponsorship process and an introduction to our new Principal, Mr Chris Drew.

              Welcome to Northallerton School and Sixth Form College

              Our school is a vibrant and happy place to learn, characterised by excellent relationships between staff, students and parents in the context of ‘Learning and Achieving Together’. We have the highest expectations of everyone, aspiring to excellence in every facet of school life. Our overriding aim is to promote and celebrate the success of our students both within and beyond the academic curriculum.

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              16th August 2018

              Coming Up

              GCSE Results Day

              23rd August 2018

              Coming Up

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              23rd August 2018