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journal of physical chemistry letters editor

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

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Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters  
Letters.gif
Discipline Physical chemistry
LanguageEnglish
Edited by George C. Schatz
Publication details
Publication history
2010-present
Publisher
ACS Publications  (United States)
FrequencyBiweekly
Impact factor
(2017)
8.709
Standard abbreviations
Bluebook ( alt1  · alt2 ) · ISO 4 ( alt )
NLM ( alt ) · MathSciNet ( alt Paid subscription required)
ISO 4
J. Phys. Chem. Lett.
Indexing
MIAR
CODEN JPCLCD
ISSN 1948-7185
OCLC  no. 819373282
Links
  • Journal homepage
  • Online access
  • Online archive

The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society , designed to complement the Journal of Physical Chemistry . The editor-in-chief is George C. Schatz ( Northwestern University ). The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters covers research on all aspects of physical chemistry . According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal had an impact factor of 8.709 for 2017. [1]

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ “Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters”. 2017 Journal Citation Reports . Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters . 2018. 

External links[ edit ]

  • Official website

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Journal_of_Physical_Chemistry_Letters&oldid=847662962 ”
Categories :

  • American Chemical Society academic journals
  • Biweekly journals
  • Chemistry journals
  • Physical chemistry journals
  • Publications established in 2010
  • English-language journals

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         Anadi-nidhanam vishnum sarvaloka mahe-shvaram |Lokadhyaksham sthuva nnityam sarva-duhkhatigo bhavet ||Brahmanyam sarva-dharmagnam lokanam keerthi-vardhanam |Lokanatham maha.-dbhootam sarvabhuta-bhavod-bhavam||Esha me sarva-dharmanam dharmo-dhikatamo matah |Yadbhaktya pundaree-kaksham stavairarche nara sada||Paramam yo maha-tejaha paramam yo maha-tapaha |Paramam yo mahad-bramha paramam yah parayanam ||Pavitranam pavitram yo mangalanam cha mangalam |Daivatam devatanam cha bhootanam yovyayah pita ||www.hindu-blog.comYatah sarani bhutani bhavantyadi yugagame |Yasminscha pralayam yanti punareva yugakshaye ||Tasya loka pradhanasya jaganna-thasya bhupate |Vishnor nama-sahasram me shrunu papa-bhayapaham ||Yani namani gounani vikhyatani mahatmanah |Rishibhih parigeetani tani vakshyami bhootaye ||Vishno-ranam sahasrasya vedavyaso maha munih |Chandho nusthup tatha devah bhagavan devakee-sutah|| Amrutham-shubdavo beejam shaktir-devaki nandanah |Trisama hrudayam tasya shantya-rdhe viniyu-jyate ||Vishnum jishnum maha-vishnum prabha-vishnum mahe-svaram | Anekarupam daithyantham namami purushottamam || Asya shree vishno divya sahasranama sthotra maha-mantrasya, shree vedavyasobhagavan rishih, ansthup-chandah shree maha vishnuhparamatma shreemannarayanoo devata, amritam-shoodbhavo bhanuriti beejam, devakee nandanasrasthetih shakthi udbavah kshobha-noo-deva iti par amo mantrah, shankha-bhru-nnadakee chakreeti keelakam, sharnga-dhanva gadadhara itiastramrathanga-pani rakshobhya iti netram, trisama samagassamete kavacham, Annandham para-bramheti yonih rutu-shudarshanah kala iti digbandanah, sreevishvaroopa iti dhyanam, shree maha vishnu-preet-ya

         

        rthe vishnordivya sahasra-nama jape viniyogah.DhyanamKshiro-dhanvat-pradesha suchimani vilasat saikyatemauktikanamMaalaak-la-pta-sanasthah spatika-mani nibhaih mauktikaih mandi-takngah |Shrub-brai-rabrai-radabraih upari verachitaih muktah-peeusha-varsh Aanande nah puniyat arenalina gadha shankha-panhi mukundaha ||Bhuh padao yasyanabih viyada-suranelah chandra-soor ya-cha-netra |Karna-vasa-serodyah mooka-mapi dahano yesya-vaste-yamabdhih | Antastham-yasya-vishwam-suranara khagago bhogi gandharva dhaithyeh !Chitram ram-ramyate tham tribhuvana-vapusham vishnu-meesham namami !!Om namo bhagavate vasudevayawww.hindu-blog.comShantha-karam bhujaga-shayanam padma-naabham suresham |Vishva-khaaram gagana sadrusham megevarnam shubhangam ||Lakshmi-kantham kamala-nayanam yogi-hrudhyana-gamyam |Vande vishnum bava-bhaya-haram sarva-lokaika-natham||Megha-shyamam peetha-kauseya-vasam sree vatsajkam kaustu-bhod-bhace-thangam !Punyo-petam pundari-kaya thaksham vishnum vande sar va-lokaika natham ||Namah samasta bhutanam-adi-bhutaya bhubrite Aneka-ruparupaya vishnave prabha-vishnaveSashamkha-chakram-sakrireeta-kundalam sapeetha-vastr am-saraseeru-hekshanam |Sahara-vaksha sthala-shobi-kaustubham namami-vishnum-seerasaa chatur bhujam ||Om vishvam vishnu rvashatkaro bhoota-bhavya bhavat-prabhuh |

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        Vishnu Sahasranamam Lyrics in English in PDF

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        Remedy for Jupiter & Mercury

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        Remedy for Jupiter & Mercury
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        18.6 — Basic file I/O

        By Alex on March 31st, 2008 | last modified by Alex on January 18th, 2018

        File I/O in C++ works very similarly to normal I/O (with a few minor added complexities). There are 3 basic file I/O classes in C++: ifstream (derived from istream), ofstream (derived from ostream), and fstream (derived from iostream). These classes do file input, output, and input/output respectively. To use the file I/O classes, you will need to include the fstream header.

        Unlike the cout, cin, cerr, and clog streams, which are already ready for use, file streams have to be explicitly set up by the programmer. However, this is extremely simple: to open a file for reading and/or writing, simply instantiate an object of the appropriate file I/O class, with the name of the file as a parameter. Then use the insertion (<<) or extraction (>>) operator to read/write to the file. Once you are done, there are several ways to close a file: explicitly call the close() function, or just let the file I/O variable go out of scope (the file I/O class destructor will close the file for you).

        File output

        To do file output in the following example, we’re going to use the ofstream class. This is extremely straighforward:

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        #include <fstream>
        #include <iostream>
        #include <cstdlib> // for exit()
        int main()
            using namespace std;
         
            // ofstream is used for writing files
            // We’ll make a file called Sample.dat
            ofstream outf(“Sample.dat”);
         
            // If we couldn’t open the output file stream for writing
            if (!outf)
            
                // Print an error and exit
                cerr << “Uh oh, Sample.dat could not be opened for writing!” << endl;
                exit(1);
            
         
            // We’ll write two lines into this file
            outf << “This is line 1” << endl;
            outf << “This is line 2” << endl;
         
            return 0;
            // When outf goes out of scope, the ofstream
            // destructor will close the file

        If you look in your project directory, you should see a file called Sample.dat. If you open it with a text editor, you will see that it indeed contains two lines we wrote to the file.

        Note that it is also possible to use the put() function to write a single character to the file.

        File input

        Now, we’ll take the file we wrote in the last example and read it back in from disk. Note that ifstream returns a 0 if we’ve reached the end of the file (EOF). We’ll use this fact to determine how much to read.

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        #include <fstream>
        #include <iostream>
        #include <string>
        #include <cstdlib> // for exit()
         
        int main()
            using namespace std;
         
            // ifstream is used for reading files
            // We’ll read from a file called Sample.dat
            ifstream inf(“Sample.dat”);
         
            // If we couldn’t open the output file stream for reading
            if (!inf)
            
                // Print an error and exit
                cerr << “Uh oh, Sample.dat could not be opened for reading!” << endl;
                exit(1);
            
         
            // While there’s still stuff left to read
            while (inf)
            
                // read stuff from the file into a string and print it
                std::string strInput;
                inf >> strInput;
                cout << strInput << endl;
            
            
            return 0;
            // When inf goes out of scope, the ifstream
            // destructor will close the file

        This produces the result:

        This
        is
        line
        1
        This
        is
        line
        2

        Hmmm, that wasn’t quite what we wanted. Remember that the extraction operator deals with “formatted output”, and breaks on whitespace. In order to read in entire lines, we’ll have to use the getline() function.

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        #include <fstream>
        #include <iostream>
        #include <string>
        #include <cstdlib> // for exit()
         
        int main()
            using namespace std;
         
            // ifstream is used for reading files
            // We’ll read from a file called Sample.dat
            ifstream inf(“Sample.dat”);
         
            // If we couldn’t open the input file stream for reading
            if (!inf)
            
                // Print an error and exit
                cerr << “Uh oh, Sample.dat could not be opened for reading!” << endl;
                exit(1);
            
         
            // While there’s still stuff left to read
            while (inf)
            
                // read stuff from the file into a string and print it
                std::string strInput;
                getline(inf, strInput);
                cout << strInput << endl;
            
            
            return 0;
            // When inf goes out of scope, the ifstream
            // destructor will close the file

        This produces the result:

        This is line 1
        This is line 2

        Buffered output

        Output in C++ may be buffered. This means that anything that is output to a file stream may not be written to disk immediately. Instead, several output operations may be batched and handled together. This is done primarily for performance reasons. When a buffer is written to disk, this is called flushing the buffer. One way to cause the buffer to be flushed is to close the file — the contents of the buffer will be flushed to disk, and then the file will be closed.

        Buffering is usually not a problem, but in certain circumstance it can cause complications for the unwary. The main culprit in this case is when there is data in the buffer, and then program terminates immediately (either by crashing, or by calling exit()). In these cases, the destructors for the file stream classes are not executed, which means the files are never closed, which means the buffers are never flushed. In this case, the data in the buffer is not written to disk, and is lost forever. This is why it is always a good idea to explicitly close any open files before calling exit().

        It is possible to flush the buffer manually using the ostream::flush() function or sending std::flush to the output stream. Either of these methods can be useful to ensure the contents of the buffer are written to disk immediately, just in case the program crashes.

        One interesting note is that std::endl; also flushes the output stream. Consequently, overuse of std::endl (causing unnecessary buffer flushes) can have performance impacts when doing buffered I/O where flushes are expensive (such as writing to a file). For this reason, performance conscious programmers will often use ‘\n’ instead of std::endl to insert a newline into the output stream, to avoid unnecessary flushing of the buffer.

        File modes

        What happens if we try to write to a file that already exists? Running the output example again shows that the original file is completely overwritten each time the program is run. What if, instead, we wanted to append some more data to the end of the file? It turns out that the file stream constructors take an optional second parameter that allows you to specify information about how the file should be opened. This parameter is called mode, and the valid flags that it accepts live in the Ios class.

        Ios file modeMeaning
        appOpens the file in append mode
        ateSeeks to the end of the file before reading/writing
        binaryOpens the file in binary mode (instead of text mode)
        inOpens the file in read mode (default for ifstream)
        outOpens the file in write mode (default for ofstream)
        truncErases the file if it already exists

        It is possible to specify multiple flags by bitwise ORing them together (using the | operator). Ifstream defaults to ios::in file mode. Ofstream defaults to ios::out file mode. And fstream defaults to ios::in | ios::out file mode, meaning you can both read and write by default.

        Let’s write a program that appends two more lines to the Sample.dat file we previously created:

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        #include <cstdlib> // for exit()
        #include <iostream>
        #include <fstream>
         
        int main()
            using namespace std;
         
            // We’ll pass the ios:app flag to tell the ofstream to append
            // rather than rewrite the file.  We do not need to pass in ios::out
            // because ofstream defaults to ios::out
            ofstream outf(“Sample.dat”, ios::app);
         
            // If we couldn’t open the output file stream for writing
            if (!outf)
            
                // Print an error and exit
                cerr << “Uh oh, Sample.dat could not be opened for writing!” << endl;
                exit(1);
            
         
            outf << “This is line 3” << endl;
            outf << “This is line 4” << endl;
            
        return 0;
            // When outf goes out of scope, the ofstream
            // destructor will close the file

        Now if we take a look at Sample.dat (using one of the above sample programs that prints its contents, or loading it in a text editor), we will see the following:

        This is line 1
        This is line 2
        This is line 3
        This is line 4

        Explicitly opening files using open()

        Just like it is possible to explicitly close a file stream using close(), it’s also possible to explicitly open a file stream using open(). open() works just like the file stream constructors — it takes a file name and an optional file mode.

        For example:

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        ofstream outf(“Sample.dat”);
        outf << “This is line 1” << endl;
        outf << “This is line 2” << endl;
        outf.close(); // explicitly close the file
         
        // Oops, we forgot something
        outf.open(“Sample.dat”, ios::app);
        outf << “This is line 3” << endl;
        outf.close();

        18.7 — Random file I/O
        Index
        18.5 — Stream states and input validation

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        100 comments to 18.6 — Basic file I/O

        « Older Comments
        1
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        • Georges Theodosiou

          May 18, 2018 at 5:35 am
          · Reply

          Dear Teacher, please let me ask you: In first paragraph you write: "These classes do file input, output, and input/output respectively.". By "do file output" do you mean "do create file"? Regards.

          • nascardriver

            May 18, 2018 at 10:09 am
            · Reply

            Hi Georges!

            File input/output usually refer to reading and writing. @std::ofstream can be used to create files.
            For filesystem operations see @std::filesystem.

            References
            * std::filesystem – http://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/experimental/fs

            • Georges Theodosiou

              May 19, 2018 at 4:56 am
              · Reply

              Mr. nascardriver, please accept my thanks for you answered my question.
              I understand that in first program by

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                  using namespace std;

              (instead of std::) and

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                  ofstream outf(“Sample.dat”);

              file with name "Sample" and extension ".dat" is created. Is it okay? Regards.

              • nascardriver

                May 19, 2018 at 4:58 am
                · Reply

                Correct. Following the rules introduced in earlier lessons the code should look like this

                1
                std::ofstream outf “Sample.dat” ;

          • Alex

            May 20, 2018 at 12:56 pm
            · Reply

            File output means writing data to the file. Whether a new file is created or an existing file opened for writing is independent.

            • Georges Theodosiou

              May 22, 2018 at 12:55 am
              · Reply

              Dear Teacher, please let me say you that in first paragraph you write: "There are 3 basic file I/O classes in C++: ifstream (derived from istream), ofstream (derived from ostream), and fstream (derived from iostream). These classes do file input, output, and input/output respectively". It means, ofstream just does file output. Indeed in following program by comment

              1
                  // We’ll make a file called Sample.dat

              you imply that it creates (makes) file. Regards.

              • Alex

                May 22, 2018 at 8:17 pm
                · Reply

                If the filename passed into ofstream doesn’t exist, ofstream will create a new file. However, when we say “do file output”, that’s talking solely about writing to a file. Whether the file was just created or previously existed is independent.

                • Georges Theodosiou

                  May 23, 2018 at 12:05 am
                  · Reply

                  Dear Teacher, please accept my many thanks for you replied, and many more for your instructive answer. Regards.

        • Akshay Chavan

          January 18, 2018 at 8:22 am
          · Reply

          Alex,
          In the lesson you have mentioned: " If you opt to use fstream (which can do both input and output), you explicitly have to pass in ios::in and/or ios::out depending on which mode you’d like to use."

          Then why does the following code work?
          Compiled using g++ (MinGW.org GCC-6.3.0-1) 6.3.0 on Windows 10

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          #include <iostream>
          #include <fstream>
          #include <cstdlib>
           
          int main()
              using namespace std;
              fstream ofs(“F:\\cpp_programming\\File_Input_Output\\Sample2.dat”);
              
              if(!ofs)
              
                  cerr << “Uh oh, Sample.dat could not be opened!” << endl;
                  exit(1);
              
              ofs << “This is line 1” << endl;
              ofs << “This is line 2” << endl;
              
              return 0;

          Even ios::app works with fstream without the ios::out flag

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          #include
          #include
          #include
           
          int main()
          using namespace std;
          fstream ofs(F:\\cpp_programming\\File_Input_Output\\Sample2.dat, ios::app);
           
          if(!ofs)
          cerr << “Uh oh, Sample.dat could not be opened!” << endl;
          exit(1);
          ofs << “This is line 3” << endl;
          ofs << “This is line 4” << endl;
           
          return 0;

          Why does this code work?

          • Alex

            January 18, 2018 at 9:15 pm
            · Reply

            The reference source I used for this article was incorrect. fstream defaults to ios::in | ios::out, so you can both read and write by default if you don’t specify a file mode. I’ve updated the article accordingly. Thanks for pointing out the error.

        • Marius

          October 21, 2017 at 1:04 am
          · Reply

          Does this look alright?

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          #include <iostream>
          #include <fstream>
          #include <string>
           
          int main()
              std::cout << “——————————————————-\n”;
              std::cout << “Type \”exit\” to end the program and write buffer to file\n”;
              std::cout << “Enter the filename: “;
              std::string fileName;
              std::getline(std::cin, fileName);
           
              std::ofstream outf(fileName);
           
              std::string input;
              while(1)
              
                  input = “”;
                  std::cout << “Write a statement to be written to “ << fileName << “: “;
                  std::getline(std::cin, input);
                  if(input == “exit”)
                      break;
                  outf << input << “\n”;
              
           
              std::cout << “——————————————————-\n”;
           
              return 0;

          Anything that could be improved?

          • Alex

            October 21, 2017 at 12:31 pm
            · Reply

            I don’t see anything amiss from inspection.

        • Zoran

          July 29, 2017 at 4:10 am
          · Reply

          Hello,

          In the beginning of the article, the text says:
          To use the file I/O classes, you will need to include the fstream.h header.

          However, later, in examples, fstream is included, not fstream.h.
          if I include <fstream.h>, with g++ (mingw) I get:
          fatal error: fstream.h: No such file or directory

          Without ".h", everything works. So, I think that fstream.h is wrong, and it should be replaced with fstream.

          • Alex

            July 29, 2017 at 9:48 pm
            · Reply

            Correct, it should be fstream (no .h). I’ve updated the article. Thanks for the fix.

        • Aaron

          March 29, 2017 at 6:50 pm
          · Reply

          How do you delete a record in a file?
          with code example please. Oh and that works with the above examples, Thanks.

        • SimonJoel

          March 16, 2017 at 6:59 pm
          · Reply

          Hello Alex,
          This is the first time I try to use ifstream, read numbers from a file and sum them up, but the program always missing the first number. also the sum is not right. please take a look, thanks;

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          #include <fstream>
          #include <iostream>
          #include <cstdlib>
          using namespace std;
           
          int main()
              cout<< “input a file name \n”;
              char filename[60];
              cin.getline(filename,60);
              ifstream sourcenum;
              sourcenum.open(filename);
              double num=0;
              double coun=0;
              double sum=0.0;
              sourcenum.clear();
              sourcenum>>num;
           
             while(sourcenum.good())
            
                 coun++;
                 sum+=num;
                 sourcenum>>num;
                 cout<< num << ‘\n’;
            
           
              if(sourcenum.eof())
                  cout<< “reach the end” << “sum is “ << sum << ‘\n’ << “coun is “ << coun;
           

          the file I use is call sourcenum.txt, and it output individually right except for the first number, I have the numbers : 18 19 18.5 13.5 14 16 19.5 20 200 12 18.5 17.5 in the file.

          • Alex

            March 17, 2017 at 2:28 pm
            · Reply

            This is the perfect kind of thing to use a debugger for. Step through each line of code line by line and watch what it reads in from the file and what it does with those values.

          • SimonJoel

            March 17, 2017 at 5:57 pm
            · Reply

            Thanks Alex, figured it out, the cout should place before the sourcenum>>num, that is why the program keep skip printing the first element.
            Also, it seems sourcenum.good() will return false if the last element is right after the eof, in windows notes editor, I fix this by adding a space after the last element so the last number is not follow immediately by eof, it all work fine now.

        • Joel

          March 9, 2017 at 12:49 pm
          · Reply

          Hi Alex,

          Great site! I’m really enjoying learning about C++. I thought I’d try to write a little example for myself where I open an existing file and append values to it. Since you said I could combine flags, I thought I’d also add std::ios::nocreate. Something like this:

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          #include<iostream>
          #include<cstdlib>
          #include<fstream>
           
          int main()
          std::ios::nocreate);
             outFile<<10<<‘\n’;
             outFile<<11<<‘\n’;
             outFile.close();
             return 0;

          This does not compile. The compiler complains saying "error: no member named ‘nocreate’ in ‘std::__1::basic_ios<char>’." Googling this error, it seems like maybe nocreate is no longer part of the standard library. If you can confirm this, then I guess this page should be updated to reflect that. 🙂

          Let me know what you think!

          • Alex

            March 9, 2017 at 3:10 pm
            · Reply

            I think I made a mistake. std::ios::nocreate and std::ios::noreplace are not officially part of the C++ standard, so not all compilers support them. I’ve removed them from the table.

            If you want to check if a file exists, you can try opening it with an ifstream first (or an fstream using std::ios::in).

        • Alex

          January 30, 2017 at 10:32 am
          · Reply

          There isn’t really a more compact way to do it, but you could read the file into a char array instead of a std::string if you wanted. You’d have to watch out for overflowing the array when you read from the file, and for memory leaks (if using a dynamic array). I wouldn’t necessary recommend it unless performance is really critical in this section of code.

        • Elruin

          January 29, 2017 at 4:42 am
          · Reply

          I’m trying to get fileread part of my program to separate function. The problem is I have to get my filecontent as const char*. Sofar i’ve come only with this solution:

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              std::string filecontent;
              std::ifstream file(“file.txt”);
              std::getline(file, filecontent, ‘\0’);
              const char * filec = readFromFile(“file.txt”, filecontent);

          to this:

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          const char * readFromFile(std::string filename, std::string & filecontent)
              std::ifstream file(filename);
              std::getline(file, filecontent, ‘\0’);
              return filecontent.c_str();
           
          int main()
              std::string filecontent;
              const char * filec = readFromFile(“file.txt”, filecontent);
              std::cout << filec;
              return 0;

          does not look much better =(

          • Alex

            January 29, 2017 at 8:04 pm
            · Reply

            Why do you need your file content as const char *? If you have a std::string, you can access the underlying const char* by using member function c_str(), like this:

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            std::string s “Hello” ;
            std::cout << s.c_str(); // send underlying char* to std::cout

            • Elruin

              January 30, 2017 at 2:21 am
              · Reply

              That’s what i used…

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              return filecontent.c_str();

              I need char * for glShaderSource() functuion.
              I just thought that there is more compact way to do this. Like not using std::string at all.

        • Leon

          October 28, 2016 at 6:18 am
          · Reply

          I have a question. I have created a program where you can read from a file as well as write to it. I wrote something into the file (it didn’t exist before), and it seemed to work. I then read from the file and everything i input appeared on the screen. however, when i look on the directory for the file that was created, it is nowhere to be seen. apparently the file exists because i can read and write to it, but i don’t see it on my directory. I am using a mac, if that information is worth anything.

          • Alex

            October 28, 2016 at 6:49 pm
            · Reply

            I agree, the file must exist. But where it went? I have no idea. Maybe give it a unique name and then do a filename search for it across your entire hard drive?

            • Leon

              October 31, 2016 at 10:59 am
              · Reply

              i searched for it, and the file was created in a different area than where the file is saved. i have my file saved in a folder for assignments, but when i searched for the file using spotlight, it said the file was located in my user directory. so it looked something like this "user > personnel.dat". i moved the file over to the same directory as the project, but now when i try to read from the file it says the file doesn’t exist.

              • Alex

                October 31, 2016 at 10:08 pm
                · Reply

                Sounds like maybe one of the code::blocks settings is set to your personal directory instead of the executable directory. Not sure which one though. See http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4017034/c-where-does-the-ofstream-class-save-the-files-to for more info.

          • hash

            April 24, 2018 at 8:44 am
            · Reply

            Hello Leon,

            While this answer comes quite late here it is:

            On mac, assuming you are using Xcode, the file will be created in the build directory.
            The path is set by an xcode preference called Derived data directory.

            The default location is: /Users/<youuserhere>/Library/Developer/Xcode/DerivedData/
            In this directory you will find: <yourprojectname>-somehashgeneratedautomatically/Build/Products/Debug/Sample.dat

            You can also set to have this relative to the project directory.

        • Ryan

          September 7, 2016 at 7:10 am
          · Reply

          In the first example, I see "if (!outf)…". I am a little confused by this. This seems to be trying to access the object outf directly, rather than calling a function like "if(outf.is_open())". Is this an operator overload for the "!" operator? Is this overloaded to make it behave more like C-style file IO? I don’t understand how its possible to access an object directly like that…

          • Alex

            September 7, 2016 at 8:36 am
            · Reply

            Yes, if you look at a reference for ofstream (e.g. this one ) you’ll see that although ofstream doesn’t contain an overloaded operator!, it does contain a overloaded conversion to bool, which is being invoked here. That conversion to bool is a synonym for (!outf.fail()). So we’re essentially saying if (!!outf.fail()), which is the same thing as if (outf.fail()), which in English means “if an error has occurred …”.

        • source bumber

          September 5, 2016 at 8:05 pm
          · Reply

          How can I append a line to an existing file, but NOT at the end of the file? I mean, with your example, I’d like to see:
          This is line 1
          This is line 3
          This is line 2

        • Nyap

          July 9, 2016 at 10:35 am
          · Reply

          I just spent the past several hours confused about this file i/o until I realised – I’M MIXING UP INPUT AND OUTPUT LOL

          y

        • Vlad

          July 4, 2016 at 10:30 pm
          · Reply

          Hello Alex

          Suppose you have a loop outputting x and y variables for a gnuplot .dat file. Is the process going to be buffered (automagically) or not? If I were a harddisk I wouldn’t see one single benefit in writing char by char (or group chars) to a file, or a user waiting for 1e5 data entries times ~2~3ms (or however much is a HD access time)… But I’d like to be sure about this.

          As a corollary, is there some additional setting that allows us to change the buffer?

          • Alex

            July 6, 2016 at 10:53 am
            · Reply

            Disk I/O is usually buffered. You can change the buffer size — see documentation for pubsetbuf .

        • Nuno

          June 26, 2016 at 11:46 am
          · Reply

          Hello. When compiling and running your code with Visual Studio 2015 and I’m getting the following output:

          ´╗┐This is Line 1
          This is Line 2

          Do you know where that weird character in the beginning is coming from? I created the file from scratch on notepad and saved is as Sample.dat. The code is literally copy+paste from yours. Can you help? Thanks.

          • Alex

            June 27, 2016 at 3:19 pm
            · Reply

            When you say you created the file from scratch on notepad, you mean you typed “This is line 1” etc… into the file using notepad?

            If so, it may have been saved in some variant of unicode format, and this is a byte-order mark that is used to indicate what format it is. If so, your console probably doesn’t know how to print this character, so it’s picking a placeholder symbol.

        • Alex

          June 26, 2016 at 9:13 am
          · Reply

          test

        • AKG

          June 22, 2016 at 9:08 pm
          · Reply

          Referring to your comment:

          "performance conscious programmers will often use ‘\n’ instead of std::endl to insert a newline into the output stream, to avoid unnecessary flushing of the buffer"

          As I know, stream stdout is line-bufferred and so using ‘\n’ will also flush the output.

          • Alex

            June 26, 2016 at 9:30 am
            · Reply

            There seems to be a lot of confusion on this point, largely due to how std::cout interacts with the underlying C streams. The behavior of std::cout can also be different depending on what it’s connected to. As best I can tell, there’s no requirement that std::cout be buffered or unbuffered, or that ‘\n’ flush anything. But in most implementations, std::cout probably does flush on ‘\n’ when connected to a console.

        • Ola Sh

          June 18, 2016 at 9:28 pm
          · Reply

          Hello Alex,

          Thanks for your tutorials. Is it possible to edit a file in c++, like deleting the last input into a file or any other section of the file? Thanks.

          • Alex

            June 20, 2016 at 11:58 am
            · Reply

            Yes, you can alter files in C++.

            The easiest way to do this (for files that aren’t huge) is to read in the entire file, make your alternations in memory, and then overwrite the contents of the file with the contents in memory.

        • saad haider

          March 23, 2016 at 4:24 am
          · Reply

          Please HELP  
          I need to read this data from a file :

          12,alex hales,23,41,12
          23,brandon mc,12,123,41

          I need to store them in
          roll number, name ,quiz1,quiz2,final
          Please HELP

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        fstream doesn’t write

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        fstream doesn’t write

        P: n/a
        wiso

        My problem is this (from:
        http://www.cplusplus.com/ref/iostream/fstream/open.html )

        #include <fstream>

        using namespace std;

        int main()

        fstream f;
        f.open("a.txt",fstream::in

        The program doesn’t produce any a.txt file! I’m using g++ (GCC) 4.1.0 (SUSE
        Linux). I want read and write a file.

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 1

        Post Reply

        Share this Question

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        6 Replies



        P: n/a
        Pete C

        wiso wrote:

        My problem is this (from:
        http://www.cplusplus.com/ref/iostream/fstream/open.html )

        #include <fstream>

        using namespace std;

        int main()
        fstream::app);
        f << "out";
        f.close();
        return 0;

        The program doesn’t produce any a.txt file! I’m using g++ (GCC) 4.1.0 (SUSE
        Linux). I want read and write a file.

        The code from cplusplus.com is wrong, as far as I can tell. Your call
        to fstream::open is failing, as you can see if you call f.is_open()
        afterwards. This is because "in|out|app" is not an allowed combination
        of openmode flags for an fstream object.
        You probably want:
        f.open("a.txt",fstream::in | fstream::out | fstream::trunc);
        which will create the file if it doesn’t exist already, and set its
        size to 0.

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 2


        P: n/a
        Salt_Peter
        wiso wrote:

        My problem is this (from:
        http://www.cplusplus.com/ref/iostream/fstream/open.html )

        #include <fstream>

        using namespace std;

        int main()
        fstream::out

        The program doesn’t produce any a.txt file! I’m using g++ (GCC) 4.1.0 (SUSE
        Linux). I want read and write a file.

        Why don’t you introduce a little error checking? Note the std::ios
        modes.
        Personally, a tutorial that ignores errors should itself be ignored.

        #include <iostream>
        #include <fstream>

        int main()
        !fs.good())

        std::cout << "could not open file!\n";
        return -1;

        fs << "out" << std::endl;
        if (fs.fail())

        std::cout << "failed to append to file!\n";
        return -1;

        return 0; // no need to close file

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 3


        P: n/a
        wiso

        Pete C wrote:

        wiso wrote:

        >My problem is this (from:
        http://www.cplusplus.com/ref/iostream/fstream/open.html )

        #include <fstream>

        using namespace std;

        int main()

        fstream f;
        f.open("a.txt",fstream::in

        The program doesn’t produce any a.txt file! I’m using g++ (GCC) 4.1.0
        (SUSE Linux). I want read and write a file.

        The code from cplusplus.com is wrong, as far as I can tell. Your call
        to fstream::open is failing, as you can see if you call f.is_open()
        afterwards. This is because "in|out|app" is not an allowed combination
        of openmode flags for an fstream object.
        You probably want:
        f.open("a.txt",fstream::in | fstream::out | fstream::trunc);
        which will create the file if it doesn’t exist already, and set its
        size to 0.

        ok, but how I can use a fstream with io operation? I need to write to a file
        (I don’t know if it exists, without rewrite it) and alse to read it. Is
        there a way to do all automatically? or I have to check if the file exists,
        if not, create, …

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 4


        P: n/a
        Pete C

        wiso wrote:

        ok, but how I can use a fstream with io operation? I need to write to a file
        (I don’t know if it exists, without rewrite it) and alse to read it. Is
        there a way to do all automatically? or I have to check if the file exists,
        if not, create, …

        It seems you want this behaviour:

        1) If file exists, open for reading & writing without truncation
        2) If it doesn’t exist, create it and open it for reading & writing

        Is that correct? If so, then I don’t think you can do it with a single
        open() call. Try this:

        f.open("a.txt", fstream::in | fstream::out);
        if (!f.is_open())
        f.open("a.txt", fstream::in | fstream::out | fstream::trunc);

        It’s not ideal, and suffers from a race condition (if some other
        process writes a file called "a.txt" between those two calls to open(),
        then the new file will be clobbered). Maybe someone else has a better
        idea?

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 5


        P: n/a
        wiso

        Pete C wrote:

        wiso wrote:

        >ok, but how I can use a fstream with io operation? I need to write to a
        file (I don’t know if it exists, without rewrite it) and alse to read it.
        Is there a way to do all automatically? or I have to check if the file
        exists, if not, create, …

        It seems you want this behaviour:

        1) If file exists, open for reading & writing without truncation
        2) If it doesn’t exist, create it and open it for reading & writing

        Is that correct? If so, then I don’t think you can do it with a single
        open() call. Try this:

        f.open("a.txt", fstream::in | fstream::out);
        if (!f.is_open())
        f.open("a.txt", fstream::in | fstream::out | fstream::trunc);

        It’s not ideal, and suffers from a race condition (if some other
        process writes a file called "a.txt" between those two calls to open(),
        then the new file will be clobbered). Maybe someone else has a better
        idea?

        the behaviour is correct, but I don’t like the double open(), I can close()
        the file before the second open()

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 6


        P: n/a
        Salt_Peter
        wiso wrote:

        Pete C wrote:

        wiso wrote:

        My problem is this (from:
        http://www.cplusplus.com/ref/iostream/fstream/open.html )

        #include <fstream>

        using namespace std;

        int main()
        fstream::app);
        f << "out";
        f.close();
        return 0;

        The program doesn’t produce any a.txt file! I’m using g++ (GCC) 4.1.0
        (SUSE Linux). I want read and write a file.

        The code from cplusplus.com is wrong, as far as I can tell. Your call
        to fstream::open is failing, as you can see if you call f.is_open()
        afterwards. This is because "in|out|app" is not an allowed combination
        of openmode flags for an fstream object.
        You probably want:
        f.open("a.txt",fstream::in | fstream::out | fstream::trunc);
        which will create the file if it doesn’t exist already, and set its
        size to 0.

        ok, but how I can use a fstream with io operation? I need to write to a file
        (I don’t know if it exists, without rewrite it) and alse to read it. Is
        there a way to do all automatically? or I have to check if the file exists,
        if not, create, …

        Anything "automatic" is by implication more complicated, not simpler.
        If you prefer hacking a fragile program, go ahead, i’m not getting
        involved.
        In your case since you might not be use to coding with pos types and
        seekg-ing within a file, i strongly discourage going that route. Keep
        the system simple. As simple as humanly possible.
        Then there is the issue of requirements. I got the append part, but
        read what and store it where?
        Note that the std::ios::out | std::ios::app mode combination will
        create the file if non-existant and does append as expected.

        I’ld suggest trying this:
        a) write a class to store the filename and a vector container of
        std::strings for storage
        b) add a public append() function that opens the file with a
        std::ofstream for output
        c) add a public read() function that opens the file with a
        std::ifstream for input (load vector)
        d) add a public method that displays the contents of the vector

        Thats a simple design. The file streams don’t even need to be manually
        closed.

        #include <iostream>
        #include <string>
        #include <vector>
        #include <fstream>

        class Filer

        std::string m_sfile;
        std::vector< std::string vs; // a)
        public:
        Filer(std::string s) : m_sfile(s), vs()
        bool append(std::string& s) const // b)

        // open file with std::ofstream and append s to it
        // any error returns true

        bool read() // c)

        // open file with std::ifstream and load vector with
        std::getline(…)
        // any error returns true

        void show() const // d)

        // to std::cout, iterate through vector

        ;

        int main(int argc, char* argv[])

        Filer filer(file.txt);

        if ( filer.append("whatever") ) // "whatever" could be taken from
        argv[1]

        std::cout << "error while writing to file.\n";
        return -1;

        if ( filer.read() )

        std::cout << "error while reading file.\n";
        return -1;

        filer.show();
        return 0;

        Personally, i’ld prefer exceptions rather than passing errors, but lets
        not get carried away.

        Oct 28 ’06
        # 7

        This discussion thread is closed

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        revolutionary iran a history of the islamic republic


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        Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic

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        In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy guides us through recent Iranian history from shortly before the 1979 Islamic revolution through the summer of 2009, when Iranians poured into the streets of Tehran by the hundreds of thousands, demanding free, democratic government. Axworthy explains how that outpouring of support for an end to tyranny in Iran paused and then moved on to other areas in the region like Egypt and Libya, leaving Iran’s leadership unchanged.

        The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. Axworthy takes readers through the major periods in Iranian history over the last thirty years: the overthrow of the old regime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the present day, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important in modern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world’s major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam.

        Revolutionary Iran is both richly textured and from one of the leading authorities on the region; combining an expansive scope with the most accessible and definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.



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        • Paperback: 544 pages
        • Publisher: Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (April 1, 2016)
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          SallyK

          5.0 out of 5 starsFive Stars

          great


          Published 1 year ago
          Fede

          5.0 out of 5 starsBeautifully written & researched

          Excellent account of the history & revolutionary Iran. Highly recommend


          Published 1 year ago
          Krunk Wizard

          5.0 out of 5 starsVery informative. I saw a review in The Economist …

          Very informative. I saw a review in The Economist years ago and put this on my wish list.


          Published 1 year ago
          Barbara M. Brogan

          5.0 out of 5 starsDon’t walk–run and get this book.

          I cannot begin to say enough about how good this book is. I learned something new in every chapter and the author did a tremendous job of explaining how Iran has gotten where it… Read more


          Published on March 13, 2016
          Mark

          5.0 out of 5 starsProvides true insight

          I’m relatively new to reading history and I sometimes struggle with understanding all of the social, economic, and political concepts at play. Read more


          Published on February 24, 2016
          Arjun Jain

          5.0 out of 5 starsFive Stars

          want to know more about iran? this should be part of your library.


          Published on January 14, 2016
          Brian Griffith

          5.0 out of 5 starsSensitive to the human struggle beneath events

          Axworthy gives a comprehensive, honest, emotionally powerful account of Iran’s revolution up to 2012. Read more


          Published on November 24, 2015
          James R. Maclean

          5.0 out of 5 starsWhy people study history

          (Disclaimer: the reviewer has no professional experience with Iran and indeed, has never visited that country.A History of Iran: Empire of the MindThe Coup: 1953, the CIA, and the Roots of Modern U.S.-Iranian Relations Read more


          Published on November 2, 2015
          Sussman

          4.0 out of 5 starsIran is a regional player that should not be ignored

          .
          Following a coup d’état instigated by the UK and the US in the early 1950s, Iran gradually became despotic. Read more


          Published on April 14, 2015
          Sussman

          5.0 out of 5 starsIran is a regional player that should not be ignored

          Following a coup d’état instigated by the UK and the US in the early 1950s, Iran gradually became despotic. Read more


          Published on August 10, 2014

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          Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic by Michael Axworthy – review


          An impressive exploration of Iran’s development since 1979 into an unpredictable pseudo-democracy

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          Revolutionary theory … Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, president of the Islamic Republic of Iran.





          Revolutionary theory … Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Photograph: Sven Hoppe/EPA

          The Islamic Republic of Iran that emerged from the revolution of 1979 has lasted quite well. Thirty years on, and better late than never, Iran is a more prosperous country than under the Pahlavi monarchy overthrown in that turbulent year. Bled by a long and inconclusive war with Iraq between 1980 and 1988, revolutionary Iran has kept aloof from the chaos on its borders, where three states (the Soviet Union, Ba’athist Iraq and Afghanistan) have disintegrated. Since the rise in 2005 of the price of oil, which makes up all but a fraction of the country’s revenue, Iran has become more assertive, though it’s not wholly clear to me what it is asserting.

          Yet, according to Michael Axworthy in his calm and literate portrait of the Islamic Republic, certain long-lived chickens are coming home to roost. A fissure within the constitution of 1979, between parliamentary democracy and ecclesiastical control, now threatens to detonate the revolutionary ruling class known in Persian as the nezam or “system”.

          An attempt to consolidate Islamic government with a nuclear weapon has alarmed Israel and the world powers. International sanctions and a cult of administrative incompetence have choked off Iran’s revenue and destroyed its currency and credit. History appears to be converging on 14 June, when Iranians will vote to elect a new president. The system is jumpy. The country’s “leader” or “guide”, Ali Khamenei, last month told Iranians to stop calling for free elections. They were, he said, already as free as can be. An academic historian, and sometime British diplomat, Axworthy avoids the grand schemes and theories that have so clouded the study of Iran. If he has a theory of the revolution of 1979, it is the celebrated phrase of young Tancredi in Tomasi di Lampedusa’s novel The Leopard : Se vogliamo che tutto rimanga come è, bisogna che tutto cambi (“If we want things to stay as they are, everything must change”).

          What Axworthy means is not that Iran in 1979 had anything in common with Sicily in the 1860s, but that an elite of clergy and wholesale merchants concluded it must destroy the Pahlavi monarchy so as to preserve its values and privileges. Taking charge in the second half of 1978 of a broad movement for political liberty, Ruhollah Khomeini and his supporters drove the shah into exile and all but demolished the royal army. Then, under the blanket of the war with Iraq, they wiped out their allies and rivals – leftist, liberal and, in the seminary, orthodox and quietist.

          With the peace, the revolutionaries set about reinventing the wheel. In almost every department of government, the Islamic Republic pressed on with the Pahlavi project. Here it all is, though draped in the banners of the prophet of Islam and his family: state-controlled industry, neglected agriculture, urbanisation, economic autarchy, suppressing the tribes and ethnic minorities, state handouts, mass education and the release of women from seclusion. Also, as Axworthy records, prostitution, drug addiction and judicial murder on a scale the Pahlavis could never have imagined. What distinguishes Iranian monarchy and republic, he argues, are not so much the black banners and veils that fascinate and repel the west but old-fashioned parliamentary democracy. Iran has a tradition of constitutional government going back to 1906 and, though it was reduced to impotence for about half the Pahlavi era (1925-79), parliament is (with Islam) one of the two pillars of Khomeini’s republic.

          The Constitution of the Islamic Republic, drawn up in the second half of 1979, never resolved “the debate between Islam and democracy”, while the chaotic occupation of the US embassy in Tehran that November led Iran into “a twilight zone of diplomatic breakdown and international isolation from which the country has never really re-emerged”.

          Yet in its three decades, the Islamic Republic has managed to change its governments. The period of drift after Khomeini’s death in 1989 is shown by Axworthy to have been full of political and electoral incident, from the Khatami landslide of 1997 to the appearance from nowhere in 2005 of the jack-in-the-box Ahmadinejad. If the definition of democracy is that it can spring ballot-box surprises, then Iran has a democracy.

          The turning point for Axworthy was the presidential election of 2009. That June, two drab regime loyalists, Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, found themselves thrust to the head of a mass movement for liberty and an end to the country’s isolation. The system panicked, manipulated the returns, threw its support behind a second term for Ahmadinejad, knowing full well his chaotic nature, and regressed into old habits of imprisonment and torture. Ahmadinejad, who is for Axworthy a “mixture of ignorance and chutzpah”, duly went on to set the system by the ears and smash up the economy while showing every sign of enjoying himself and wanting to stay. Though barred from a third consecutive presidential term, he is said to be planning to do a Putin: put in a placeman and come back next time.

          The significance of 2009 for Axworthy is that a ruling clique abandoned Khomeini’s policy of balance between the factions in favour of “naked force”. Yet that move has not strengthened the republic but weakened it. Who knows what the ballot box, which gave the system the equally unwelcome Khatami and Ahmadinejad, will throw up this summer?

          Axworthy sympathises with the system. Like many Persianists, he frets that if the Iranians are granted freedom to choose they will choose America and a great civilisation will be destroyed. Yet western liberty is also his solution to the double crisis of legitimacy and the bomb.

          There is no very deep tradition of enmity between Iran on the one hand and Israel and the US on the other. Indeed, Axworthy says, apart from Ba’ath Syria, Israel was by far the most consistent ally of Iran in its long war with Iraq. When President Obama held out an olive branch to Iran at the beginning of his first term, “the response from ordinary Iranians was such that it helped to produce [in June 2009] the Iranian regime’s most serious crisis since 1979 … The reconciliation effort needs to be resumed, reinforced and maintained with determination till it succeeds.”

          James Buchan’s Days of God: The Iranian Revolution and Its Consequences is published by John Murray.

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          ottawa homelessness report card

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          Ottawa plan to end homelessness falls flat at half-way mark

          Ottawa plan to end homelessness falls flat at half-way mark

          Ottawa has seen a dramatic increase in the number of homeless families, while only managing to remove 23 people from the shelter system.

          Only 23 fewer chronically homeless people in Ottawa since plan started

          Laura Osman · CBC News ·

          A homeless man begs for change at the Mackenzie King OC Transpo station in Ottawa. (Christian Milette/CBC)

          Nearly halfway through the city's 10-year mission to end chronic homelessness, it appears no closer to its goal.

          Ottawa has seen a dramatic increase in the number of homeless families, while only managing to remove 23 chronically homeless people from the shelter system.

          The city released a mid-term report card of sorts on Thursday, and grades were mixed.

          • Families increasingly becoming face of Ottawa homeless, report finds

          It exceeded many of its targets for providing housing subsidies and building affordable housing units.

          But there has been a 143 per cent increase in the number of chronically homeless families since 2014, with 236 in shelters for more than a month last year.

          Chronic homelessness decreased only five per cent among singles in the shelter system.

          Housing first success unclear

          A major cornerstone of the city's plan to tackle the problem is the housing first initiative.

          The program gives long-time shelter users a place to live and provides support services, including regular visits from case workers. The idea is to see those people eventually become self sufficient and pay their own rent.

          The program has housed 519 households — more than double the number the city hoped for.

          The report did not include the number of people who've successfully graduated from the program, and the city wasn't able to immediately provide the information Thursday evening.

          On Friday the city said so far, 333 are still actively enrolled in the program and 151 participants have graduated.

          Difficult to track

          • Analysis

            Let's not kick housing first strategy to the curb over trashed apartment

          It can be difficult to track what happens to people once they leave the program, according to Shelley VanBuskirk, the city's director of housing services.

          Ideally, we'd be able to verify their housing status.– Shelley VanBuskirk, Ottawa's director of housing services

          "Ideally, we'd be able to verify their housing status," she said. "It's very difficult to connect with them."

          The city doesn't know, for example, if people are able to keep themselves afloat financially long-term once they leave the program.

          The city confirmed on Friday that at least 14 former participants in the program have returned to the shelter system, and is trying to get those people back into permanent housing. Another eight have died.

          The city spends $9.1 million each year on its housing first initiative, which was first adopted by the city in 2008 and overhauled in 2014.

          A self assessment of the program  revealed inadequacies as recently as last year , including long wait times and insufficient subsidies.

          Staff plan to review how the housing first model is working in the future, the report said.

          Outside city's control

          Keeping chronically homeless people out of the shelter system was thought to be cheaper for the government in the long run.

          The city hoped to save money by diverting people from shelters, allowing it to reinvest the savings into more supports to keep people in their homes.

          The city was able to do that in 2015 when it found about $1 million in savings, but it's been challenging for the last few years because of increased demand for shelter services.

          Ray Sullivan, executive director of the Centretown Citizens Ottawa Corporation, said some of the factors driving up the number of people facing chronic homelessness are outside the city's control.

          "One of the biggest challenges is the social and economic factors that shape these things are outside the city's control," said Ray Sullivan, executive director of the Centretown Citizens Ottawa Corporation. He also sits on the city's housing working group.

          He pointed to the employment rate, the cost of regular rental housing and social factors that are common in the homeless population.

          "Those are things that are difficult for the city to tackle on its own," he said.

          This year the city will review the progress it has made so far, and consult with homelessness experts and service providers in the city to chart a way forward through the next five years of the plan.  

          The timing is good, considering the city will soon start to receive funds from the recently announced national housing strategy and provincial long-term affordable housing strategy

          The community and protective services committee will consider the progress made so far on March 22.

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          United Way Ottawa

          CHANGE A LIFE

          Progress Report: Homelessness in Ottawa

          By Matt Beutel
          Director, Community Initiatives

          Today the Alliance to End Homelessness released its 2015 Progress Report on Ending Homelessness in Ottawa , providing a statistical overview of homelessness in our city.

          For those of us who work in this area, each year we anticipate this report with both hope and trepidation. Hope, because we want to see evidence that our collective efforts will be reflected in the numbers. Trepidation, because despite all of the great work that’s being done, we know that homelessness continues to be a very serious issue in Ottawa.

          The 2015 numbers are in—what do they tell us?

           

          • For the first time in 10 years, the average length of stay for all people using shelters declined: it is now 73 days (down from 78 in 2014)
          • More people used an overnight emergency shelter: 6,825 in 2015, (up from 6,508 in 2014)
          • This increase in shelter use is entirely attributable to more families staying in shelters: 782, representing 2,635 individuals (up from 706 families and 2,278 individuals in 2014)
          • Very few new affordable housing options were created: 46 (compared to 141 in 2014)
          • Over one in five of Ottawa’s shelter users were children aged 17 and under

           

          What about Ottawa’s homeless youth?

           

          In 2015, the number of youth aged 16-25 using shelters saw a 2.3 per cent decrease, from 924 to 903.

          While the number of youth using shelters did slightly decrease, youth homelessness is as relevant and distressing as it was one year ago. It is important to remember that it is estimated that several hundred youth in Ottawa are among the hidden homeless each year—couch surfing, sleeping in parks or engaging in high-risk relationships in exchange for a place to stay.

          Here’s what United Way Ottawa and our partners are doing to help Ottawa’s homeless youth

           

          United Way Ottawa invests in programs and initiatives that help get homeless youth off the streets for good.

          Here’s Zack’s story:

          United Way is also a partner and principal funder of A Way Home Ottawa , a brand-new youth-driven, local coalition working to prevent and end youth homelessness in Ottawa. A Way Home is overseen by the Alliance to End Homelessness Ottawa and counts among its members a youth leadership team, school boards, Ottawa Police, Children’s Aid Society and frontline agencies such as Youth Services Bureau, Tungasuvvingat Inuit and Operation Come Home.

          United Way is a proud partner in youth housing programs at John Howard Society, Operation Come Home , YMCA-YWCA and Youth Services Bureau.

           

          Learn more about homelessness in Ottawa

          Read the report

          Topics : Youth Homelessness

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          Every young person deserves a home for the holidays

          Hundreds of youth in Ottawa are either homeless or in unstable housing situations. Here’s what United Way Ottawa is doing to help.

          Fostering collaboration to end homelessness

          What can be done to fast-track Ottawa’s approach to reducing homelessness and improving affordable housing? Read this Q&A with United Way’s Rhonda Bradley.