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How TO – Text Blocks Over Image

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Learn how to place text blocks over an image.


Image Text Blocks

Norway

Nature

What a beautiful sunrise

Nature

What a beautiful sunrise

Try it Yourself »


How To Place Text Blocks in Image

Step 1) Add HTML:

Example

<div >
  <img src=”nature.jpg” alt=”Norway”
style=”width:100%;”>
  <div >
   
<h4>Nature</h4>
    <p>What a beautiful sunrise</p>
  </div>
</div>

Step 2) Add CSS:

Example


.container
    position: relative;

.text-block
    position: absolute;
   
bottom: 20px;
    right: 20px;
   
background-color: black;
    color: white;
   
padding-left: 20px;
    padding-right: 20px;

Try it Yourself »

To learn more about how to style images, read our CSS Images tutorial.

To learn more about CSS positoning, read our CSS Position tutorial.

❮ Previous
Next ❯

COLOR PICKER

colorpicker

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maken ki episode 13 english dub full episode

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I do not own the contents in this video and i do not own the music contents in this VIDEO I DO NOT OWN ANYTHING IN THIS VIDEO. The Earth is deserted.

Please Subscribe For More! Please Subscribe For More! Please Subscribe For More! I will try to upload maken ki Ep 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Please Subscribe For More! Please Subscribe For More! Please Subscribe For More! I will try to upload maken ki Ep 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

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  • Be sure to include current year grades (i.e. midyear grades) as part of your transcript or as a separate report. If your high school does not provide grades, you must supply written evaluations for all completed courses.
  • Official transcripts may be e-mailed to [email protected] , or mailed to:

        Office of University Programs
        383 Lafayette Street
        New York, NY 10003

We will not review your application until ALL materials are received. Students may only apply to one NYU program at a time.

Please note: The NYU Precollege Application is only used for the Precollege admissions process. Admission to and/or participation in this program does not guarantee admission to any of NYU’s schools or colleges. Students interested in applying to an undergraduate degree program must follow the application procedures set forth by the Office of Undergraduate Admissions .

Dates and Deadlines

Applications submitted after the final deadline will be reviewed on a space-available basis. Any supporting documents sent by mail must be postmarked by the deadlines listed below.

February 1

Online application available

February 12Course registration begins
March 1Residential priority deadline
March 15International student application deadline
April 14Commuter priority deadline
July 1Final application deadline
July 1Program orientation and move-in day
July 2First day of classes
August 10Last day of program and move-out day

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Top 10 App Store Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak en 2017

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Par Félix Maroy

0

Top 10 App Store Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak en 2017

Il y a de cela bien longtemps qu’il était impossible d’avoir les applications gratuites sur iPhone et iPad sans passer par le Jailbreak. Il est désormais possible d’avoir les Applications iOS gratuitement grâce à certains App Store gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak. Dans ce petit article je vous propose une liste de 10 App Store Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak que moi personnellement j’ai trouvé nécessaire de vous présenter suivant leur popularité. Et voila…

App Store Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak

Cydia

Cydia est une application indispensable pour iPhone qui s’installe bien avec ou sans Jailbreak dans les appareils fonctionnant sous iOS 7, 8, 9 et 10. Il est parmi les meilleures alternatives à vShare et Mojo.

vShare

vShare est considéré comme le “MUST HAVE” de tous les utilisateurs d’iPhone qui ne peuvent pas s’acheter les applications sur iTunes de la plateforme Apple.

vShare aussi s’installe bien dans les appareils avec ou sans jailbreak fonctionnant sous iOS 7, 8, 9 et 10. Vous trouverez dans cet article  plus de détails sur vShare.

Mojo

On ne peut pas parler d’App Store Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak sans parler de Mojo. Cette application est aussi populaire et donne accès à un très grand nombre d’application gratuite.

Tongbu

Tongbu est une application tierce qui fonctionne comme App Store Gratuit pour tous les appareils iPhone et iPad ainsi que les autres appareils Apple. Son Installation est simple marche avec ou sans Jailbreak sur toutes les versions iOS.

Voir Aussi:  Comment Publier Une Audio Sur Le Statut Whatsapp


A Lire: Comment Jailbreaker un iPhone et pourquoi le faire ?


Tutuapp

TuTuApp quand à lui peut être installé à la fois sur les appareils iOS ou les appareils Android. Il est devenu très populaire à la mi-2016 et est maintenant l’alternative n ° 1 de vShare que nous venons d’évoquer ci haut dans cette liste d’App Store Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak.

Hipstore

Hipstore est une application très similaire à vShare. son interface utilisateur n’est pas aussi développée que vShare, mais Hipstore possède des applications très intéressantes que vous pouvez explorer. Hipstore est compatible avec Android et iOS.

C’est lorsque Hipstore est installé pour la première fois que son interface est présentée dans une version non anglaise mais dans les paramètres, seule la version anglaise de Hipstore est sélectionnée.

AppCake

Cette application est certainement essentielle pour les jailbreakers et aussi l’une des meilleures alternatives à vShare que vous trouverez jamais.

AppCake est un installateur d’application gratuit extrêmement populaire et vous permet également d’accéder à une grande variété d’applications et de jeux notamment le plus célèbre GBA4IOS.

Voir Aussi:  Guide N°3 Sur Internet Gratuit – VPN, Proxy & Tunnelisation – Suite et Fin

L’une des meilleures choses à propos de cette application avec jailbreak est qu’il offre un lien de téléchargement fonctionnel pour presque toutes les applications et les jeux, ce qui n’est pas quelque chose que vous pouvez dire sur ces autres App Store.

Zeusmos

Zeusmos est une autre excellente App Store gratuite pour iPhone, et même si elle est similaire à Cydia et Mojo de plusieurs façons, elle offre une grande quantité d’applications et de jeux gratuits pour iPhone, iPad et iPod Touch.

Vous pourrez installer cette application sur n’importe quelle version d’iOS, ce qui rend cette application incroyablement polyvalente. Vous pouvez obtenir cette application en ouvrant simplement l’application Cydia et en recherchant Zeusmos.

Appvn

Appvn est une nouvelle App Store gratuite sur iPhone et iPad. Toute l’application n’est pas en anglais, mais il est très facile de comprendre la navigation et la recherche est entièrement en anglais. Lisez plus sur APPVN dans ce tutoriel

Vous pouvez installer Appvn dans n’importe quel iPad iPhone ou iPod touch sans PC ni Jailbreak.

iFunBox

Alors que iFunBox peut ne pas être l’une des meilleures alternatives à vShare, il vaut la peine d’être examiné en raison de tout ce qu’il a à offrir.

Voir Aussi:  Générateur de Crédit Orange – Universel et Gratuit

Cette application est un excellent choix pour ceux qui n’étaient pas satisfaits des deux applications précédemment mentionnées, et cela diffère d’elles de quelques petites manières.

Vous trouverez que iFunBox dispose d’un utilitaire logiciel qui offre une alternative à iTunes, que tout le monde n’aime pas.

Vous pouvez télécharger et installer iFunBox à partir de Cydia avec son référentiel officiel, et il fonctionne avec iOS 8, mais les dernières versions iOS ont échouées avec iFunBox.

PandaApp

PandaApp offre une excellente alternative à vShare et son site officiel est l’un des meilleurs sites de téléchargement d’ipa que vous trouverez sur internet.

Le téléchargement et l’installation d’applications gratuites sur votre appareil iOS depuis PandaApp sont très simples et rapides, de sorte que vous ne devrez pas vous soucier de complications ou de frustrations lorsque vous essayez de le faire.

Bien que vous ne puissiez pas trouver toutes ces applications alternatives à votre convenance, vous êtes obligé d’utiliser au moins l’une d’entre elles.

Voilà la liste d’App Strore Gratuit pour iPhone sans Jailbreak que j’ai trouvé intéressant. Bonne chance et à plus…

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Je travaille comme un Esclave pour ensuite vivre comme un Roi. Ce blog fait parti de mes plus grandes réussites et grâce à lui seul je gagne un montant de 4 chiffres chaque mois.

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Télécharger Vshare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak pour iPhone  iPad

Blogging

Par Félix Maroy

0

Télécharger Vshare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak pour iPhone & iPad

Voilà, dans cet article je vous présente vShare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak que vous allez exploiter pour télécharger les applications iOS payantes gratuitement parfois nous nous rencontrons dans une exigence sérieuse d’une application que nous finissons par télécharger une application payante pour répondre à nos besoins, mais apès l’achat de celle-ci, nous nous rendons compte que nous avons dépenser notre argent inutilement.

C’est pourquoi donc, nous allons télécharger l’ app store le plus populaire sur iOS  à savoir: vShare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak. Il est absolument essentiel, car il nous permet de télécharger des applications iOS payantes gratuitement et aussi celles de leurs versions complètes et crackées.

Alors, je vous prie de continuer la lecture pour en savoir plus sur comment télécharger et installer vShare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak & vShare Helper iOS 11 pour (iPhone et iPad) sans Jailbreak. 


Voir Aussi:   Comment faire la Mise à Jour iOS 11 sur iPhone et iPad gratuitement  . 


Pourquoi vShare iOS 11 Sans Jailbreak

La meilleure chose à propos de cette application est qu’il est disponible sans jailbreak. vShare est un App Store d’iOS en soi avec le même type d’interface utilisateur avec la seule possibilité de télécharger gratuitement les applications payantes disponible sur iTunes.

Donc, cette application est indispensable pour tous ceux qui ont besoin de télécharger gratuitement des applications payantes. Permettez-moi de vous faire connaître certaines des caractéristiques incroyables de vShare avant de passer au sujet principal.

Voir Aussi:  Internet Gratuit au Bénin Tous les réseaux sans VPN

Caractéristiques de vShare iOS 11 & vShare Helper iOS 11

Rien de plus fantastique que de télécharger vShare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak pour obtenir gratuitement les applications payantes sur votre iPhone ou iPad.

  • Avec cette magnifique application, vous pouvez trouver presque toutes les applications.
  • Une interface utilisateur simple et facile qui permet de travailler plus facilement avec l’application.
  • Les applications ne se bloquent jamais.
  • Apple ID n’est pas nécessaire pour télécharger les applications.

Voir:   Télécharger Cydia Sans Jailbreak pour iOS 7/8/9 et 10  .


Sans plus nous retarder, voyons maintenant comment télécharger et installer  vShare iOS 11 sans Jailbreak (iPhone / iPad).

Télécharger vShare sur iOS 11 + iPhone / iPad sans Jailbreak

  • D’abord, vous devez vous rassurer que vous disposez de la dernière version d’iTunes installée sur votre système Windows. Si vous utilisez MAC, vous devez installer Parallel Desktop et Windows doit être installé sur celui-ci.
  • Maintenant, accédez au lien suivant et téléchargez vShare Helper
  • Installez vShare helper  et une fois le processus d’installation terminé, vous devez connecter votre appareil iOS au PC.
  • Par la suite, vous verrez que votre périphérique iOS est connecté à vShare Helper.
  • Une fois que votre appareil est connecté en bas de la fenêtre vShare Helper, vous verrez l’icône de vShare. Appuyez dessus et l’application va commencer à installer.
  • Vous aurez alors un message vous confirmant la fin de l’installation en vous proposant encore une icône de Re-Autorisation sur vShare Helper cliquez sur l’icône et attendez le message vous confirmant que la Re-autorisation est réussie.
  • Avant de télécharger toute application à partir de vShare, vous devez faire confiance au profil de vShare sur vos appareils iOS 11.1, 11.2, iOS 11, iOS 11.1, iOS 10+ et je vous parie que vous savez sûrement comment faire.
Voir Aussi:  Comment Faire Une Recherche à Partir d’Une Image Sur Android

Installer vShare Helper pour iOS 11

Vous avez été nombreux à suivre la procédure de téléchargement et d’installation de  vShare pour iOS 11 sans Jailbreak pour (iPhone / iPad).

Dans tous les cas, si vous rencontrez des problèmes lors de la procédure d’installation de vShare pour iOS 11, n’hésitez pas à me faire part de vos commentaires ci-dessous et je serais ravis de régler vos problèmes prioritaires de base.

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          Athletic Director jobs in Hopkinton, MA

          Assistant to Director of Athletics/Athletic Groundskeeper

          Ashland Public Schools


          6 reviews

          Ashland, MA 01721


          The Athletic Groundskeeper for the Ashland Public Schools works directly for the Director of Athletics to assist, coordinate and review the day-to-day…
          10 days ago – save job – more…

          • View all Ashland Public Schools jobs in Ashland, MA – Ashland jobs
          • Salary Search: Groundskeeper salaries in Ashland, MA
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            • What is the most stressful part about working at ASHLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS?
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          Athletic Director and Physical Education Teacher


          Diocese of Worcester

          Worcester, MA 01609


          $15,000 a year

          Open House) to help build enrollment and ensure that the Athletic Department is an attractive educational athletic option for potential student-athletes.25…

          Desired Experience: Teaching Certification, Teaching Experience

          9 hours ago – save job – more…

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          Administrative Asisstant

          Ayer Shirley Regional School District


          6 reviews

          Ayer, MA 01432


          Provide administrative support to the Athletic Director and the department coaching staff. Assist in managing Family ID for all athletic registrations….
          8 days ago – save job – more…

          • View all Ayer Shirley Regional School District jobs in Ayer, MA – Ayer jobs
          • Learn more about working at Ayer Shirley Regional School District
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          Assistant Director of Athletics for Student-Athlete Developm…

          College of the Holy Cross


          33 reviews

          Worcester, MA 01610


          Athletics Posted On:. As such, this is a senior staff and leadership level position within the department of athletics reporting to the Director of Athletics….
          24 days ago – save job – more…

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          Director, Project Management Office

          Harvard University


          581 reviews

          Cambridge, MA


          The Director will lead a federated team of program and project managers based in IT service delivery areas but with dual reporting lines to the PMO Director and…

          Desired Experience: PMP, Project Management, Change Management, Conflict Management, Project / Program Management, Project Management Methodology

          30+ days ago – save job – more…

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          Game Site Supervisor

          Cambridge Public Schools


          17 reviews

          Cambridge, MA 02141 (East Cambridge area)


          $24 an hour

          *Assist the Athletic Director with the administration of home soccer, football, basketball, hockey and. Service Agreement Opportunity #8 2018/2019 School Year….
          30+ days ago – save job – more…

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          School Transportation Dispatcher

          Framingham Public Schools


          20 reviews

          Framingham, MA 01702


          Director of Transportation. Assume additional reasonable responsibilities as directed by the Director of Transportation….
          23 days ago – save job – more…

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          Associate Director, Finance and Sponsored Funds

          Harvard University


          581 reviews

          Cambridge, MA


          As part of the Alumni and Donor Services (ADS) team, the Associate Director, Finance and Sponsored Funds reports to the Senior Associate Director of Internal…

          Desired Experience: Microsoft Powerpoint, Microsoft Office, Supervising Experience, SharePoint, Accounting, GAAP, Leadership Experience

          3 days ago – save job – more…

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          Assistant Director, Affinity Programs

          Babson College


          35 reviews

          Babson Park, MA


          Associate Director to foster Athletics engagement through programs, events, outreach and initiatives. Support the Associate Director with the management of the…

          Desired Experience: Microsoft Powerpoint, Driver’s License, Microsoft Office

          30+ days ago – save job – more…

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          Middle School Sports Coordinator

          Worcester Public Schools


          48 reviews

          Worcester, MA 01609


          1.Responsible for assisting the Director Athletics in planning, developing, revising, implementing and supervising a quality Middle School athletic program in…

          Desired Experience: Special Needs

          19 days ago – save job – more…

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                world history trade routes

                This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

                Trade route

                From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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                A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets , a single trade route contains long distance arteries , which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes. Among notable trade routes was the Amber Road , which served as a dependable network for long-distance trade. [1] Maritime trade along the Spice Route became prominent during the Middle Ages , when nations resorted to military means for control of this influential route. [2] During the Middle Ages, organizations such as the Hanseatic League , aimed at protecting interests of the merchants, and trade became increasingly prominent. [3]

                In modern times , commercial activity shifted from the major trade routes of the Old World to newer routes between modern nation-states . This activity was sometimes carried out without traditional protection of trade and under international free-trade agreements, which allowed commercial goods to cross borders with relaxed restrictions. [4] Innovative transportation of modern times includes pipeline transport and the relatively well-known trade involving rail routes , automobiles , and cargo airlines .

                Contents

                • 1 Development of early routes
                  • 1.1 Early development
                  • 1.2 Maritime trade
                  • 1.3 Visible trade routes
                • 2 Historic trade routes
                  • 2.1 Combined land and waterway routes
                    • 2.1.1 Incense Route
                    • 2.1.2 Pre-Columbian trade
                  • 2.2 Predominantly overland routes
                    • 2.2.1 Silk Road
                    • 2.2.2 Grand Trunk Road
                    • 2.2.3 Amber Road
                    • 2.2.4 Via Maris
                    • 2.2.5 Trans Saharan trade
                  • 2.3 Predominantly maritime routes
                    • 2.3.1 Roman-India routes
                    • 2.3.2 Hanseatic trade
                    • 2.3.3 From the Varangians to the Greek
                    • 2.3.4 Maritime republics’ Mediterranean trade
                    • 2.3.5 Spice Route
                • 3 Modern routes
                  • 3.1 Wagonway routes
                  • 3.2 Railway routes
                  • 3.3 Modern road networks
                  • 3.4 Modern maritime routes
                  • 3.5 Free trade areas
                  • 3.6 Air routes
                  • 3.7 Pipeline networks
                • 4 Notes
                • 5 References
                • 6 External links

                Development of early routes[ edit ]

                Early development[ edit ]

                Long distance trade routes were developed in the Chalcolithic Period. The period from the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE to the beginning of the Common Era saw societies in Western Asia, the Mediterranean, China and the Indian subcontinent develop major transportation networks for trade. [5]

                One of the vital instruments which facilitated long distance trade was portage and the domestication of beasts of burden . [6] Organized caravans, visible by the 2nd millennium BCE, [7] could carry goods across a large distance as fodder was mostly available along the way. [6] The domestication of camels allowed Arabian nomads to control the long distance trade in spices and silk from the Far East to the Arabian Peninsula . [8] Caravans were useful in long-distance trade largely for carrying luxury goods, the transportation of cheaper goods across large distances was not profitable for caravan operators. [9] With productive developments in iron and bronze technologies, newer trade routes – dispensing innovations of civilizations – began to rise. [10]

                Maritime trade[ edit ]

                Much of the Radhanites ‘ Indian Ocean trade would have depended on coastal cargo-ships such as this dhow .

                Main article: Ship transport

                Evidence of maritime trade between civilizations dates back at least 90 millennia. [11] Navigation was known in Sumer between the 4th and the 3rd millennium BCE, and was probably known by the Indians and the Chinese people before the Sumerians. [7] The Egyptians had trade routes through the Red Sea , importing spices from the ” Land of Punt ” ( East Africa ) and from Arabia. [12]

                Evolution of Indian trade networks. The main map shows the routes since Mughal times , Inset A shows the major prehistorical cultural currents, B: pre- Mauryan routes, C: Mauryan routes, D: routes c. 1st century CE, and E: the “Z” shaped region of developed roads.

                Maritime trade began with safer coastal trade and evolved with the manipulation of the monsoon winds, soon resulting in trade crossing boundaries such as the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal . [11] South Asia had multiple maritime trade routes which connected it to Southeast Asia , thereby making the control of one route resulting in maritime monopoly difficult. [11] Indian connections to various Southeast Asian states buffered it from blockages on other routes. [11] By making use of the maritime trade routes, bulk commodity trade became possible for the Romans in the 2nd century BCE. [13] A Roman trading vessel could span the Mediterranean in a month at one-sixtieth the cost of over-land routes . [14]

                Visible trade routes[ edit ]

                The peninsula of Anatolia lay on the commercial land routes to Europe from Asia as well as the sea route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea . [15] Records from the 19th century BCE attest to the existence of an Assyrian merchant colony at Kanesh in Cappadocia (now in modern Turkey ). [15] Trading networks of the Old World included the Grand Trunk Road of India and the Incense Road of Arabia . [5] A transportation network consisting of hard-surfaced highways, using concrete made from volcanic ash and lime, was built by the Romans as early as 312 BCE, during the times of the Censor Appius Claudius Caecus . [16] Parts of the Mediterranean world, Roman Britain , Tigris-Euphrates river system and North Africa fell under the reach of this network at some point of their history. [16]

                According to Robert Allen Denemark (2000): [17]

                “The spread of urban trading networks, and their extension along the Persian Gulf and eastern Mediterranean, created a complex molecular structure of regional foci so that as well as the zonation of core and periphery (originally created around Mesopotamia ) there was a series of interacting civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley ; then also Syria , central Anatolia ( Hittites ) and the Aegean ( Minoans and Mycenaeans ). Beyond this was a margin which included not only temperate areas such as Europe, but the dry steppe corridor of central Asia . This was truly a world system, even though it occupied only a restricted portion of the western Old World. Whilst each civilization emphasized its ideological autonomy, all were identifiably part of a common world of interacting components.”

                These routes – spreading religion , trade and technology – have historically been vital to the growth of urban civilization. [18] The extent of development of cities, and the level of their integration into a larger world system, has often been attributed to their position in various active transport networks. [19]

                Historic trade routes[ edit ]

                Combined land and waterway routes[ edit ]

                Incense Route[ edit ]

                The economy of the Kingdom of Qataban (light blue) was based on the cultivation and trade of spices and aromatics including frankincense and myrrh. These were exported to the Mediterranean, India and Abyssinia where they were greatly prized by many cultures, using camels on routes through Arabia, and to India by sea.

                Main article: Incense route

                The Incense Route served as a channel for trading of Indian, Arabian and East Asian goods. [20] The incense trade flourished from South Arabia to the Mediterranean between roughly the 3rd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. [21] This trade was crucial to the economy of Yemen and the frankincense and myrrh trees were seen as a source of wealth by the its rulers. [22]

                Ptolemy II Philadelphus , emperor of Ptolemaic Egypt , may have forged an alliance with the Lihyanites in order to secure the incense route at Dedan , thereby rerouting the incense trade from Dedan to the coast along the Red Sea to Egypt. [23] I. E. S. Edwards connects the Syro-Ephraimite War to the desire of the Israelites and the Aramaeans to control the northern end of the Incense route, which ran up from Southern Arabia and could be tapped by commanding Transjordan . [24]

                Gerrha – inhabited by Chaldean exiles from Babylon – controlled the Incense trade routes across Arabia to the Mediterranean and exercised control over the trading of aromatics to Babylon in the 1st century BCE. [25] The Nabateans exercised control over the routes along the Incense Route, and their hold was challenged – without success – by Antigonus Cyclops , emperor of Syria. [26] The Nabatean control over trade further increased and spread in many directions. [26]

                The replacement of Greece by the Roman empire as the administrator of the Mediterranean basin led to the resumption of direct trade with the East and the elimination of the taxes extracted previously by the middlemen of the south. [27] According to Milo Kearney (2003) “The South Arabs in protest took to pirate attacks over the Roman ships in the Gulf of Aden . In response, the Romans destroyed Aden and favored the Western Abyssinian coast of the Red Sea.” [28] Indian ships sailed to Egypt as the maritime routes of Southern Asia were not under the control of a single power. [27]

                Pre-Columbian trade[ edit ]

                Further information: Inca road system

                Some similarities between the Mesoamerican and the Andean cultures suggest that the two regions became a part of a wider world system, as a result of trade, by the 1st millennium BCE. [29] The current academic view is that the flow of goods across the Andean slopes was controlled by institutions distributing locations to local groups, who were then free to access them for trading. [30] This trade across the Andean slopes – described sometimes as “vertical trade” – may have overshadowed the long distance trade between the people of the Andes and the neighboring forests. [30] The Callawaya herbalists traded in tropical plants between 6th and the 10th centuries, while copper was dealt by specialized merchants in the Peruvian valley of Chincha . [30] Long distance trade may have seen local elites resorting to struggle in order for manipulation and control. [30]

                Prior to the Inca dominance, specialized long distance merchants provided the highlanders with goods such as gold nuggets, copper hatchets, cocoa, salt etc. for redistribution among the locals, and were key players in the politics of the region. [31] Hatchet shaped copper currency was produced by the Peruvian people , in order to obtain valuables from pre Columbian Ecuador . [31] A maritime exchange system stretched from the west coast of Mexico to southernmost Peru, trading mostly in Spondylus , which represented rain and fertility and was considered the principal food of the gods by the people of the Inca empire . [31] Spondylus was used in elite rituals, and the effective redistribution of it had political effect in the Andes during the pre-Hispanic times. [31]

                Predominantly overland routes[ edit ]

                Silk Road[ edit ]

                Main article: Silk Road

                Trading routes used around the 1st century CE centred on the Silk Road .

                The Silk road was one of the first trade routes to join the Eastern and the Western worlds . [32] According to Vadime Elisseeff (2000): [32]

                “Along the Silk Roads, technology traveled, ideas were exchanged, and friendship and understanding between East and West were experienced for the first time on a large scale. Easterners were exposed to Western ideas and life-styles, and Westerners too, learned about Eastern culture and its spirituality-oriented cosmology. Buddhism as an Eastern religion received international attention through the Silk Roads.”

                Cultural interactions patronized often by powerful emperors, such as Kanishka , led to development of art due to introduction of a rich variety of influences. [32] Buddhist missions thrived along the Silk Roads, partly due to the conducive intermixing of trade and cultural values, which created a series of safe stoppages for both the pilgrims and the traders. [33] Among the frequented routes of the Silk Route was the Burmese route extending from Bhamo , which served as a path for Marco Polo ‘s visit to Yunnan and Indian Buddhist missions to Canton in order to establish Buddhist monasteries . [34] This route – often under the presence of hostile tribes – also finds mention in the works of Rashid-al-Din Hamadani . [34]

                Grand Trunk Road[ edit ]

                For centuries, the Grand Trunk Road has served as the main artery for travel across Northern India. A scene from the Ambala cantonment during the days of the British Raj .

                Main article: Grand Trunk Road

                The Grand Trunk Road – connecting Chittagong in Bangladesh to Peshawar in Pakistan – has existed for over two and a half millennia . [35] One of the important trade routes of the world, this road has been a strategic artery with fortresses , halting posts, wells , post offices , milestones and other facilities. [35] Part of this road through Pakistan also coincided with the Silk Road. [35]

                This highway has been associated with emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Sher Shah Suri , the latter became synonymous with this route due to his role in ensuring the safety of the travelers and the upkeep of the road. [36] Emperor Sher Shah widened and realigned the road to other routes, and provided approximately 1700 roadside inns through his empire. [36] These inns provided free food and lodgings to the travelers regardless of their status. [36]

                The British occupation of this road was of special significance for the British Raj in India. [37] Bridges, pathways and newer inns were constructed by the British for the first thirty-seven years of their reign since the occupation of Punjab in 1849. [37] The British followed roughly the same alignment as the old routes, and at some places the newer routes ran parallel to the older routes. [37]

                Vadime Elisseeff (2000) comments on the Grand Trunk Road: [38]

                “Along this road marched not only the mighty armies of conquerors, but also the caravans of traders, scholars, artists, and common folk. Together with people, moved ideas, languages, customs, and cultures, not just in one, but in both directions. At different meeting places – permanent as well as temporary – people of different origins and from different cultural backgrounds, professing different faiths and creeds, eating different foods, wearing different clothes, and speaking different languages and dialects would meet one another peacefully. They would understand one another’s food, dress, manner, and etiquette, and even borrow words, phrases, idioms and, at times, whole languages from others.”

                Amber Road[ edit ]

                Main article: Amber Road

                The Amber Road was a European trade route associated with the trade and transport of amber . [1] Amber satisfied the criteria for long distance trade as it was light in weight and was in high demand for ornamental purposes around the Mediterranean. [1] Before the establishment of Roman control over areas such as Pannonia , the Amber Road was virtually the only route available for long distance trade. [1]

                Towns along the Amber Road began to rise steadily during the 1st century CE, despite the troop movements under Titus Flavius Vespasianus and his son Titus Flavius Domitianus . [39]
                Under the reign of Tiberius Caesar Augustus , the Amber Road was straightened and paved according to the prevailing urban standards. [40] Roman towns began to appear along the road, initially founded near the site of Celtic oppida . [40]

                The 3rd century saw the Danube river become the principal artery of trade, eclipsing the Amber Road and other commercial routes. [1] The redirection of investment to the Danubian forts saw the towns along the Amber Road growing slowly, though yet retaining their prosperity. [41] The prolonged struggle between the Romans and the barbarians further left its mark on the towns along the Amber Road. [42]

                Via Maris[ edit ]

                The Via Maris (purple), King’s Highway (red), and other ancient Levantine trade routes, c. 1300 BCE.

                Main article: Via Maris

                Via Maris, literally Latin for “the way of the sea,” [43] was an ancient highway used by the Romans and the Crusaders . [44] The states controlling the Via Maris were in a position to grant access for trade to their own citizens and collect tolls from the outsiders to maintain the trade route. [45] The name Via Maris is a Latin translation of a Hebrew phrase related to Isaiah . [44] Due to the biblical significance of this ancient route, many attempts to find its present-day location have been made by Christian pilgrims. [44] 13th-century traveler and pilgrim Burchard of Mount Zion refers to the Via Maris route as a way leading along the shore of the Sea of Galilee . [44]

                Trans Saharan trade[ edit ]

                Main article: Trans-Saharan trade

                Saharan trade routes circa 1400, with the modern territory of Niger highlighted; Tuareg people , who exercised influence over the Trans Saharan Trade. [46]

                Early Muslim writings confirm that the people of West Africa operated a sophisticated network of trade, usually under the authority of a monarch who levied taxes and provided bureaucratic and military support to his kingdom. [47] Sophisticated mechanisms for the economic and political development of the involved African areas were in place before Islam further strengthened trade, towns and government in western Africa. [47] The capital, court and trade of the region find mention in the works of scholar Abū ‘Ubayd ‘Abd Allāh al-Bakrī ; the mainstay of the trans Saharan trade was gold and salt. [47]

                The powerful Saharan tribes, Berber in origin and later adapting to Muslim and Arab cultures, controlled the channels to western Africa by making efficient use of horse-drawn vehicles and pack animals. [47] The Songhai engaged in a struggle against the Sa’di dynasty of Morocco over the control of the trans Saharan trade, resulting in damage on both sides and a weak Moroccan victory, further strengthening the uninvolved Saharan tribes. [47] Struggles and disturbances continued till the 14th century, by which the Mandé merchants were trading with the Hausa , between Lake Chad and the Niger . [47] Newer trade routes developed following extension of trade. [47]

                Predominantly maritime routes[ edit ]

                Roman-India routes[ edit ]

                Main article: Roman trade with India

                Roman trade with India according to the Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1st century CE.

                The Ptolemaic dynasty had initiated Greco-Roman maritime trade contact with India using the Red Sea ports. [48] The Roman historian Strabo mentions a vast increase in trade following the Roman annexation of Egypt, indicating that monsoon was known and manipulated for trade in his time. [49] By the time of Augustus up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India, [50] trading in a diverse variety of goods. [51] Arsinoe , [52] Berenice Troglodytica and Myos Hormos were the principal Roman ports involved in this maritime trading network, [53] while the Indian ports included Barbaricum , Barygaza , Muziris and Arikamedu . [51]

                The Indians were present in Alexandria [54] and the Christian and Jewish settlers from Rome continued to live in India long after the fall of the Roman empire, [55] which resulted in Rome’s loss of the Red Sea ports, [56] previously used to secure trade with India by the Greco-Roman world since the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty. [52]

                Hanseatic trade[ edit ]

                Main article: Hanseatic League

                Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League.

                Shortly before the 12th century the Germans played a relatively modest role in the north European trade. [57] However, this was to change with the development of Hanseatic trade, as a result of which German traders became prominent in the Baltic and the North Sea regions. [58] Following the death of Eric VI of Denmark , German forces attacked and sacked Denmark, bringing with them artisans and merchants under the new administration which controlled the Hansa regions. [59] During the third quarter of the 14th century the Hanseatic trade faced two major difficulties: economic conflict with the Flanders and hostilities with Denmark. [3] These events led to the formation of an organized association of Hanseatic towns, which replaced the earlier union of German merchants. [3] This new Hansa of the towns, aimed at protecting interests of the merchants and trade, was prominent for the next hundred and fifty years. [3]

                Philippe Dollinger associates the downfall of the Hansa to a new alliance between Lübeck , Hamburg and Bremen , which outshadowed the older institution. [60] He further sets the date of dissolution of the Hansa at 1630 [60] and concludes that the Hansa was almost entirely forgotten by the end of the 18th century. [61] Scholar Georg Friedrich Sartorius published the first monograph regarding the community in the early years of the 19th century. [61]

                From the Varangians to the Greek[ edit ]

                Main article: Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks

                The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks ( Russian : Путь “из варяг в греки”, Put’ iz varyag v greki, Swedish : Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Greek : Εμπορική Οδός Βαράγγων – Ελλήνων, Emporikḗ Odós Varángōn-Ellḗnōn) was a trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus’ and the Byzantine Empire. The route allowed traders along the route to establish a direct prosperous trade with Byzantium, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of present-day Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

                The route began in Scandinavian trading centres such as Birka, Hedeby, and Gotland, crossed the Baltic Sea entered the Gulf of Finland, followed the Neva River into the Lake Ladoga. Then it followed the Volkhov River, upstream past the towns of Staraya Ladoga and Velikiy Novgorod, crossed Lake Ilmen, and up the Lovat River. From there, ships had to be portaged to the Dnieper River near Gnezdovo. A second route from the Baltic to the Dnieper was along the Western Dvina (Daugava) between the Lovat and the Dnieper in the Smolensk region, and along the Kasplya River to Gnezdovo. Along the Dnieper, the route crossed several major rapids and passed through Kiev, and after entering the Black Sea followed its west coast to Constantinople.

                Maritime republics’ Mediterranean trade[ edit ]

                Further information: Maritime Republics

                Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean

                The economic growth of Europe around the year 1000, together with the lack of safety on the mainland trading routes, eased the development of major commercial routes along the coast of the Mediterranean . The growing independence of some coastal cities gave them a leading role in this commerce: Maritime Republics (Italian “Repubbliche Marinare”) of Venice , Genoa , Amalfi , Pisa and Republic of Ragusa developed their own “empires” in the Mediterranean shores.
                From the 8th until the 15th century, they held the monopoly of European trade with the Middle East. The silk and spice trade , involving spices , incense , herbs , drugs and opium , made these Mediterranean city-states phenomenally rich. Spices were among the most expensive and demanded products of the Middle Ages. They were all imported from Asia and Africa. Muslim traders – mainly descendants of Arab sailors from Yemen and Oman – dominated maritime routes throughout the Indian Ocean, tapping source regions in the Far East and shipping for trading emporiums in India, westward to Ormus in Persian Gulf and Jeddah in the Red Sea . From there, overland routes led to the Mediterranean coasts. Venetian merchants distributed then the goods through Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Empire , that eventually led to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, barring Europeans from important combined-land-sea routes.

                Spice Route[ edit ]

                Main article: Spice trade

                Portuguese India Armadas and trade routes (blue) since Vasco da Gama ‘s 1498 journey and the Spanish Manila-Acapulco galleons trade routes (white) established in 1568

                As trade between India and the Greco-Roman world increased [62] spices became the main import from India to the Western world, [63] bypassing silk and other commodities. [64] The Indian commercial connection with South East Asia proved vital to the merchants of Arabia and Persia during the 7th and 8th centuries. [65]

                The Abbasids used Alexandria, Damietta , Aden and Siraf as entry ports to India and China. [66] Merchants arriving from India in the port city of Aden paid tribute in form of musk , camphor , ambergris and sandalwood to Ibn Ziyad , the sultan of Yemen. [66] Moluccan products shipped across the ports of Arabia to the Near East passed through the ports of India and Sri Lanka . [67] Indian exports of spices find mention in the works of Ibn Khurdadhbeh (850 CE), al-Ghafiqi (1150), Ishak bin Imaran (907) and Al Kalkashandi (14th century). [67] After reaching either the Indian or the Sri Lankan ports, spices were sometimes shipped to East Africa, where they were used for many purposes, including burial rites. [67]

                On the orders of Manuel I of Portugal , four vessels under the command of navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope , continuing to the eastern coast of Africa to Malindi to sail across the Indian Ocean to Calicut . [68] The wealth of the Indies was now open for the Europeans to explore; the Portuguese Empire was one of the early European empires to grow from spice trade. [68]

                Modern routes[ edit ]

                The modern times saw development of newer means of transport and often controversial free trade agreements, which altered the political and logistical approach prevalent during the Middle Ages. Newer means of transport led to the establishment of new routes, and countries opened up borders to allow trade in mutually agreed goods as per the prevailing free trade agreement. Some old trading route were reopened during the modern times, although in different political and logistical scenarios. [69] The entry of harmful foreign pollutants by the way of trade routes has been a cause of alarm during the modern times. [70] A conservative estimate stresses that future damages from harmful animal and plant diseases may be as high as 134 billion US dollars in the absence of effective measures to prevent the introduction of unwanted pests through various trade routes. [70]

                Wagonway routes[ edit ]

                Main article: Wagonway

                Networks, like the Santa Fe Trail and the Oregon Trail , became prominent in the United States with wagon trains gaining popularity as a mode of long distance overland transportation for both people and goods. [71] The Oregon – California routes were highly organized with planned rendezvous locations and essential supplies. [71] The settlers in the United States used these wagon trains – sometimes made up of 100 of more Conestoga wagons – for westward emigration during the 18th and the 19th centuries. [71] Among the challenges faced by the wagon route operators were crossing rivers, mountains and hostile Native Americans . [71] Preparations were also made according to the weather and protection of trade and travelers was ensured by a few guards on horseback. [71]
                Wagon freighting was also essential to American growth until it was replaced by the railroad and the truck . [71]

                Railway routes[ edit ]

                Main article: Railway

                Route of the first American transcontinental railroad from Sacramento, California, to Council Bluffs, Iowa.

                The 1844 Railway act of England compelled at least one train to a station every day with the third class fares priced at a penny a mile. [72] Trade benefited as the workers and the lower classes had the ability to travel to other towns frequently. [73] Suburban communities began to develop and towns began to spread outwards. [73] The British constructed a vast railway network in India, but it was considered to serve a strategic purpose in addition to the commercial purpose. [74] The efficient use of rail routes helped in the unification of the United States of America . [75]

                The modern times saw nations struggle for the control of rail routes: The Trans-Siberian Railway was intended to be used by the Russian government for control of Manchuria and later China; the German forces wanted to establish Berlin-Baghdad Railway in order to influence the Near East; and the Austrian government planned a route from Vienna to Salonika for control of the Balkans . [75]
                According to the Encyclopædia Britannica (2002):

                Railroads reached their maturity in the early 20th century, as trains carried the bulk of land freight and passenger traffic in the industrialized countries of the world. By the mid-20th century, however, they had lost their preeminent position. The private automobile had replaced the railroad for short passenger trips, while the airplane had usurped it for long-distance travel, especially in the United States. Railroads remained effective, however, for transporting people in high-volume situations, such as commuting between the centres of large cities and their suburbs, and medium-distance travel of less than about 300 miles between urban centres.

                Although railroads have lost much of the general-freight-carrying business to semi-trailer trucks, they remain the best means of transporting large volumes of such bulk commodities as coal, grain, chemicals, and ore over long distances. The development of containerization has made the railroads more effective in handling finished merchandise at relatively high speeds. In addition, the introduction of piggyback flatcars, in which truck trailers are transported long distances on specially-designed cars, has allowed railroads to regain some of the business lost to trucking.

                Modern road networks[ edit ]

                Main article: Road

                High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California .

                The advent motor vehicles created a demand for better use of highways. [76] Roads evolved into two way roads, expressways , freeways and tollways during the modern times. [77] Existing roads were developed and highways were designed according to intended use. [76]

                Trucks came into widespread use in the Western World during World War I, and quickly gained reputation as a means of long distance transportation of goods. [78] Modern highways, such as the Trans-Canada Highway , Highway 1 (Australia) and Pan-American Highway allowed transport of goods and services across great distances. Automobiles continue to play a crucial role in the economies of the Industrialized countries, resulting in rise of businesses such as motor freight operation and truck transportation. [76]

                The emission rate for cars using highways has been on a decline between 1975 and 1995 due to regulations and the introduction of unleaded petrol . [79] This trend is especially notable since there has been a growth in vehicles and vehicle miles traveled by automobiles using these highways. [79]

                Modern maritime routes[ edit ]

                Further information: Ship transport and Shipping lane

                Canals in the US circa 1825.

                A consistent shift from land based trade to sea-based trade has been recorded since the last three millennia. [80] The strategic advantages of port cities as trading centers are many: they are both less dependent on vital connections and less vulnerable to blockages. [81] Oceanic ports can help forge trading relationships with other parts of the world easily. [81]

                Modern maritime trade routes – sometimes in the form of artificial canals like the Suez Canal – had visible impact on the economic and political standing of nations. [82] The opening of the Suez Canal altered British interactions with the colonies of the British Empire as the dynamics of transportation, trade and communication had now changed drastically. [82] Other waterways , like the Panama Canal played an important role in the histories of many nations. [83] Inland water transportation remained significantly important even as the advent of railroads and automobiles resulted in a steady decline of canals. [84] Inland water transport is still used for the transportation of bulk commodities e.g. grains, coal, and ore. [85]

                Waterway commerce was historically important to Europe, particularly to Russia. [84] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica (2002): “Russia has been a significant beneficiary. Not only have inland waterways opened vast areas of its interior to development, but Moscow-linked to the White , Baltic , Black , Caspian , and Azov seas by canals and rivers-has become a major inland port.” [84]

                Oil spills are recorded both in case of maritime routes and pipeline routes to the main refineries. [86] Oil spills, amounting to as much as 7.56 billion liters of oil entering the oceans every year, occur due to damaged equipment or human error. [86]

                Free trade areas[ edit ]

                Main article: Free trade area

                  European Free Trade Association member states.
                  Former member states, now European Union member states.

                Historically, many governments followed a policy of protection of trade. [4] International free trade became visible in 1860 with the Anglo-French commercial treaty, and the trend gained further momentum[ why? ] during the period after World War II. [4]
                According to The Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition: [4]

                “After World War II, strong sentiment developed throughout the world against protection and high tariffs and in favor of freer trade. The results were new organizations and agreements on international trade such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1948), the Benelux Economic Union (1948), the European Economic Community (Common Market, 1957), the European Free Trade Association (1959), Mercosur (the Southern Cone Common Market, 1991), and the World Trade Organization (1995). In 1993, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was approved by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In the early 1990s, the nations of the European Union (the successor organization to the Common Market ) undertook to remove all barriers to the free movement of trade and employment across their mutual borders.”

                In May 2004 the United States of America signed the American Free trade Agreement with five Central American nations. [4]

                Air routes[ edit ]

                Main article: Aviation

                FedEx DC-10 .

                Air transport has become an indispensable part of modern society. [87] People have come to use air transport both for long and middle distances, with the average route length of long distances being 720 kilometers in Europe and 1220 kilometers in the US. [88] This industry annually carries 1.6 billion passengers worldwide, covers a 15 million kilometer network, and has an annual turnover of 260 billion dollars. [88]

                This mode of transportation links national, international and global economies, making it vital to many other industries. [88] Newer trends of liberalization of trade have fostered routes among nations bound by agreements. [88] One such example, the American Open Skies policy , led to greater openness in many international markets, but some international restrictions have survived even during the present times. [88]

                Express delivery through international cargo airlines touched US $20 billion in 1998 and, according to the World Trade Organization, is expected to triple in 2015. [89] In 1998, 50 pure cargo-service companies operated internationally. [89]

                Air transport particularly favors light, expensive and small products: electronic media rather than books, for example, and refined drugs rather than bulk food.

                Pipeline networks[ edit ]

                Main article: Pipeline transport

                Route of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.

                The economic importance of pipeline transport – responsible for a high percentage of oil and natural gas transportation – is often undermined by the general public due to the lack of visibility of this mode. [90] Generally held to be safer and more economical and reliable than the other modes of transport, this mode has many advantages over rival modes, such as trucks and railways. [90] Examples of modern pipeline transport include Alashankou-Dushanzi Crude Oil Pipeline and Iran-Armenia Natural Gas Pipeline . International pipeline transport projects, like the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline , presently connect modern nation states – in this case, Azerbaijan , Georgia and Turkey – through pipeline networks. [91]

                In some select cases, pipelines can even transport solids, such as coal and other minerals, over long distances; short distance transportation of goods such as grain, cement, concrete, solid wastes, pulp etc. is also feasible. [90]

                Notes[ edit ]

                1. ^ a b c d e Burns 2003: 213.
                2. ^ Donkin 2003: 169.
                3. ^ a b c d Dollinger 1999: 62.
                4. ^ a b c d e “free trade; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05” . Archived from the original on 2007-08-03. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
                5. ^ a b Denemark 2000: 274
                6. ^ a b Denemark 2000: 207
                7. ^ a b Denemark 2000: 208
                8. ^ Stearns 2001: 41.
                9. ^ Denemark 2000: 213.
                10. ^ Denemark 2000: 39.
                11. ^ a b c d Denemark 2000: 107.
                12. ^ Rawlinson 2001: 11–12.
                13. ^ Toutain 1979: 243.
                14. ^ Scarre 1995.
                15. ^ a b Stearns 2001: 37.
                16. ^ a b Roman road system (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002).
                17. ^ Denemark 2000: 124.
                18. ^ Denemark 2000: 126
                19. ^ Denemark 2000: 273.
                20. ^ “Traders of the Gold and Incense Road” . Message of the Republic of Yemen, Berlin. Archived from the original on 8 September 2007. 
                21. ^ “Incense Route – Desert Cities in the Negev” . UNESCO. 
                22. ^ Glasse 2001: 59.
                23. ^ Kitchen 1994: 46.
                24. ^ Edwards 1969: 329.
                25. ^ Larsen 1983: 56.
                26. ^ a b Eckenstein 2005: 49.
                27. ^ a b Lach 1994: 13.
                28. ^ Kearney 2003: 42.
                29. ^ Denemark 2000: 252.
                30. ^ a b c d Denemark 2000: 239.
                31. ^ a b c d Denemark 2000: 241
                32. ^ a b c Elisseeff 2000: 326.
                33. ^ Elisseeff 2000: 5.
                34. ^ a b Elisseeff 2000: 14
                35. ^ a b c Elisseeff 2000: 158.
                36. ^ a b c Elisseeff 2000: 161.
                37. ^ a b c Elisseeff 2000: 163
                38. ^ Elisseeff 2000: 178.
                39. ^ Burns 2003: 216.
                40. ^ a b Burns 2003: 211.
                41. ^ Burns 2003: 229.
                42. ^ Burns 2003: 231.
                43. ^ Orlinsky 1981: 1064.
                44. ^ a b c d Orlinsky 1981: 1065
                45. ^ Silver 1983: 49.
                46. ^ “Art of Being Tuareg: Sahara Nomads in a modern world” . Smithsonian National Museum of African art. 
                47. ^ a b c d e f g western Africa, history of (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002)
                48. ^ Shaw 2003: 426.
                49. ^ Young 2001: 20.
                50. ^ .html “The Geography of Strabo Check |url= value ( help ). Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917. 
                51. ^ a b Halsall, Paul. “Ancient History Sourcebook: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century” . Fordham University. 
                52. ^ a b Lindsay 2006: 101
                53. ^ Freeman 2003: 72
                54. ^ Lach 1994: 18.
                55. ^ Curtin 1984: 100.
                56. ^ Holl 2003: 9.
                57. ^ Dollinger 1999: 9.
                58. ^ Dollinger 1999: 42.
                59. ^ Dollinger 1999: page 54
                60. ^ a b Dollinger 1999: page xix
                61. ^ a b Dollinger 1999: xx.
                62. ^ At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia , and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India, whereas formerly, under the Ptolemies, only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise. – Strabo (II.5.12.); Source .
                63. ^ Ball 2000: 131
                64. ^ Ball 2000: 137.
                65. ^ Donkin 2003: 59.
                66. ^ a b Donkin 2003: 91–92.
                67. ^ a b c Donkin 2003: 92
                68. ^ a b Gama, Vasco da Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine .. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press.
                69. ^ Historic India–China link opens (BBC)
                70. ^ a b Schulze & Ursprung 2003: 104
                71. ^ a b c d e f wagon train (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002)
                72. ^ Seaman 1973: 29–30.
                73. ^ a b Seaman 1973: 30.
                74. ^ Seaman 1973: 348
                75. ^ a b Seaman 1973: 379.
                76. ^ a b c automotive industry (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002)
                77. ^ roads and highways (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002).
                78. ^ truck (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002).
                79. ^ a b Schwela & Zali 2003: 156
                80. ^ Denemark 2000: 282
                81. ^ a b Denemark 2000: 283.
                82. ^ a b Carter 2004.
                83. ^ Major 1993.
                84. ^ a b c canal (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002).
                85. ^ canals and inland waterways (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002).
                86. ^ a b Krech et al. 2003: 966
                87. ^ Button 2004
                88. ^ a b c d e Button 2004: 9
                89. ^ a b Hindley 2004: 41.
                90. ^ a b c pipeline (Encyclopædia Britannica 2002)
                91. ^ BP Caspian: Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline (Overview) .

                References[ edit ]

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                • Rawlinson, Hugh George (2001). Intercourse Between India and the Western World: From the Earliest Times of the Fall of Rome. Asian Educational Services. ISBN   81-206-1549-2 . 
                • Denemark, Robert Allen; el al. (2000). World System History: The Social Science of Long-Term Change. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-23276-7 . 
                • Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). China’s Ancient Tea Horse Road. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN   B005DQV7Q2
                • Glasse, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. ISBN   0-7591-0190-6 . 
                • Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (1994). Documentation for Ancient Arabia. Liverpool University Press. ISBN   0-85323-359-4 . 
                • Edwards, I. E. S. ; Boardman, John ; Bury, John B. ; Cook, S.A. (1969). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-22717-8 . 
                • Larsen, Curtis E. (1983). Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarcheology of an Ancient Society. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   0-226-46906-9 . 
                • Eckenstein, Lina (2005). A History of Sinai. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN   0-543-95215-0 . 
                • Lach, Donald Frederick (1994). Asia in the Making of Europe: The Century of Discovery. Book 1. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   0-226-46731-7 . 
                • Shaw, Ian (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-280458-8 . 
                • Elisseeff, Vadime (2000). The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. Berghahn Books. ISBN   1-57181-221-0 . 
                • Orlinsky, Harry Meyer (1981). Israel Exploration Journal Reader. KTAV Publishing House Inc. ISBN   0-87068-267-9 . 
                • Silver, Morris (1983). Prophets and Markets: The Political Economy of Ancient Israel. Springer. ISBN   0-89838-112-6 . 
                • Ball, Warwick (2000). Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-11376-8 . 
                • Donkin, Robin A. (2003). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans. Diane Publishing Company. ISBN   0-87169-248-1 . 
                • Burns, Thomas Samuel (2003). Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.–A.D. 400. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN   0-8018-7306-1 . 
                • Seaman, Lewis Charles Bernard (1973). Victorian England: Aspects of English and Imperial History 1837-1901. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-04576-2 . 
                • Hindley, Brian (2004). Trade Liberalization in Aviation Services: Can the Doha Round Free Flight?. American Enterprise Institute. ISBN   0-8447-7171-6 . 
                • Dollinger, Philippe (1999). The German Hansa. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-19072-X . 
                • “western Africa, history of”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • Freeman, Donald B. (2003). The Straits of Malacca: Gateway Or Gauntlet?. McGill-Queen’s Press. ISBN   0-7735-2515-7 . 
                • Lindsay, W S (2006). History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN   0-543-94253-8 . 
                • Holl, Augustin F. C. (2003). Ethnoarchaeology of Shuwa-Arab Settlements. Lexington Books. ISBN   0-7391-0407-1 . 
                • Curtin, Philip DeArmond; el al. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-26931-8 . 
                • Young, Gary Keith (2001). Rome’s Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC–AD 305. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-24219-3 . 
                • Scarre, Chris (1995). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. Penguin Books. ISBN   0-14-051329-9 . 
                • Toutain, Jules (1979). The Economic Life of the Ancient World. Ayer Publishing. ISBN   0-405-11578-4 . 
                • Carter, Mia; Harlow, Barbara (2004). Archives of Empire: From the East India Company to the Suez Canal. Duke University Press. ISBN   0-8223-3189-6 . 
                • Major, John (1993). Prize Possession: The United States and the Panama Canal, 1903–1979. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-52126-2 . 
                • “Roman road system”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “wagon train”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “canal”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “roads and highways”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “automotive industry”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “truck”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “canals and inland waterways”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • “pipeline”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. 
                • Button, Kenneth John (2004). Wings Across Europe: Towards An Efficient European Air Transport System. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN   0-7546-4321-2 . 
                • G. Schulze, Gunther; Ursprung, Heinrich W., eds. (2003). International Environmental Economics: A Survey of the Issues. US: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-926111-3 . 
                • Krech, Shepard; Merchant, Carolyn; McNeill, John Robert, eds. (2003). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. US: Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-93735-1 . 
                • Schwela, Dietrich; Zali, Olivier (1998). Urban Traffic Pollution. Taylor & Francis, Inc. ISBN   978-0-419-23720-4 . 
                • Kearney, Milo (2003). The Indian Ocean in World History. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-31277-9 . 

                External links[ edit ]

                • Trade Routes: The Growth of Global Trade. ArchAtlas, Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford.
                • Ancient Trade Routes between Europe and Asia. Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
                Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trade route .
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                Part of a series on trade routes
                • Amber Road
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                    noram123

                    World History – Trade Routes

                    STUDY

                    PLAY

                    Silk Road – Where they travelled
                    Wound across arid interior of central Asia

                    Profits from the trade made cities along the caravan route wealthiest and most sophisticated in the world

                    Silk Road – goods and ideas (types of item)
                    Luxury items – silk, cloth, gold, precious stones

                    Paper money used to trade

                    called "silk" road because of amount of silk that flowed westward across it from China

                    Silk Road – major chronologies – COT
                    Volume of products began to be too large for caravans to handle

                    Maritime travel increased in popularity

                    Silk Road – Major belief system spread
                    – Buddhism spread along the silk road from India to China
                    – Invasion of Arabs of the West and collapse of Tang Dynasty led to rise of Islam
                    – Islam spread along silk road
                    Silk Road – Ways people traveled
                    "Pax Mongolica" allowed peaceful trade along the trade route

                    Traveled by cart (horses, oxen)

                    camel-wagon
                    ox-wagon
                    horse-wagon
                    donkeys
                    horseback

                    Silk Road – using environmental knowledge and technology to flourish
                    can travel by land or water, but water is more dangerous for merchandise

                    the existence of substantial oases across Central Asia allowed this to be possible

                    The Silk Roads helped spread technology for producing raw silk from China across Eurasia.

                    Indian Ocean – Where they travelled
                    – Across the Indian Ocean
                    – India, Africa, Asia, China, Spice Islands
                    – Natural division of maritime traffic into three zones: one on South Pacific, one in Western Indian Ocean, one in Eastern Indian Ocean
                    Indian Ocean – goods and ideas (types of item)
                    Luxuries and Bulk items because ships could carry more than carts
                    China: silk, tea, porcelain
                    East Africa: gold
                    Arabia: perfume, myhrr
                    India: precious stone, spices, cotton
                    Southeast Asia: cloves, nutmeg, rice
                    Crops: bananas, sugar cane, yams, coconuts, wheat
                    Indian Ocean – Major belief system spread
                    spread of Islam via Muslim Diaspora
                    Indian Ocean – Ways people traveled
                    junks
                    dhows (triangular lateen sails)
                    via monsoon winds
                    Indian Ocean – using environmental knowledge and technology to flourish
                    Monsoon winds
                    Lateen sail
                    Compass
                    Mediterranean – Where they travelled
                    Phoenician merchants
                    Around the Mediterranean Sea
                    Mediterranean – goods and ideas (types of item)
                    Specialization of products was the basis for trade.
                    food, raw materials, and luxuries

                    Greece: olive oil, wine
                    Lebanon: cedar wood, timber
                    Egypt: gold, silver, linens/textiles, leather, dried food, slaves
                    Russia: slaves
                    Other: grain, fish, honey, wax, amber

                    Mediterranean played a huge part in the outbreak and spread of the plague across Europe. It was spread by Italian merchants who fled infested sea ports on the Black Sea.

                    Mediterranean – major chronologies – COT
                    – in 643 Muslim Arabs captured Alexandria, most important port in eastern Mediterranean
                    – following this three things occur:
                    1. Mediterranean becomes war zone between Christians of Southern Europe and Muslims of Eastern Africa

                    2. trade continued, but more weakly, with fate of Europe’s economy and warfare on the Mediterranean

                    3. European Merchants felt blocked from the Indian Ocean world, which was controlled by the Muslims who they were often unable to do trade with

                    – Some merchants began seeking alternate routes to the Indian Ocean

                    Mediterranean – Major belief system spread
                    – Southern and Southeastern Mediterranean a "Muslim Lake"
                    – Northeast, however, was still Greek Orthodox
                    – Northwest = Roman Catholic
                    – in 643 Muslim Arabs captured Alexandria, most important port in eastern Mediterranean
                    Mediterranean – Ways people traveled
                    Ships
                    Mediterranean – using environmental knowledge and technology to flourish
                    ship-building technology

                    Phoenician bireme – 80-foot long battleship
                    with two levels of rowers

                    Trans-Saharan – Where they travelled
                    Travelled across the Sahara Desert (in West Africa)

                    Three major empires arose near Timbuktu where sahel met sahara: Ghana, Mali, Songhay (kept trade routes open and secure – amassed profit from control)

                    Trans-Saharan – goods and ideas (types of item)
                    North: gold, slaves, cloth, ivory, ebony, pepper, kola nuts

                    South: salt, dates, horses, brass, copper, glassware, beads, leather, textiles, food

                    Mostly luxuries since had to use caravans, and could not carry bulk goods

                    GOLD – central attraction

                    Trans-Saharan – Major belief system spread
                    Although the Ghanaian king and court did not convert to Islam, they made elaborate arrangements to accommodate Muslim traders and government servants in a separate settlement a few miles from Khumbi’s royal preserve. Muslim traders were prominent at court, literate Muslims administered the government, and Muslim legists advised the ruler.

                    After Ghana, in which Islam was just beginning to pop up, African rulers began to adopt Islam while ruling over populations with diverse faiths and cultures.

                    Many of these rulers blended Islam with traditional and local practices. Over time, the population began to adopt Islam.

                    Arabs became more involved in trade & supported people converting to the Islam faith

                    Mansa Musa (r. 1312-1337): Islamic icon, Golden Age King

                    Trans-Saharan – Ways people traveled
                    camel caravans – stopped at oases for nourishment
                    Trans-Saharan – using environmental knowledge and technology to flourish
                    Domestication of camels allowed for long-distance trade

                    Oases opened up trade across desert

                    Arab Diaspora
                    – Dominated Indian Ocean Trade networks
                    – carried religion along with goods
                    – Islam encouraged trade (hajj created connections)
                    – Lateen sails
                    – Islam became primary religion in Indonesia, and attracted 10s of millions of Chinese followers
                    Jewish Diaspora
                    – religious diaspora that linked Europe and China
                    – Cairo, Egypt was a large trade community that housed significant Jewish population
                    – When Portugese explorer Vasco Da Gama reached Calicut in 1498, Jew able to serve as translator
                    Mongols – where they were from
                    Area around the silk road
                    Mongols – Chinggis Khan
                    – Mission was to unify Mongols once again
                    – conquered surrounding tribes and united
                    – infamous for brutality
                    – "women are spoils of warfare"
                    – established Mongol dynasty
                    – after his death, Khan’s 4 sons continued the expansion relentlessly
                    Growth of Mongol Empire
                    – Chinggis Khan united tribes / areas through brutality and warfare
                    – "Pax Mongloica" allowed peace along silk road
                    End of Mongol Empire
                    – Mongols could not govern the entire empire by horseback
                    – split into 4 sub-empires, and eventually 4 seperate empires
                    – absorbed by the people they had conquered
                    – Tartars emerged from intermarriage
                    Malay Sailors
                    – Sailors in South China Sea / Indian Ocean
                    – junks
                    – learned pattern of monsoon winds to sail with
                    – made regular 3000-mile trips across Indian Ocean
                    – established as primary Madagascar population
                    – Established trade routes from East Africa to China
                    China – International Trade (Indian Ocean)
                    – with the Indian Ocean
                    – by 1500 most economically advanced region in the world
                    – Zheng He- Muslim explorer who led 7 expeditions of trade
                    – terminated by Ming Dynasty for several reasons: wanted more defendable borders against Mongols and other groups, coastal trade enabled by Grand Canal,
                    China – Internal Trade
                    – politically unified nation
                    – technologically advanced nation
                    – wealth based on agriculture technology and conditions
                    – excellent textile making
                    – trade monetized (copper, and eventually paper)
                    – luxury goods (silk, tea, china) continued to attract foreign merchants
                    – state practice for foreign merchants: quarters set aside, apply own laws to issues, shops/schools cater to foreign interests, farewell feasts
                    Spread of Disease
                    "Pax Mongolica" allowed disease to spread along Silk Road (bubonic plague)
                    followed Mongols from central Asia to China (kills 1/2 population
                    plague-infested rats traveled to Europe on ships, killing 1/3 of population

                    idc research logo

                    International Data Corporation

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                    Not to be confused with Interactive Data Corporation .
                    This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2015) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
                    IDC (International Data Corporation)
                    IDC Corporate Logo.png
                    Type
                    Subsidiary of IDG
                    Industry Market research
                    Founded1964; 54 years ago (1964)
                    Headquarters Framingham, Massachusetts , USA
                    Key people
                    Kirk Campbell (President and CEO)
                    Products Market intelligence , advisory services, events
                    Number of employees
                    1001-5000 employees
                    Parent China Oceanwide
                    Website idc.com

                    International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets. Founded in 1964, IDC is a wholly owned subsidiary of International Data Group (IDG), a media, data and marketing services company.

                    History[ edit ]

                    IDC was founded by Patrick Joseph McGovern in Massachusetts, in 1964. At the outset, the company produced a computer installation data base (based on a customer list purloined from IBM), and published a newsletter, “EDP Industry and Market Report” (modeled on “ADP Newsletter”, which was published by The Diebold Group). Companies such as RCA , Univac , Xerox , and Burroughs paid IDC for use of the data base. During this time, Mcgovern continued to work as a writer for “Computers and Automation” magazine, the first computer magazine, published by Edmund Berkeley .

                    McGovern frequently described his having sold his old car for $5,000, to fund the startup of IDC, which is a lie. At the time, $5,000 was the purchase price of a new Cadillac.

                    Contrary to a published report in 1999, that the company had grossed $600,000 by its third year, it did in fact, have an income of $154,996. with a modest net profit of $2,961. [1] McGovern was considering liquidating the company when he hit on the idea of launching Computerworld in 1967, which was a continuation of the monthly newsletter, published weekly instead of monthly, in a different format, with advertising, which became a cornerstone of IDG’s subsequent publishing arm. [1]

                    Subsequently, failing to wrest control of “Computers and Automation” magazine from his friend and mentor, Ed Berkeley, he left Berkeley and founded “PC World”.[ citation needed ]

                    In 2017, IDC and IDG were acquired by China Oceanwide . [2] . IDC does not disclose this ownership structure on www.idc.com.

                    References[ edit ]

                    1. ^ a b “International Data Group, Inc. History” . Funding Universe. Funding Universe. 1999. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
                    2. ^ Oceanwide, China. “China Oceanwide Completes Acquisition of IDG” . www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2017-07-10. 
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                        Top 7 of the most expensive schools in Eastern Cape for 2017

                        By Afikile Lugunya – Apr 23, 2017

                        Top 7 of the most expensive schools in Eastern Cape for 2017

                        The relaxed former frontier town of Grahamstown is not exactly a place where one would expect to find some of the most expensive schools in South Africa. The three most expensive schools in the Eastern Cape are actually found in the town.

                        Below is a compilation of some of the seven most expensive schools in Eastern Cape for 2017 using fees sourced from the schools’ websites:

                        1. St Andrews College, Grahamstown

                        St Andrew’s College is the 3rd most expensive school in South Africa in 2017 and the most expensive school in the Eastern Cape.

                        Founded in 1855 by John Armstrong, the first Bishop of Grahamstown, this independent school now caters for 450 boys from around the world.

                        Students at St Andrews can enrol as boarding or day scholars.

                        The boys from St Andrew’s share classes with girls from Diocesan School for Girls (DSG), the college’s sister school.

                        In 2017, school fees at the college increased by 8.5% to R235 335 – was R199 140 in 2016.

                        1. Kingswood College, Grahamstown

                        Also based in Grahamstown, Kingswood College is the second most expensive school in Eastern Cape in 2017 – or the 13th most expensive school in South Africa.

                        It was founded in 1894 by Daniel Knight, who later became Mayor of Grahamstown between 1901-1903.

                        Kingswood College is a private, Methodist co-educational school that is attended by boarding and day scholars.

                        Parents parted with R203 400 in 2017 (a 9.3% increase from last year’s R186 090) so that their kids can be equipped for the future at the prestigious school.

                        1. Diocesan School for Girls (DSG), Grahamstown

                        Diocesan School for Girls is the 3rd most expensive school in Eastern Cape – and the 14th most expensive school in South Africa.

                        Based in Grahamstown, its campus adjoins its brother school, St Andrew’s College.

                        Founded in 1874 by Bishop Nathaniel Merriman, DSG is one of the oldest girls’ schools in the country.

                        The DSG also has close links with St Andrew’s Preparatory School where the girls attend classes with the boys in the Pre- Primary School and Junior Primary.

                        In 2017, school fees at the school increased by 8.5% to R203 190 from last year’s R187 260.

                                  4. Woodridge College and Preparation School, Thornhill

                        Located approximately 40km from Port Elizabeth and Jeffrey’s Bay, in the small town of Thornhill, Woodridge College is the fourth most expensive school in the Eastern Cape.

                        Woodridge is Christian school that implements a holistic approach to education and aims to develop the body, mind and spirit to enable each pupil to reach his or her potential.

                        The school was established in January 1936 by the Carter family – all of whose descendants have attended the school.

                        Originally the school was only a preparatory school, and the college was started during the 1960s.

                        Currently, there are over 700 students from within and beyond our borders.

                        School fees for 2017 at Woodridge College per annum is R93 608 if paid in full or R127 080 if paid in instalments.

                         5. Theodor Herzl Schools, Port Elizabeth

                        Theodor Herzl is an independent, co-educational, English medium school in Port Elizabeth that caters for pre-primary, primary and high school.

                        The school was named after Zionist author, Theodor Herzl, when it was founded by members of Port Elizabeth Jewish community on 21 January 1959.

                        In 1962, Theodor Herzl moved to its sprawling current site in Walmer. It has continued to thrive for more than half a century and is today one of South Africa’s top independent co-educational schools, with a significant academic record. Although its community has become largely multi-cultural, it retains its Jewish heritage and flavour.

                        The annual school fees are R86 892.

                        6. Merrifield Preparatory School College, East London

                        Merrifield Preparatory School was founded in 1997 under the guidance of Dave Bawden. Only 52 pupils started in this school when it launched.

                        The school adopted its name from Eric Merrifield, an engineer at the east London Harbour, who made the dolos world famous.  

                        The school’s annual fees are R80 816 per annum.

                        7. Selborne College, East London

                        Based in East London, Selborne College is a public boys school that was founded in 1872 by Pastor Heinrich Muller, a German settler. Then it was known as the Panmure Public School.

                        The school caters for day scholars and boarders in Grades 7- 12.

                        School fees for 2017 is R69 680 per annum.

                        How these schools compare with South Africa’s most expensive schools

                        The most expensive school in South Africa is Hilton College, which is based in Howick. Parents paid R253 660 in 2017 for their kids to study there.

                        Roedean School for Girls, in Parktown, is the second most expensive school in South Africa at R236 795, which makes St Andrews College Grahamstown the third most expensive school in South Africa in 2017.

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                        Merrifield Preparatory School and College Logo

                        Merrifield Preparatory School and College Logo

                        Admissions

                        Admissions mboon 2016-10-12T09:16:33+00:00

                        admissions

                        Places at Merrifield Preparatory School and College are highly sought after and there are waiting lists for most grades.

                        It is advisable to apply early as space is limited due to the deliberately small class numbers.

                        There is also a written assessment for children in Grade 4 and above, as well as an assessment in Grade 1 to 3.

                        Open days are an opportunity for parents to browse. These take place in May and are advertised ahead of time.

                        Application forms and school fee information is available on this website.