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Teen stabs, slashes Bronx student during fight over girl outside high school

By Chelsia Rose Marcius , Kerry Burke , Rocco Parascandola  and Graham Rayman

Sep 20, 2017 | 1:45 AM

Teen stabs, slashes Bronx student during fight over girl outside high school
Alpha Doumbia alledgedly stabbed and slashed a fellow student at Metropolitan High School. (Obtained by Daily News)

The fight that left a 10th-grader stabbed in the chest outside his Bronx high school was over a girl, sources said Tuesday.

The bloody attack happened outside Metropolitan High School on Rev. James A. Polite Ave. by Home St. in Foxhurst just before 2:40 p.m. Monday, police said. The 17-year-old victim confronted Alpha Doumbia, also 17, about a girlfriend they had in common, according to sources.


Doumbia confessed to cops that he knifed the teen with a blade that he claimed to have found on the street. The victim was stabbed twice in the ribs and slashed across his chest and his right hand.

The bloody attack happened outside Metropolitan High School on Rev. James A. Polite Ave. by Home St. in Foxhurst just before 2:40 p.m. Monday, police sources said.
The bloody attack happened outside Metropolitan High School on Rev. James A. Polite Ave. by Home St. in Foxhurst just before 2:40 p.m. Monday, police sources said. (Anthony DelMundo/New York Daily News)

Medics took the sophomore to Lincoln Medical Center in critical condition. He was rushed into surgery with air and blood leaking into the space between one lung and his chest wall, but his condition later stabilized, officials said.

Authorities charged Doumbia with assault. He was ordered held on $10,000 bond or $5,000 cash bail. His lawyer and family maintain he was acting in self defense, and that he also suffered injuries.

With John Annese


initial d 2nd stage episode 13 english dub

List of Initial D episodes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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This is a list of episodes for the anime series Initial D .


  • 1 Initial D: First Stage (1998)
  • 2 Initial D: Second Stage (1999–2000)
  • 3 Initial D: Extra Stage (2000)
  • 4 Initial D: Third Stage – The Movie (2001)
  • 5 Initial D: Battle Stage (2002)
  • 6 Initial D: Fourth Stage (2004–2006)
  • 7 Initial D: Battle Stage 2 (2007)
  • 8 Initial D: Extra Stage 2 (2008)
  • 9 Initial D: Fifth Stage (2012–2013)
  • 10 Initial D: Final Stage (2014)
  • 11 Home release
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References

Initial D: First Stage (1998)[ edit ]

Episodes in First Stage are numbered as Acts, such as “ACT.1 The Ultimate Tofu Store Drift”.

No. in seriesNo. in seasonEnglish Dub title
Japanese titles (translated)
Original airdate
11“The Ultimate Tofu Store Drift
“The Ultimate Tofu Store Drift!”
Takumi Fujiwara is an eighteen-year-old high school student who usually appears aloof and uninterested in most things. Along with his best friend Itsuki , they both work at a gas station. They are friends with a young man named Iketani , leader of the Akina Speedstars , a local racing team, and their manager Yuichi . One night, Iketani brings the two up Mount Akina to experience the life of a street racer. But just in time, the RedSuns from Mount Akagi led by the Takahashi brothers have come to challenge the Speedstars to a race. What they don’t know is the fastest car on the downhill is an Eight-Six and that is what Takumi uses to deliver tofu every morning. 
22“Revenge! The Rumbling Turbo
“Revenge Declaration! Burning Turbo”
Keisuke Takahashi of the RedSuns is on the hunt for the mysterious ghost driver of Akina that defeated him with a shocking drift technique. Upon hearing this rumour, Iketani goes out to locate this monstrous Eight-Six only to learn that it belongs to Takumi’s own dad. 
33“The Downhill Specialist Appears
“The Downhill Specialist Appears”
The Akina Speedstars has taken the challenge of the RedSuns, but Iketani won’t be able to compete in the upcoming battle. By chance, he hopes he can get Bunta Fujiwara to race in his place. 
44“Into the Battle!
“Rushing Into the Flow of Battle!”
Iketani patiently waits for Bunta to appear to drive for his team against Keisuke Takahashi, but to his surprise, Takumi shows up in his place, reluctantly. This puts everybody in a state of shock, as the unexpected is about to happen. 
“Denouement! Dogfight!”
Everyone in the crowd are speechless, as they have just witnessed the impossible, an Eight-Six overtaking Keisuke’s FD . Ryosuke goes up to solve what’s the success behind this somewhat simple car to discover it’s unexpected secret. The next day Takumi goes out on a date with Natsuki to the beach, and the thrilling thoughts of racing have started to interest him. 
66“A New Challenger
“A New Challenger”
While Ryosuke is practicing with his FC on Akina’s course, a more menacing vehicle appears from behind. Meanwhile Takumi is asked how he earned his godly drifting skills as Iketani wishes to see a demonstration first hand. 
77“A Racer’s Pride
“A Racer’s Pride”
Nakazato of the Nightkids wants to challenge this mysterious Eight-Six, but he assumes that its driver has agreed to do so. As Takumi ponders why he should take up the challenge, various people plan on making him change his mind. 
88“Time’s Almost Up!
“It’s Almost Time Up!”
The countdown to the night’s battle is closing in as everyone has gathered, but where is the Eight-Six? Itsuki will have to make an embarrassing apology to everyone if his best friend decides not to show. 
99“Battle to the Limit!
“Battle to the Limit!”
In the world of street racing, the most essential way to win is through grip racing, which is what Nakazato believes in. He wants to crush the reputation of the Eight-Six’s flashy drifting techniques with his R32 . 
1010“The 5 Consecutive Hairpins
“Explosion! 5-Point Hairpin”
Nakazato has underestimated Akina’s Eight-Six, and he might just be in trouble as the five consecutive hairpins are upon him. Also to everyone’s surprise, Itsuki buys a new car. 
1111“Shingo Arrives!
“The Dangerous Shingo Appears!”
To prove the potential of Itsuki’s new car, Takumi drives it against a minor racing team from Gunma . Members of the NightKids has been appearing more often, so on the night that Iketani drives out his S13 , Shingo appears from behind with deadly intents. 
1212“The FR Killer
“The FR-Killing Deathmatch!”
A comparison between the Civic EG6 driving style and the type the Eight-Six is explained concerning the mystery of this new downhill devil from Myogi . Iketani requests that Takumi demonstrates the hidden potential the S13 carries. 
1313“First Date
“Itsuki’s First Date”
Itsuki is in love with Natsuki’s friend, and tries to set up another date with her. Word is spreading fast of the upcoming gum-tape match, yet Takumi hasn’t agreed to competing in one. Much to his disappointment, Shingo intends to make the Eight-Six come out by force. 
1414“Evolving Drift
“Evolving Drift Genius!”
Takumi has no plans in running away from Shingo’s provoked challenge. When he discovers the suicidal consequences of having a duct tape death match with the addition of Shingo’s dangerous driving, Takumi might just have added too much pressure on himself. 
1515“Takumi’s Fury
“Takumi: Rushing Waves of Anger!”
Triggered by Shingo’s reckless attacks, Takumi floors the gas on his Eight-Six harder than he’s ever before performing an insanely different style of driving. On another story, Iketani will meet his angel. 
1616“The Angel of Usui
“The Angel of Usui Pass”
Rumors of the fastest on Usui Pass are a pair of females called Impact Blue . While Iketani is out on a date with his dream girl, his friends decide to watch this mountain pass in hoping to see the rare Sileighty in action. 
1717“Sudden-Death Death Match
“Sudden-Death Death Match”
Mako gives Iketani a tempting offer to lure the Eight-Six in challenging the Sil-Eighty. At first Iketani wasn’t willing to agree to her terms, until Takumi considers it having his own agenda. 
1818“Hot Winds and Furious Driving
“Hot Winds! Mad Driving! Usui Pass”
Takumi is about to realize the importance of knowing your mountain roads, as he struggles to keep up with the Sil-Eighty. The teamwork of Mako and Sayuki prove to be a perfect match, making Impact Blue’s strategy is in their advantage. 
1919“Super Drift!
“Settlement! Super Drift”
Mako discovers a new rhythm in her driving, as the final stretches of Usui is in her grasp. Trailing from behind, Takumi continues to struggle keeping up in Mako’s scary corner attacks and Sayuki’s navigation. 
2020“The End of Summer
“The End of Summer”
Iketani learns more about Mako’s past and gets really depressed feeling that he isn’t worthy enough for her. When Mako asks to meet with him where they first met, Iketani decides not to show up. He realizes his mistake and rushes to his angel but arrives much too late. 
2121“Challenge From a Superstar
“Challenge From a Superstar”
Ryosuke has now issued a challenge to the Eight-Six’s driver, but for some reason Takumi has been acting more spaced out than usual. Itsuki and Iketani are worried, believing that their friend maybe suffering from lovesickness. 
2222“Fierce Uphill Battle!
“Fierce Battle! Hill Climb”
Takumi isn’t the only one being challenged into a battle. After both losing to the newly famed Eight-Six, Keisuke Takahashi of the RedSuns and Takeshi Nakazato of the NightKids are competing against each other for position of which is the most skilled team in Gunma. 
2323“The Rainy Downhill
“The Rainy Downhill Battle!”
Another member of the RedSuns has issued a challenge against the Eight-Six, but this time it will be a rain battle down Mount Myogi. 
2424“Akagi’s White Comet!
“Akagi’s White Comet!”
Everyone across Gunma has been waiting for this moment, when Akagi’s White Comet comes face to face with Akina’s Eight-Six. In preparation for this upcoming battle, Bunta tests out the stability of the Eight-Six. 
2525“The Last Battle
“The Play-Offs! Last Battle”
Nobody among the galleries has ever seen Ryosuke Takahashi drive his full potential, that is until the Eight-Six appeared. Instead of driving as the founder of the RedSuns, Ryosuke retains his title that made him famous. The White Comet has come at full force, as a new legend among the streets is about to be born between these two rivaling drivers. 
2626“The New Downhill Legend!
“The New Downhill Legend!”
The thrill of street racing has finally caught up to Takumi. He still has a couple of tricks available to him, as the thrilling conclusion of Akina’s Eight-Six and White Comet of Akagi’s undefeated record is settled in one dynamic finish to remember. 

Initial D: Second Stage (1999–2000)[ edit ]

Second Stage episodes are numbered by Acts, but go from ACT.27 to ACT.39, as if the series is treated as a continuation of First Stage.

No. in seriesNo. in seasonEnglish Dub title
Japanese titles (translated)
Original airdate
271“A New Threat
“Forbidden Super Weapon!”
Emperor , a team of Lan-Evos from the Tochigi prefecture has arrived with the goal to crush every team in Gunma. Soon they realize the fastest car in Gunma isn’t just Akagi’s White Comet, but also a new downhill legend known as Akina’s Eight-Six. 
282“Team Emperor on Akina
“Lan Evo Corps: The Akina Sortie!”
Iketani and Itsuki both wonder if the Eight-Six would get a new upgrade, in order to increase the performance of Takumi’s vehicle. However, it is up to Bunta to decide upon the matter. Elsewhere, Emperor’s winning streak isn’t slowing down as they continue to sweep across Gunma, defeating every race team with ease. Their next target, Akina’s Eight-Six. 
293“Premonition of Defeat
“Premonition of Defeat”
Kyoichi senses an uncanny fighting spirit within the Eight-Six’s driver, as he gives Seiji strict rules against the race. Seiji however decides to ignore these rules and launches his Evo IV into full power. Takumi is outclassed in almost every category as the Evo IV’s power is truly amazing. The battle risk escalates when the race reaches the second half of the course. 
304“Hollow Victory
“The Victory that Doesn’t Burn”
In his heart, Takumi cannot accept his victory over the Evo IV and decides to make a vow. To add to his already uneasy thoughts, anonymous messages are being sent to Takumi concerning his relationship with Natsuki. 
315“Countdown to Destruction
“Countdown to Breakdown”
Takumi soon discovers Natsuki’s secret that leads him to vent his anger in an egotistic battle against Kyoichi at Akagi, thinking little of the huge disadvantage he has. Which became obvious when the Evo III starts to unleash its monster abilities. 
326“Goodbye Eight-Six
“Goodbye Eight-Six”
Kyoichi is realizing just how incredible Akina’s downhill specialist is, yet he has full confidence in his rally tuned Evo III. Takumi soon realizes the difference between the Eight-Six and the loud banging horsepower of the Evo III , and ultimately blowing out the Eight-Six’s engine. But, it seems that Bunta instinctively knows of the race taking place as a major turning point is about to happen in the series. 
337“Battle at Akagi!
“Akagi Battle! The Black and White Flash!”
(赤城バトル! 白と黒の閃光!) 
With the Eight-Six out of the picture, the RedSuns has become the main representatives of Gunma, as every local racer within the prefecture are in favor of Emperor’s defeat. Ryosuke has returned on the street to defeat the revenge-seeking Kyoichi, who plans to use his theories of Motorsports against the White Comet. Also, Iketani and Kenji spot another racer from a neighboring prefecture. 
348“Dangerous Car
“This Car is Vicious”
(そのクルマ 凶暴につき) 
Mount Akagi’s battle continues, as Ryosuke has his own theories about streetracing…and he plans to demonstrate its difference on Kyoichi’s Evo III. Back in Akina, Takumi’s routine way of life is gone with the absence of the Eight-Six and the discovery of Natsuki’s secret. Takumi then disowns Natsuki at the end of the episode. 
359“The New Eight-Six
“The New Eight-Six is Born”
The Eight-Six has returned undergoing a major change. Takumi soon test-drives the new performance much to his mixed satisfactions and disappointments, but what he doesn’t understand is what Bunta knows what’s within that car. Also, the relationship between Takumi and Natsuki is falling apart, but Itsuki’s heart is shaken with the appearance of Kazumi . 
3610“The Eight-Six Turbo!
“The War-Declaring Eight-Six Turbo”
After Wataru issues a short-lived battle against Keisuke, his sister Kazumi introduces him to Itsuki leading to a chance meeting with another Eight-Six driver. At first everything seems right with the meeting, but because of Takumi’s naïve reaction to his car’s new downhill weapon, Wataru rubs it the wrong way as his bad side emerges. 
3711“The Seal Is Broken
“The Seal is Unlocked…”
Takumi takes up the challenge and decides where the battle would take place. But before he can accept Wataru’s challenge, he’ll have to learn the most basic essentials of what it means to be a street racer. Also, Itsuki’s relationship with Kazumi is teaching him the value of having a girlfriend. 
3812“Eight-Six vs. Eight-Six
“Eight-Six vs. Eight-Six: The Battle of Souls”
(ハチロクVSハチロク 魂のバトル) 
Takumi is about to experience a completely different type of racer within Wataru’s own Eight-Six, in a treacherous mountain pass consisting of mixed elevations, rusting guardrails, unexpected traps and aging rough pavements. As Takumi presses down the accelerator, the true nature of the Eight-Six’s new hidden weapon emerges in its monstrous raw performance. 
3913“Changing Seasons
“In the Changing Seasons”
The battle between the two Eight-Sixes have met Wataru’s satisfaction much higher than he expected, but he plans to decide the outcome of this battle with the judgement of the human body’s limitations. Takumi soon realizes he is losing grip of his pace. After the battle, a series of revelations take place among all the characters in preparation to what’s coming next. 

Initial D: Extra Stage (2000)[ edit ]

No. in seriesNo. in seasonTitleOriginal airdate
401“Beyond The Impact Blue”  
Lately Mako’s driving concentration hasn’t been in rhythm as Sayuki draws out her problem. As a phonecall from Shingo of the Nightkids reaches Sayuki, members of team Emperors are on the lookout for other race teams to conquer. To prevent the conquest, Impact Blue’s Sil-Eighty will defend their home course against these outsiders. 
412“Sentimental White”  
To make Mako’s world better, Sayuki sets up a perfect match for her best friend. At first this seems alright, but is it worth it if it means giving up her dreams in streetracing for a relationship? 

Initial D: Third Stage – The Movie (2001)[ edit ]

  • With his reputation growing, Takumi gets an offer of a lifetime from Ryosuke. Indecisive of his decision, Takumi tries to find his answers by requesting a rematch with Kyoichi Sudō, leader of team Emperor, at his own homecourse.
  • The battle doesn’t end there, as another challenger arrives immediately prior to the previous race. Kai Kogashiwa with an MR2 also wants a shot of Akina’s Eight-Six, as he has a loose connection to Takumi’s father.
  • As the season of Fall turns into Winter, Natsuki is determined to make her relationship with Takumi work. The unexpected arrival of an old flame of hers happens to be visiting from out of town, adding more complex problems. But if Natsuki and Takumi don’t admit to how they feel about each other honestly, then they may lose each other forever.
  • When Takumi finally makes his decision, a major turning point to everyone in Initial D is about to happen … and a new legend is about to begin.

Initial D: Battle Stage (2002)[ edit ]

  • Battle Stage is a compilation of every major street race of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Stage with the special addition of the never before seen battle between Keisuke’s FD and Seiji’s Evo IV. It should also be noted that all the earlier races such as the ones from Stage 1 were redone using the newer, more detailed CG technology featured in later Stages. However, Keisuke’s FD retains some of the parts used from the Project D era (Mazdaspeed MS-02 Rims, Mazdaspeed Spoiler) but it still had its Redsuns sticker on it.

Initial D: Fourth Stage (2004–2006)[ edit ]

No. in seriesNo. in seasonEnglish Dub title
Japanese titles (translated)
Original airdate
441“Project D
“Project D”
Takumi Fujiwara has made his decision and joins Ryosuke and Keisuke Takahashi in creating a new race team. Project D has now been formed, and they have only but one goal, to compete against the best drivers in all of the Kanto region. This is the story of how their names became legendary among the streets of touge. The first battle is against Seven Star Leaf (members are Tohru and Atsuro) at their home course, Momiji Line. At the cafe, Tohru’s beloved, Nao saying that if Tohru lost the battle, he must promise to stop racing. And the battle between Takumi’s 86 and Tohru’s Roadster in Downhill is about to begin. 
452“Full Throttle! Downhill Battle
“Full Throttle! Downhill Battle”
Takumi and Toru Suetsugu are both reckless drivers, yet there is a big difference in their abilities. It is during this battle does it show why Takumi is known as one of the double-aces of Project D, as the Eight-Six is ready to overtake Seven Star Leaf’s very own Roadster of the downhill using techniques never dreamed possible on the streets. At the end of episode, Daiki is calling Tomoyuki and promised in the name of Todo School, he’ll never lose against Project D’s downhiller, Takumi Fujiwara. 
463“The Most Powerful Man of the Toudou School
“The Most Powerful Man of the Toudou School”
Project D has now come face to face with racers from the Todo School . This time, Todo will use their wildcard racing students, Daiki Ninomiya with his EK9 and Smiley Sakai with his DC2 , as they will use their skills learned in their goal to become pro racers. The pressure in Project D’s team has begun, as there is no time to make any mistakes if future battles are going to be like this. 
474“Two Pieces of Advice
“Two Words of Advice”
Daiki decides on the position he is going to take in the battle. To ensure a victory, Ryosuke gives Takumi two advices to use against Daiki’s EK9, especially if Daiki’s level of techniques are that of semi-pros. Everything else is up to the reliance of Takumi’s driving skills. 
485“The Starting Line to Victory
“Start Line to Victory”
Project D gets another call from the Todo Racing School, this time against a pro racer graduate who has just returned. Ryosuke gets a warning from Kyoichi Sudo not to let Project D compete against the pro racer, especially since it’s a newly formed team. To his confusion, Ryosuke ponders as to which car should be used against Tomoyuki Tachi , one of Todo’s elite graduates. What confuses him more is Kyoichi’s warning that if ever they will race Todo, Ryosuke himself must race with his FC. 
496“Blind Attack
“Blind Attack”
Ryosuke has made his decision, and decides to take out the Eight-Six as his gamble. Tomoyuki then demonstrates all of his driving abilities that he learned as a pro using an EK9, but takes for granted that his opponent is a specialist of the streets. Takumi will have to find new ways to overcome some of the greatest barriers of racing in order to win. 
507“The Stormy 85 Turbo
“The Stormy Eight-Five Turbo”
A new nightmarish opponent arrives on Mount Akina challenging Takumi in a downhill battle. Also, Itsuki gets a new upgrade for his Eight-Five as it is demonstrated on the downhill. 
518“Fateful Battle of FDs
“Fated FD Battle”
With two prefectures of Project D completed, they move on towards the prefecture of Saitama , only to discover the difference of the roads compared to Kanto’s Gunma and Tochigi counterparts. This time, Keisuke will have to work on his acceleration techniques. However, there seems to be an unexpected twist, as his opponent also drives an FD, and happens to be a girl. 
529“Kyoko’s Confession
“Kyoko’s Confession”
Kyoko could not bring to tell her love interest, Keisuke, about how she feels about him. Meanwhile, Nobuhiko Akiyama is chasing after the Eight-Six with his Altezza only to behold the shocking driving techniques Project D’s downhill ace, Takumi, can perform. 
5310“The Saitama’s Area Ultimate Weapon
“The Saitama Area’s Ultimate Weapon”
Nobuhiko has devised a new devilish Eight-Six destroyer at the sight of the Cappuccino , and with the addition of a rally racer named Sakamoto , the chance of success for the Northern Saitama Alliance is close to one hundred percent. The next battle Project D will face is going to be in another new level, as chances of a rainy night is taken to notice. 
5411“Rainy Downhill Battle
“Rainy Downhill Battle”
A new strategy is devised by Ryosuke at the last minute. It seems that the only way Takumi will win the battle in the rain is if he uses the same strategy as a previous opponent he’s raced against before. The only problem to this is Takumi gets confused on what to do, as the rain is making it even more difficult during the race against the Cappuccino, uncertain of the advantage. 
5512“Straightaway of Struggles
“Straights of Struggles”
The final segments of the rainy race is at hand as Takumi now begins to perform the most daring attacks against the insane corner-attacking Cappuccino. But as it seems that Sakamoto is not willing to give Takumi any chances for a sure-fire victory. 
The rain continues to pour down towards the next battle where Keisuke’s FD competes against Wataru’s newly upgraded Eight-Six. Instead, it only gets far more intense and time consuming as it keeps raining harder and harder. Then, just like Takumi predicted, the race ends in a split second along one of the wider corners of the pass. 
5714“Sad Lonely Driver
“Sad Lonely Driver”
Takumi wakes up for his usual tofu delivery when he recognizes the sight of the Impreza in front of him. Suddenly, everything he knows about his Eight-Six begins to collapse. Elsewhere, Itsuki Takeuchi is out on a date with Kazumi Akiyama, but he might be going too far with his date when there is more to the story. 
5815“4WD Complex
“4WD Complex”
Takumi continues to struggle between the difference of his Eight-Six and the Impreza’s awesome 4WD capabilities. Surprisingly, he gets a tip in starting to solve this problem from an unexpected ex-rival. Now Project D has come to meet with their next opponents, a pair of Lan Evos. However a deadly trap that will turn the tides has been set against them. This puts the practice on a risky hold. 
5916“Hillclimb of Fury
“Angry Hill Climb”
Keisuke is uncertain what to do now that the trap has become a success in his opponent’s favor. Nonetheless, he fights to find alternate ways to accomplish his goals, but fails with little success. Instead of giving up, an unexpected source arrives to his aid, but the question is whether or not Keisuke would break the code of the RedSuns to compete with his pride as a Project D racer. 
6017“The Saitama Area’s Final Battle
“The Saitama Area’s Final Battle”
It seems that the Lan Evo team will continue to do everything to win the battles, even if they have to resort to dirty tricks. That’s just exactly what the next Lan Evo driver told Takumi, to give the Project D driver a warning of what is to come. If Takumi wants to complete the Saitama battles of Project D, then he will have to make a choice whether to heed the warning or not. 
6118“Last Drive
“Last Drive”
While his FD is in the shop being upgraded, Keisuke and Kyoko go out on a date. Afterwords, Keisuke test-drives his FD, as his acceleration skills has finally paid off in unleashing this new vehicle’s monstrous power. 
6219“God Foot and God Arm
“God Foot and God Arm”
Now that Project D is now recognized as street racers worthy of competing against high levels, they have to venture out much farther to meet greater rivals in the streets. Purple Shadow , a legendary pair of street racers in the Ibaraki Prefecture have come back out of retirement to prove that they can still hold the title of gods of the streets. 
6320“The Unmatched GT-R!
“Transcendent GT-R!”
Keisuke agrees to Kōzō “God Foot” Hoshino’s request in making the uphill battle rule different, until Ryosuke tells him that this is in favor of the FD. This makes Keisuke feel a lot of pressure concerning Hoshino’s true intentions, as the battle between his newly modified FD is put to its first test against God Foot’s newly purchased next generation R34 GT-R . 
The battle between the FD and GT-R continues, however the real battle has just begun. Now, Hoshino demonstrates his unique driving skills that people call the impossible earning him the name God Foot. This makes Keisuke’s true racing abilities appear when it is pushed beyond his limits as both drivers begin to drive recklessly forcing the battle to be settled in more than just one battle. 
6522“The Sorcerer of the Single-Handed Steer
“Wizard of the One-Hand Steer”
As the battle between the super powered cars of the hillclimb has ended, Takumi’s battle is another story. Takumi realizes that his opponent has the same frightening aura that the Impreza driver had, making his battle with Dr. Toshiya “God Arm” Joushima more difficult. This time, it’s street racing skills against another form of street racing skills. 
6623“Endless Battle
“Endless Battle”
The battle between Takumi’s Eight-Six and Toshiya’s S2000 has become a battle of the best endurance. Yet Ryosuke suspects that something is not quite right about the battle, rather he finds out late on what has just happened. Now that the battle has stretched for far too long, God Arm gets serious and shows off his true driving skills when he is at the peak of his full potential. 
6724“Never-Ending Challenge
“The Challenge Without End”
The dramatic conclusion between the Eight-Six and S2000 is at hand. Now that God Arm has gotten serious, Takumi will compensate into winning, by allowing the Eight-Six to hold itself together, knowing that only risky maneuvers are the only way to success. After the episode, it fades to black with a message saying “See you again.” 

Initial D: Battle Stage 2 (2007)[ edit ]

  • Battle Stage 2 is a compilation of races from 4th stage including never before seen battles between Keisuke’s FD versus Smiley Sakai’s DC2 Integra, and Keisuke’s FD versus Atsuro Kawai’s ER34.

Initial D: Extra Stage 2 (2008)[ edit ]

  • As Mako and Sayuki’s reputation as the fastest on Mount Usui steadily grows, Mako is unsatisfied with Usui and is planning to become a pro racer.
  • Iketani, now an improved street racer, yet again had a chance meeting with Mako, who gives Iketani another chance to meet with her where they first met.
  • Two guys in a black Altezza challenge Mako and Sayuki in a race where they realize that the two girls are no small-time racers.
  • Iketani is ready to meet with Mako as he waits for her when something happens that again results in Iketani not being able to meet Mako at the correct time. The two do meet up, after Mako picks Iketani up when he suffers a punctured tire.
  • Iketani, when hearing of Mako’s possible future, withholds his feelings so that Mako can make “the right decision”.
  • Mako makes her decision to go Pro for a year, but not without giving Sayuki, as well as Mount Usui, the run of their lives.
  • At the end, after the credits, it is stated that Mako and Iketani never meet again.

Initial D: Fifth Stage (2012–2013)[ edit ]

No. in seriesNo. in seasonTitleOriginal airdate
701“Encounter of Destiny
(2012-11-04, sneak peek on Animax )
Following their narrow victory against Purple Shadow, Project D’s reputation is at stake after a pair of imposters parade around Saitama. Initially Takumi seems oblivious to the incident, but takes notice after he is mistakenly blamed for taking advantage of a girl. Meanwhile, the final stage of Project D’s expeditions is upon them, and is to be the hardest yet. 
712“The New Battlefield
The first stage of Project D’s Kanagawa expeditions is against Team 246: Satoshi Omiya and Kobayakawa. Although racing for their own pride, 246 are actually part of a grand plan initiated by Team Sidewinder’s Go Hojo and Eiji Kubo. As the uphill race begins, Kobayakawa is about to be shown the true ability of Keisuke Takahashi. 
723“Dead Line
As the first battle winds down, the downhill between Takumi’s Eight-Six and Omiya’s NB8C Roadster begins. As both cars reach their limits, the control of the drivers will determine the outcome. Against Omiya’s miraculous car control, will Takumi be able to win? Another factor will come into play. 
734“Revenge Battle of Fate
Kanagawa’s Second Line will be against RT Katagiri, where Takumi encounters Kai Kogashiwa: a former rival from Irohazaka; graduated from street racing and now a professional racer with his MR-S. However, Takumi is starting to show a “Zone” that had evolved from the Purple Shadow races, a zone that even Ryosuke cannot explain. The winner of this race is up in the air. 
745“Fujiwara Zone
As the battle heats up, both Takumi and Kai both use all of their ability, and then some, to battle for the win. In the next battle, Keisuke puts his new accelerator techniques to the test against Minagawa’s Supra. But as Ryosuke explains, there is another purpose of this training that would allow him to beat the “super-orthodox” pro racer. 
756“Keisuke’s Determination
As it appears that the FD vs. Supra battle is giving no quarter, the question is, is it possible for Keisuke to hold off Minagawa’s professional pressure? Meanwhile a new racer appears on the slopes of Hakone, and its evident he wants to kill himself, and take anybody with him! 
767“Zero Hearts
Keisuke’s next opponent in Kanagawa’s Four Lines of Defense is the leader of Team Spiral, Ryuji “Zero” Ikeda. Ikeda believes in his “Zero Theory”, where the driver thinks of nothing except being one with the car to create the ultimate racer. Quite similar to Ryosuke’s Fastest Racer Theory, Ryosuke also notices a few flaws in Ikeda’s theory. A flaw that would arise as the wet conditions create a fog battle. 
778“White Devil
The downhill battle between Takumi and Hiroya “Zero 1” Okuyama’s S15 starts, with Okuyama waiting to attack until the later section because of the fog. However, he hasn’t considered the ability of Takumi’s adaptibility skills. Whilst this is on, another battle is in the midst: Ryosuke’s inevitable battle with the driver known as ‘Shinigami’, Rin Hojo. 
The destined battle between Ryosuke and Rin ‘Shinigami’ Hojo has begun, over a girl named Kaori. As the race progresses on, the story of Ryosuke, Hojo and Kaori is revealed. And as Ikeda of Spiral Zero spectates the race from behind, it’s obvious that this race of fate has quickly risen well beyond dangerous. 
7910“Full Stop
As the battle get more dangerous, several confessions come into play that create the full picture behind the feud between Ryosuke and Rin, and how Rin’s actions played a huge part in Kaori’s suicide. But as they approach the end of the track, Rin’s tires and brakes are completely shot, turning his R32 into an unstoppable weapon. What’s going to happen, and can Ryosuke escape?! 
8011“Full Stop, Continued…
As the out-of-control FC and R32 hurtle down the mountain, only a miracle can stop these two missiles from spectacularly crashing! Meanwhile, Project D prepares for their last battle of Kanagawa against the secretive Team Sidewinder. That is, until the SpeedStars find out that Takumi’s opponent will be an Eight-Six. 
The final battles for Project D are here, and it all starts with the uphill battle between Keisuke’s FD and Go Hojo’s NSX. But as Rin understands, there is a fundamental difference between his younger brother and Keisuke, one that might determine this race. 
8213“Unexpected Battle
The battle between Keisuke and Go Hojo continues. Keisuke’s good run behind Go Hojo led to many feeling unbelievable, including Go Hojo himself. Then entering the second round, the match gets more intense. Who will take this uphill climb battle? 
8314“Conclusion! Extreme Hill Climb
The intense hill climb battle between Keisuke and Go Hojo is coming to the end of second round. Keisuke engages in attack mode and Go Hojo starts to get tense. Meanwhile, Shinji Inui has revealed to especially Mako and Sayuki, who has been with him, that he would be the racer of the downhill battle against Takumi. The episode ends with Takumi racing against Shinji as both AE86 cars passing the screen as the race begins, it fades to black with a notice of the next battle coming soon on the next stage of the anime, hinting that the true conclusion of the race will have to wait. 

Initial D: Final Stage (2014)[ edit ]

No. in seriesNo. in seasonTitleOriginal release date
Takumi and Shinji’s match thus kicks off on an instant. Shinji is given the lead. Bunta steps out of the tofu shop and breaks his keypouch after accidentally dropping it. Bunta speculates an unfortunate event that will happen. Shinji starts to show his dormant power, leaving Takumi to be shocked himself. 
852“The Strongest Enemy
Takumi and Shinji continue with their match while Takumi, still bewildered by Shinji, starts to focus. But suddenly, Shinji allows Takumi to pass, which disturbs Takumi even more. Even Kubo is utterly disheartened by the turn of events, but both Go and Ryosuke believe that this was inevitable, creating a suitable conclusion to Project D’s expeditions. 
863“Dangerous Scent
Both drivers are equally strong, towards the middle of the race. They face a battle of gaining the lead. 
The intense downhill battle between the two drivers are reaching an end, as Takumi and Shinji race to their absolute limits. As this battle comes to a close, and the reign of Project D finally ends, the true meaning behind the “D” will be revealed. As the characters go on different paths, Takumi’s passion to be “the fastest one out there” will never end. 

Home release[ edit ]

The series was released on DVD.

List of Initial D videos released by Tokyopop (Region 1) and Madman Entertainment (Region 4)
VolumeEpisodesRelease date (Region 1)Release date (Region 4)
Battle 01, Akina’s Downhill SpecialistFirst Stage, Eps. 1–3September 16, 2003 [1] [2] 2004 [3]
Battle 02, Challenge: Red SunsFirst Stage, Eps. 4–6October 14, 2003 [4] [5] 2004 [6]
Battle 03, Challenge: Night KidsFirst Stage, Eps. 7–9January 13, 2004 [7] [8] 2004 [9]
Battle 04, Myogi’s Downhill TechnicianFirst Stage, Eps. 10–12March 9, 2004 [10] [11] 2004 [12]
Battle 05, Duct Tape Death MatchFirst Stage, Eps. 13–15May 11, 2004 [13] [14] 2004 [15]
Battle 06, Asphalt AngelsFirst Stage, Eps. 16–18July 13, 2004 [16] [17] 2004 [18]
Battle 07, The End of SummerFirst Stage, Eps. 19–21September 14, 2004 [19] [20]
Battle 08, Battles in the Rain (also Rain Battle)First Stage, Eps. 22–24November 9, 2004 [21] [22]
Battle 09, Akina’s Superstar ChallengeFirst Stage/Second Stage, Eps. 25–27January 11, 2005 [23] [24] 2005 [25]
Battle 10, Team EmperorSecond Stage, Ep. 28–30March 8, 2005 [26] [27] 2005 [28]
Battle 11, Blow-outMay 10, 2005 [29] [30] 2007 [31]
Battle 12, Secret WeaponJuly 12, 2005 [32] [33]
Battle 13, Battle of the SoulsSeptember 13, 2005 [34] [35]
Battle 14, Extra stageNovember 8, 2005 [36] [37]
List of Initial D videos released by Funimation (Region 1)
VolumeEpisodesDVD/Blu-ray Release date
First Stage, part 1 [38] First Stage, Eps. 1–132010
First Stage, part 2 [39] First Stage, Eps. 14–262010
Second Stage [40] Second Stage, Eps. 1–13 + 2 Extra Stage OVAs2011
Third Stage [41] Third Stage film2010
Fourth Stage, part 1 [42] Fourth Stage, Eps. 1–122010
Fourth Stage, part 2 [43] Fourth Stage, Eps. 13–242010
First Stage S.A.V.E. Edition [44] First Stage, Eps. 1–262011
Second & Third Stage + OVA Extra Stage S.A.V.E. Edition [45] Second Stage (Eps. 1–13) + Third Stage (film) + 2 Extra Stage OVAs2011
Fourth Stage S.A.V.E. Edition [46] Fourth Stage, Eps. 1–242011

See also[ edit ]

  • Initial D
  • Initial D Arcade Stage

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 01, Akina’s downhill specialist” . 
  2. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 1 – Akina’s Downhill Specialist: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  3. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 01, Akina’s downhill specialist Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  4. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 02, Challenge: Red Suns” . 
  5. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 2 – Challenge, Red Suns: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  6. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 02, Challenge Red Suns Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  7. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 03, Challenge: Night Kids” . 
  8. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 3 – Challenge, Night Kids: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  9. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 03, Chanllenge Night Kids Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  10. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 04, Myogi’s downhill technician” . 
  11. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 4 – Myogi’s Downhill Technician: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  12. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 04, Myogi’s downhill technician Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  13. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 05, Duct tape death match” . 
  14. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 5 – Duct Tape Death Match: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  15. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 05, Duct tape death match Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2003) []” . 
  16. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 06, Sil-eighty asphalt angels” . 
  17. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 6 – Asphalt Angels: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  18. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 06, Asphalt angels Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  19. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 07, S13-Silvia K, the end of summer” . 
  20. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 7 – The End of Summer: Steve Blum, Terri Doty, Laurent Vernin, Curtis Raymond Shideler, Shin’ichirô Miki, Unshô Ishizuka, Mitsuo Iwata, Takehito Koyasu, Tomokazu Seki, Ayako Kawasumi, Kazuki Yao, Wataru Takagi, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Kazunori Ikegami, Kazuyoshi Yokota, Masami Hata, Mihiro Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Kuzuya, Rei Kotaki, Susumu Kudo: Movies & TV” . 
  21. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 08, Battles in the rain” . 
  22. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 8 – Rain Battle: *: Movies & TV” . 
  23. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 09, FC3S vs. AE86 Akina’s superstar challenge” . 
  24. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 9 – Akina’s Superstar Challenge: *: Movies & TV” . 
  25. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 09, Akina’s superstar challenge Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  26. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 10, Team emperor” . 
  27. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 10 – Team Emperor: Nobuyuki Hiyama, Michiko Neya, Yumi Kakazu, Kôsuke Okano, Keiji Fujiwara, Tôru Furusawa, Osamu Hosoi, Lex Lang, Michael McConnohie, Steven Jay Blum, Kathryn Cressida, Kerrigan Mahan, Jason Spisak, Grant George, Robbie Rist, Wally Wingert, Crispin Freeman, Dave Wittenberg, Quinton Flynn, Shinichirô Miki, Masami Hata, Noboru Mitsusawa: Movies & TV” . 
  28. ^ “Initial D. = Battle 10, Team Empreror Inisharu D. (DVD video, 2004) []” . 
  29. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 11, Blow-out” . 
  30. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 11 – Blow-out: *: Movies & TV” . 
  31. ^ “Initial D. Battle: 11, Blow out” . 
  32. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 12, Secret weapon” . 
  33. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 12 – Secret Weapon: *: Movies & TV” . 
  34. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 13, AE86 vs. AE86, battle of the souls” . 
  35. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 13 – Battle of the Souls: *: Movies & TV” . 
  36. ^ “Initial D. / Battle 14, Extra stage” . 
  37. ^ “ Initial D – Battle 14 – Extra Stage: *: Movies & TV” . 
  38. ^ “Initial D. / First stage, part 1” . 
  39. ^ “Initial D. / First stage, part 2” . 
  40. ^ “Initial D. / Second stage” . 
  41. ^ “Initial D. / Third stage” . 
  42. ^ “Initial D. / Fourth stage, part 1, Project D” . 
  43. ^ “Initial D. / Fourth stage, part 2” . 
  44. ^ “Initial D. = First stage, the complete first season Kashiramoji D” . 
  45. ^ “Initial D. = Second & third stage + ova extra stage Kashiramoji D” . 
  46. ^ “Initial D. = Fourth stage Kashiramoji D” . 
  • v
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Initial D by Shuichi Shigeno
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      weekly lesson plans high school english

      Articles & Advice

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      25 Grammar Lesson Plans to Help Your Students Succeed

      25 Grammar Lesson Plans to Help Your Students Succeed

      Written by Chandra Clarke

      Grammar is at the core of all language instruction, yet it is one of the more difficult subjects both to learn and to teach.

      To make the subject more accessible to students, language teachers have developed different methods of teaching grammar. While some teachers focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules, others are influenced by theoretical work on the difference between language acquisition and language learning.

      No matter what your style of teaching is, the lesson plans listed here can be a big help in teaching grammar.

      Elementary School Grammar Lesson Plans

      • Grammar Lessons: Five Fun Activities
      • Grammar Lesson: Identifying Basic Parts of Speech
      • 10 Grammar Mistakes and 10 Lessons to Fix Them
      • Punctuation Lesson Plans
      • Lesson Plan: Tactile Parts of Speech
      • Parts of Speech Lesson Ideas
      • Identifying Parts of Speech Lesson Plan
      • Sentence Structure Lesson Plan
      • I Spy Nouns Lesson Plan
      • Describing Words: A Lesson Plan on Adjectives
      • Mr. Donn’s Fun Grammar Lessons
      • Fun English Grammar Activities

      Middle School Grammar Lesson Plans

      • Grammar and Mechanics Lesson Plans
      • English Language Arts Lesson Plans
      • Reading Comprehension Lesson Plans
      • Good Grief, It’s Grammar Time!
      • Teaching Punctuation with Storyboards
      • Discovery Education: Quotation Marks
      • Grammar Alive! Middle School Lesson

      High School Grammar Lesson Plans

      • Grammar Lesson Plan: Modals
      • High School Grammar and Mechanics Lesson Plans
      • High School Level English Lesson Plans
      • Ways to Improve Teaching High School Grammar
      • Interactive Grammar Lesson Plans
      • Grammar Handouts for Students

      About the Author

      Chandra ClarkeChandra is the founder and former president of Scribendi. She holds a BA in English and an MSc in Space Exploration Studies. Her lifelong devotion to the written word started when she joined The Chatham Daily News as a regional stringer. She then worked as a reporter/photographer for a large chain of weeklies before becoming the managing editor of an independent paper, a post she held for two years before striking out on her own. She pens a weekly humor column and has written dozens of short stories, newspaper articles, and magazine articles. She is an enthusiastic supporter of space exploration and scientific research, and is the author of Be the Change: Saving the World with Citizen Science .

      Image source: Poodar Chu/

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      Lesson plans


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      Lesson plans

      Average: 3.8 (70 votes)

      Submitted 8 years 6 months ago by admin.
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      Why should I write a plan? The best option is always to be prepared. Once you have prepared your lesson you will feel much more confident walking into the classroom and you will soon be able to relax.

      Jo Bertrand

      Points to consider when writing the plan

      1. What is the main topic of the lesson? If the activities in the lesson have a logical link then the learners will be able to follow you and the lesson, more easily.
      2. How can I arouse their interest? Begin the lesson by involving the children straight away. Show them a picture, photo or object to capture their attention and indicate which topic the lesson is based on.
      3. How can I challenge them? Every learner, whatever their age or level needs to be challenged. If there’s no challenge then there’s no learning. If there’s no learning, there’s no motivation. Think about what they already know and make sure your lesson isn’t just teaching them the same thing.
      4. How much should I review what they’ve already done? Having said you should challenge them, you can and should review previous words and work in general. Teaching a word one lesson doesn’t mean that all the learners have actually learnt it for the next. Incorporate previously taught language in new situations to give the learners more practice.
      5. What are the objectives of the lesson? It’s vital to always think about ‘why’ they are doing an activity, game or song. Everything on your plan should be educational. If you don’t know what an activity is teaching the learners then take it off your plan.
      6. What vocabulary do I want to teach them? If you prepare beforehand exactly what words you are going to concentrate on and how you are going to present them you will be better equipped to explain them clearly to the children.
      7. How can I explain the activities? You should prepare, at least mentally, how you are going to explain each activity. Explanations should be short, clear and visual. Don’t forget to demonstrate and check their understanding by getting one or two of them to demonstrate for you. Also decide how you are going to write on the board. You can draw a diagram on your plan to remind you so that it’s clearer for the learners.
      8. How much detail do I need on my plan? If you’re working from a book then don’t forget page numbers. As a guideline, imagine that someone else has to cover your class. They should be able to read your plan and teach your lesson.
      9. What order should I teach the activities in? As a very general rule you can start with an introduction to the lesson, introduce the new language, give the children some controlled practice and move onto freer practice. Finally review what they’ve done and get feedback from the children themselves about what they did.
      10. What problems might I have? If you’re not sure if an activity will work; if you think it’s too hard or too long then take time before the lesson, at the planning stage, to think about how to resolve any problems that could arise. Problems could be activity related or time-table related, student related or even teacher-related. Taking those extra minutes when planning to think about possible solutions could avoid you having a disastrous lesson.

      Extra tips

      • Have a lesson plan template that you can just fill in and print off.
      • Have your plan to hand at all times during the lesson.
      • Tick the activities that worked well as you do them.
      • Make any extra comments at the end of the lesson about what worked and what didn’t to help you plan your next lesson.
      • Plan a series of lessons that are linked to the same theme to have coherence to your lessons.
      • Have extra activities ready just in case they finish early. This can be for both mid-lesson for quick finishers or at the end of the lesson if your plan is shorter than you imagined.
      • Remember to allow time for preparation, action and reviewing.
      • An example of controlled practice is when you provide sentences with missing words. The learners need to fill in the gap to talk to their partner and in this way everyone produces similar language. Freer practice is when you set up the situation, for example meeting someone new, and you let the children decide on their own role-play language using what they know and what they have recently learnt. You will probably do more ‘freer practice’ with older primary learners than the younger ones who have limited language at their disposal.

      Check-list of what to include

      • Materials
      • Objectives
      • Procedures
      • Estimated time for each activity
      • Explanations
      • Board work
      • Page numbers (if working from a text book)
      • Extra activities
      • Follow-on activities
      • Lesson evaluation – what you would do differently next time or what went well

      Example lesson plan

      Group: CM2
      Date: 02/11/07
      Lesson: 4
      Topic: My favourite food
      1. By the end of the lesson learners will be able to say what their favourite food is.
      2. Learners will be introduced to nouns; ‘lettuce, cucumber, …
      3. Learners will review verbs ‘eat’, ‘like’…
      1. A3 paper (one per table)
      2. Flashcards
      3. Three tennis balls
      4. Plastic food
      Procedures Time
      IntroductionPlace a piece of plastic food on each table before the lesson. Brainstorm names of food from each table. Get other tables to help if need be. Introduce new words using plastic food. 

      Stage 1

      I like

      I don’t like

      Activity 15-10 mins
       Activity 2 

      Stage 2

      Asking Questions

      Activity 1 

      Stage 3

      My favourite food is …..

      Activity 1 
       Activity 2 
      Extra activities  
      Follow up and homework  
      Lesson evaluation  
      LA Primary Tips

      Need a little more help with your professional development? Find a training course for your needs.


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      Live Science

      a brief history of computers that changed the world

      • Live Science
      • History

      History of Computers: A Brief Timeline

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      History of Computers: A Brief Timeline
      Famed mathematician Charles Babbage designed a Victorian-era computer called the Analytical Engine. This is a portion of the mill with a printing mechanism.

      Credit: Science Museum | Science & Society Picture Library

      The computer was born not for entertainment or email but out of a need to solve a serious number-crunching crisis. By 1880, the U.S. population had grown so large that it took more than seven years to tabulate the U.S. Census results. The government sought a faster way to get the job done, giving rise to punch-card based computers that took up entire rooms.

      Today, we carry more computing power on our smartphones than was available in these early models. The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today that surf the Internet , play games and stream multimedia in addition to crunching numbers.

      1801: In France, Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punched wooden cards to automatically weave fabric designs. Early computers would use similar punch cards.

      1822: English mathematician Charles Babbage conceives of a steam-driven calculating machine that would be able to compute tables of numbers. The project, funded by the English government, is a failure. More than a century later, however, the world’s first computer was actually built .

      1890: Herman Hollerith designs a punch card system to calculate the 1880 census, accomplishing the task in just three years and saving the government $5 million. He establishes a company that would ultimately become IBM.

      1936: Alan Turing presents the notion of a universal machine, later called the Turing machine, capable of computing anything that is computable. The central concept of the modern computer was based on his ideas.

      1937: J.V. Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State University, attempts to build the first computer without gears, cams, belts or shafts.

      1939: Hewlett-Packard is founded by David Packard and Bill Hewlett in a Palo Alto, California, garage, according to the Computer History Museum . 

      1941: Atanasoff and his graduate student, Clifford Berry, design a computer that can solve 29 equations simultaneously. This marks the first time a computer is able to store information on its main memory.

      1943-1944: Two University of Pennsylvania professors, John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, build the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). Considered the grandfather of digital computers, it fills a 20-foot by 40-foot room and has 18,000 vacuum tubes.

      1946: Mauchly and Presper leave the University of Pennsylvania and receive funding from the Census Bureau to build the UNIVAC, the first commercial computer for business and government applications.

      1947: William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invent the transistor . They discovered how to make an electric switch with solid materials and no need for a vacuum. 

      1953: Grace Hopper develops the first computer language, which eventually becomes known as COBOL. Thomas Johnson Watson Jr., son of IBM CEO Thomas Johnson Watson Sr., conceives the IBM 701 EDPM to help the United Nations keep tabs on Korea during the war.

      1954: The FORTRAN programming language , an acronym for FORmula TRANslation, is developed by a team of programmers at IBM led by John Backus, according to the University of Michigan.

      1958: Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce unveil the integrated circuit, known as the computer chip. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his work.

      1964: Douglas Engelbart shows a prototype of the modern computer, with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI). This marks the evolution of the computer from a specialized machine for scientists and mathematicians to technology that is more accessible to the general public.

      1969: A group of developers at Bell Labs produce UNIX, an operating system that addressed compatibility issues. Written in the C programming language, UNIX was portable across multiple platforms and became the operating system of choice among mainframes at large companies and government entities. Due to the slow nature of the system, it never quite gained traction among home PC users.

      1970: The newly formed Intel unveils the Intel 1103, the first Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chip.

      1971: Alan Shugart leads a team of IBM engineers who invent the "floppy disk," allowing data to be shared among computers.

      1973: Robert Metcalfe, a member of the research staff for Xerox, develops Ethernet for connecting multiple computers and other hardware.

      1974-1977: A number of personal computers hit the market, including Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, Radio Shack’s TRS-80 — affectionately known as the "Trash 80" — and the Commodore PET.

      1975: The January issue of Popular Electronics magazine features the Altair 8080, described as the "world’s first minicomputer kit to rival commercial models." Two "computer geeks," Paul Allen and Bill Gates, offer to write software for the Altair, using the new BASIC language. On April 4, after the success of this first endeavor, the two childhood friends form their own software company, Microsoft. 

      1976: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak start Apple Computers on April Fool’s Day and roll out the Apple I, the first computer with a single-circuit board, according to Stanford University . 


      The TRS-80, introduced in 1977, was one of the first machines whose documentation was intended for non-geeks

      The TRS-80, introduced in 1977, was one of the first machines whose documentation was intended for non-geeks

      Credit: Radioshack

      1977: Radio Shack’s initial production run of the TRS-80 was just 3,000. It sold like crazy. For the first time, non-geeks could write programs and make a computer do what they wished.


      1977: Jobs and Wozniak incorporate Apple and show the Apple II at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It offers color graphics and incorporates an audio cassette drive for storage.

      1978: Accountants rejoice at the introduction of VisiCalc, the first computerized spreadsheet program.

      1979: Word processing becomes a reality as MicroPro International releases WordStar. "The defining change was to add margins and word wrap," said creator Rob Barnaby in email to Mike Petrie in 2000 . "Additional changes included getting rid of command mode and adding a print function. I was the technical brains — I figured out how to do it, and did it, and documented it. "


      The first IBM personal computer, introduced on Aug. 12, 1981, used the MS-DOS operating system.

      The first IBM personal computer, introduced on Aug. 12, 1981, used the MS-DOS operating system.

      Credit: IBM

      1981: The first IBM personal computer, code-named "Acorn," is introduced. It uses Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system. It has an Intel chip, two floppy disks and an optional color monitor. Sears & Roebuck and Computerland sell the machines, marking the first time a computer is available through outside distributors. It also popularizes the term PC.


      1983: Apple’s Lisa is the first personal computer with a GUI. It also features a drop-down menu and icons. It flops but eventually evolves into the Macintosh. The Gavilan SC is the first portable computer with the familiar flip form factor and the first to be marketed as a "laptop."

      1985: Microsoft announces Windows, according to Encyclopedia Britannica . This was the company’s response to Apple’s GUI. Commodore unveils the Amiga 1000, which features advanced audio and video capabilities.

      1985: The first dot-com domain name is registered on March 15, years before the World Wide Web would mark the formal beginning of Internet history . The Symbolics Computer Company, a small Massachusetts computer manufacturer, registers More than two years later, only 100 dot-coms had been registered.

      1986: Compaq brings the Deskpro 386 to market. Its 32-bit architecture provides as speed comparable to mainframes.

      1990: Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, the high-energy physics laboratory in Geneva, develops HyperText Markup Language (HTML), giving rise to the World Wide Web.

      1993: The Pentium microprocessor advances the use of graphics and music on PCs.

      1994: PCs become gaming machines as "Command & Conquer," "Alone in the Dark 2," "Theme Park," "Magic Carpet," "Descent" and "Little Big Adventure" are among the games to hit the market.

      1996: Sergey Brin and Larry Page develop the Google search engine at Stanford University.

      1997: Microsoft invests $150 million in Apple, which was struggling at the time, ending Apple’s court case against Microsoft in which it alleged that Microsoft copied the "look and feel" of its operating system.

      1999: The term Wi-Fi becomes part of the computing language and users begin connecting to the Internet without wires.

      2001: Apple unveils the Mac OS X operating system, which provides protected memory architecture and pre-emptive multi-tasking, among other benefits. Not to be outdone, Microsoft rolls out Windows XP, which has a significantly redesigned GUI.

      2003: The first 64-bit processor, AMD’s Athlon 64, becomes available to the consumer market.

      2004: Mozilla’s Firefox 1.0 challenges Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, the dominant Web browser. Facebook, a social networking site, launches.

      2005: YouTube, a video sharing service, is founded. Google acquires Android, a Linux-based mobile phone operating system.

      2006: Apple introduces the MacBook Pro, its first Intel-based, dual-core mobile computer, as well as an Intel-based iMac. Nintendo’s Wii game console hits the market.

      2007: The iPhone brings many computer functions to the smartphone.

      2009: Microsoft launches Windows 7, which offers the ability to pin applications to the taskbar and advances in touch and handwriting recognition, among other features.

      2010: Apple unveils the iPad, changing the way consumers view media and jumpstarting the dormant tablet computer segment.

      2011: Google releases the Chromebook, a laptop that runs the Google Chrome OS.

      2012: Facebook gains 1 billion users on October 4.

      2015: Apple releases the Apple Watch. Microsoft releases Windows 10.

      2016: The first reprogrammable quantum computer was created. "Until now, there hasn’t been any quantum-computing platform that had the capability to program new algorithms into their system. They’re usually each tailored to attack a particular algorithm," said study lead author Shantanu Debnath, a quantum physicist and optical engineer at the University of Maryland, College Park.

      2017: The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is developing a new "Molecular Informatics" program that uses molecules as computers. "Chemistry offers a rich set of properties that we may be able to harness for rapid, scalable information storage and processing," Anne Fischer, program manager in DARPA’s Defense Sciences Office, said in a statement. "Millions of molecules exist, and each molecule has a unique three-dimensional atomic structure as well as variables such as shape, size, or even color. This richness provides a vast design space for exploring novel and multi-value ways to encode and process data beyond the 0s and 1s of current logic-based, digital architectures." [ Computers of the Future May Be Minuscule Molecular Machines ]

      Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science contributor.

      Additional resources

      • Fortune: A Look Back At 40 Years of Apple
      • The New Yorker: The First Windows
      • Computer History Museum: Timeline of Computer History

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      Author Bio

      Kim Ann Zimmermann, Live Science Contributor

      Kim Ann Zimmermann is a contributor to Live Science. She holds a bachelor’s degree in communications from Glassboro State College.

      The History of Computers

      History & Culture

      The History of Computers

      These Breakthroughs in Mathematics and Science Led to the Computing Age

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      Konrad Zuge Z4

      Konrad Zuse built the world’s first programmable computer.
      Clemens Pfeiffer via Wikimedia Commons [CC BY 2.5]
      History and Culture

      History & Culture

      View More

      Tuan C. Nguyen
      Updated March 12, 2018

      Throughout human history, the closest thing to a computer was the abacus, which is actually considered a calculator since it required a human operator. Computers, on the other hand, perform calculations automatically by following a series of built-in commands called software.

      In the 20th century breakthroughs in technology allowed for the ever-evolving computing machines we see today. But even prior to the advent of microprocessors and supercomputers , there were certain notable scientists and inventors that helped lay the groundwork for a technology that has since drastically reshaped our lives.

      The Language Before the Hardware

      The universal language in which computers carry out processor instructions originated in 17th century in the form of the binary numerical system. Developed by German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the system came about as a way to represent decimal numbers using only two digits, the number zero and the number one. His system was partly inspired by philosophical explanations in the classical Chinese text the “I Ching,” which understood the universe in terms of dualities such as light and darkness and male and female. While there was no practical use for his newly codified system at the time, Leibniz believed that it was possible for a machine to someday make use of these long strings of binary numbers.​

      In 1847, English mathematician George Boole introduced a newly devised algebraic language built on Leibniz work. His “Boolean algebra” was actually a system of logic, with mathematical equations used to represent statements in logic. Just as important was that it employed a binary approach in which the relationship between different mathematical quantities would be either true or false, 0 or 1.  And though there was no obvious application for Boole’s algebra at the time, another mathematician, Charles Sanders Pierce spent decades expanding the system and eventually found in 1886 that the calculations can be carried out with electrical switching circuits. And in time, Boolean logic would become instrumental in the design of electronic computers.

      The Earliest Processors

      English mathematician Charles Babbage is credited with having assembled the first mechanical computers — at least technically speaking. His early 19th century machines featured a way to input numbers, memory, a processor and a way to output the results. The initial attempt to build the world’s first computer, which he called the “difference engine,” was a costly endeavor that was all but abandoned after over 17,000 pounds sterling was spent on its development. The design called for a machine that calculated values and printed the results automatically onto a table. It was to be hand cranked and would have weighed four tons. The project was eventually axed after the British government cut off Babbage’s funding in 1842.

      This forced the inventor to move on to another idea of his called the analytical engine, a more ambitious machine for general purpose computing rather than just arithmetic. And though he wasn’t able to follow through and build a working device, Babbage’s design featured essentially the same logical structure as electronic computers that would come into use in the 20th century. The analytical engine had, for instance, integrated memory, a form of information storage found in all computers. It also allows for branching or the ability of computers to execute a set of instructions that deviate from the default sequence order, as well as loops, which are sequences of instructions carried out repeatedly in succession. 

      Despite his failures to produce a fully functional computing machine, Babbage remained steadfastly undeterred in pursuing his ideas. Between 1847 and 1849, he drew up designs for a new and improved second version of his difference engine. This time it calculated decimal numbers up to thirty digits long, performed calculations quicker and was meant to be more simple as it required fewer parts. Still, the British government did not find it worth their investment. In the end, the most progress Babbage ever made on a prototype was completing one-seventh of his first difference engine.

      During this early era of computing, there were a few notable achievements. A tide-predicting machine , invented by Scotch-Irish mathematician, physicist and engineer Sir William Thomson in 1872, was considered the first modern analog computer. Four years later, his older brother James Thomson came up with a concept for a computer that solved math problems known as differential equations. He called his device an “integrating machine” and in later years it would serve as the foundation for systems known as differential analyzers. In 1927, American scientist Vannevar Bush started development on the first machine to be named as such and published a description of his new invention in a scientific journal in 1931.

      Dawn of Modern Computers

      Up until the early 20th century, the evolution of computing was little more than scientists dabbling in the design of machines capable of efficiently perform various kinds of calculations for various purposes. It wasn’t until 1936 that a unified theory on what constitutes a general purpose computer and how it should function was finally put forth. That year, English mathematician Alan Turing published a paper called titled “On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem,” which outlines how a theoretical device called a “Turing machine” can be used to carry out any conceivable mathematical computation by executing instructions. In theory, the machine would have limitless memory, read data, write results and store a program of instructions.

      While Turing’s computer was an abstract concept, it was a German engineer named Konrad Zuse who would go on to build the world’s first programmable computer. His first attempt at developing an electronic computer, the Z1, was a binary-driven calculator that read instructions from punched 35-millimeter film. The problem was the technology was unreliable, so he followed it up with the Z2, a similar device that used electromechanical relay circuits. However, it was in assembling his third model that everything came together. Unveiled in 1941, the Z3 was faster, more reliable and better able to perform complicated calculations. But the big difference was that the instructions were stored on external tape, allowing it function as a fully operational program-controlled system.  

      What’s perhaps most remarkable is that Zuse did much of his work in isolation. He had been unaware that the Z3 was Turing complete, or in other words, capable of solving any computable mathematical problem — at least in theory. Nor did he have any knowledge of other similar projects that were taking place around the same time in other parts of the world. Among the most notable was the IBM-funded Harvard Mark I, which debuted in 1944. More promising, though, was the development of electronic systems such as Great Britain’s 1943 computing prototype Colossus and the ENIAC , the first fully-operational electronic general-purpose computer that was put into service at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.

      Out of the ENIAC project came the next big leap in computing technology. John Von Neumann, a Hungarian mathematician who had consulted on ENIAC project, would lay the groundwork for a stored program computer. Up to this point, computers operated on fixed programs and altering their function, like say from performing calculations to word processing, required having to manually rewire and restructure them. The ENIAC, for example, took several days to reprogram. Ideally, Turing had proposed having the program stored in the memory, which would allow it to be modified by the computer. Von Neumann was intrigued by the concept and in 1945 drafted a report that provided in detail a feasible architecture for stored program computing.     

      His published paper would be widely circulated among competing teams of researchers working on various computer designs. And in 1948, a group in England introduced the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, the first computer to run a stored program based on the Von Neumann architecture. Nicknamed “Baby,” the Manchester Machine was an experimental computer and served as the predecessor to the Manchester Mark I . The EDVAC, the computer design for which Von Neumann’s report was originally intended, wasn’t completed until 1949.

      Transitioning Toward Transistors

      The first modern computers were nothing like the commercial products used by consumers today. They were elaborate hulking contraptions that often took up the space of an entire room. They also sucked enormous amounts of energy and were notoriously buggy. And since these early computers ran on bulky vacuum tubes, scientists hoping to improve processing speeds would either have to find bigger rooms or come up with an alternative.

      Fortunately, that much-needed breakthrough had already been in the works. In 1947, a group of scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a new technology called point-contact transistors. Like vacuum tubes, transistors amplify electrical current and can be used as switches. But more importantly, they were much smaller (about the size of a pill), more reliable and used much less power overall. The co-inventors John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley would eventually be awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956.

      And while Bardeen and Brattain continued doing research work, Shockley moved to further develop and commercialize transistor technology. One of the first hires at his newly founded company was an electrical engineer named Robert Noyce , who eventually split off and formed his own firm, Fairchild Semiconductor, a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument. At the time, Noyce was looking into ways to seamlessly combine the transistor and other components into one integrated circuit to eliminate the process in which they were pieced together by hand. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, also had the same idea and ended up filing a patent first. It was Noyce’s design, however, that would be widely adopted.

      Where integrated circuits had the most significant impact was in paving the way for the new era of personal computing . Over time, it opened up the possibility of running processes powered by millions of circuits – all on a microchip the size of postage stamp. In essence, it’s what has enabled our ubiquitous handheld gadgets much more powerful than the earliest computers. 

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      geological history of mt st helens

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      Mount St. Helens

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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      This article is about the volcano in Washington State. For the mountain in California, see Mount Saint Helena .

      Mount St. Helens
      MSH82 st helens plume from harrys ridge 05-19-82.jpg

      3,000 ft (1 km) high steam plume on May 19, 1982, two years after its major eruption
      Highest point
      Elevation 8,363 ft (2,549 m)
      Prominence 4,605 ft (1,404 m)
      • Washington most prominent peaks 11th
      • Washington isolated peaks 11th
      • Washington highest peaks 52nd
      Coordinates 46°11′28″N 122°11′40″W / 46.1912000°N 122.1944000°W / 46.1912000; -122.1944000 Coordinates : 46°11′28″N 122°11′40″W / 46.1912000°N 122.1944000°W / 46.1912000; -122.1944000 [1]
      Native nameLawetlat’la · Loowit
      Mount St. Helens is located in Washington (state)

      Mount St. Helens
      Mount St. Helens
      Skamania County, Washington , United States
      Parent range Cascade Range
      Topo map USGS Mount St. Helens
      Age of rock < 40,000 yrs
      Mountain type Active stratovolcano ( Subduction zone )
      Volcanic arc Cascade Volcanic Arc
      Last eruption 2004–2008
      First ascent 1853 by Thomas J. Dryer
      Easiest route Hike via south slope of volcano (closest area near eruption site)

      Mount St. Helens or Louwala-Clough (known as Lawetlat’la to the indigenous Cowlitz people , and Loowit to the Klickitat ) is an active stratovolcano located in Skamania County, Washington , in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Portland , Oregon and 96 miles (154 km) south of Seattle , Washington . Mount St. Helens takes its English name from the British diplomat Lord St Helens , a friend of explorer George Vancouver who made a survey of the area in the late 18th century. [1] The volcano is located in the Cascade Range and is part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc , a segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire that includes over 160 active volcanoes. This volcano is well known for its ash explosions and pyroclastic flows .

      Mount St. Helens is most notorious for its major 1980 eruption , the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in the history of the United States. [2] Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways, and 185 miles (298 km) of highway were destroyed. A massive debris avalanche triggered by an earthquake measuring 5.1 on the Richter scale caused an eruption [3] that reduced the elevation of the mountain’s summit from 9,677 ft (2,950 m) to 8,363 ft (2,549 m), leaving a 1 mile (1.6 km) wide horseshoe-shaped crater. [4] The debris avalanche was up to 0.7 cubic miles (2.9 km3) in volume. The Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was created to preserve the volcano and allow for its aftermath to be scientifically studied.

      As with most other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, Mount St. Helens is a large eruptive cone consisting of lava rock interlayered with ash, pumice , and other deposits. The mountain includes layers of basalt and andesite through which several domes of dacite lava have erupted. The largest of the dacite domes formed the previous summit, and off its northern flank sat the smaller Goat Rocks dome. Both were destroyed in the 1980 eruption.


      • 1 Geographic setting and description
        • 1.1 General
        • 1.2 Crater Glacier and other new rock glaciers
      • 2 Geologic history
        • 2.1 Ancestral stages of eruptive activity
        • 2.2 Smith Creek and Pine Creek eruptive periods
        • 2.3 Castle Creek and Sugar Bowl eruptive periods
        • 2.4 Kalama and Goat Rocks eruptive periods
        • 2.5 Modern eruptive period
          • 2.5.1 1980 to 2001 activity
          • 2.5.2 2004 to 2008 activity
      • 3 Human history
        • 3.1 Importance to Native Americans
        • 3.2 Exploration by Europeans
        • 3.3 European settlement and use of the area
        • 3.4 Human impact from the 1980 eruption
        • 3.5 Protection and later history
      • 4 Climbing and recreation
      • 5 See also
      • 6 Notes
      • 7 References
      • 8 Further reading
      • 9 External links

      Geographic setting and description


      Landscape with a large open volcano

      A view of St. Helens and the nearby area from space

      A large conical volcano.

      Mount St. Helens the day before the 1980 eruption, which removed much of the northern face of the mountain, leaving a large crater

      3-D perspective view of Mount St. Helens

      Mount St. Helens is 34 miles (55 km) west of Mount Adams , in the western part of the Cascade Range. These “sister and brother” volcanic mountains are approximately 50 miles (80 km) from Mount Rainier , the highest of Cascade volcanoes. Mount Hood , the nearest major volcanic peak in Oregon , is 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Mount St. Helens.

      Mount St. Helens is geologically young compared with the other major Cascade volcanoes. It formed only within the past 40,000 years, and the pre-1980 summit cone began rising about 2,200 years ago. [5] The volcano is considered the most active in the Cascades within the Holocene epoch (the last 10,000 or so years). [6]

      Prior to the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens was the fifth-highest peak in Washington. It stood out prominently from surrounding hills because of the symmetry and extensive snow and ice cover of the pre-1980 summit cone, earning it the nickname ” Fuji-san of America”. [7] The peak rose more than 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above its base, where the lower flanks merge with adjacent ridges. The mountain is 6 miles (9.7 km) across at its base, which is at an elevation of 4,400 feet (1,300 m) on the northeastern side and 4,000 feet (1,200 m) elsewhere. At the pre-eruption tree line , the width of the cone was 4 miles (6.4 km).

      View of Mt. St. Helens from a commercial airliner, July 2007

      Streams that originate on the volcano enter three main river systems: the Toutle River on the north and northwest, the Kalama River on the west, and the Lewis River on the south and east. The streams are fed by abundant rain and snow. The average annual rainfall is 140 inches (3,600 mm), and the snow pack on the mountain’s upper slopes can reach 16 feet (4.9 m). [8] The Lewis River is impounded by three dams for hydroelectric power generation. The southern and eastern sides of the volcano drain into an upstream impoundment, the Swift Reservoir , which is directly south of the volcano’s peak.

      April 30, 2015 Mount St. Helens [9]

      Although Mount St. Helens is in Skamania County, Washington, access routes to the mountain run through Cowlitz County to the west and Lewis County to the north. State Route 504 , locally known as the Spirit Lake Memorial Highway , connects with Interstate 5 at Exit 49, 34 miles (55 km) to the west of the mountain. That north–south highway skirts the low-lying cities of Castle Rock , Longview and Kelso along the Cowlitz River , and passes through the Vancouver, Washington – Portland, Oregon metropolitan area less than 50 miles (80 km) to the southwest. The community nearest the volcano is Cougar , Washington, in the Lewis River valley 11 miles (18 km) south-southwest of the peak. Gifford Pinchot National Forest surrounds Mount St. Helens.

      Crater Glacier and other new rock glaciers

      File:Summit rim of Mount St. Helens.ogv Play media

      Summit rim of Mount St. Helens

      Main article: Crater Glacier

      During the winter of 1980–1981, a new glacier appeared. Now officially named Crater Glacier , it was formerly known as the Tulutson Glacier. Shadowed by the crater walls and fed by heavy snowfall and repeated snow avalanches, it grew rapidly (14 feet (4.3 m) per year in thickness). By 2004, it covered about 0.36 square miles (0.93 km2), and was divided by the dome into a western and eastern lobe. Typically, by late summer, the glacier looks dark from rockfall from the crater walls and ash from eruptions. As of 2006, the ice had an average thickness of 300 feet (100 m) and a maximum of 650 feet (200 m), nearly as deep as the much older and larger Carbon Glacier of Mount Rainier. The ice is all post–1980, making the glacier very young geologically. However, the volume of the new glacier is about the same as all the pre–1980 glaciers combined. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

      With the recent volcanic activity starting in 2004, the glacier lobes were pushed aside and upward by the growth of new volcanic domes. The surface of the glacier, once mostly without crevasses, turned into a chaotic jumble of icefalls heavily criss-crossed with crevasses and seracs caused by movement of the crater floor. [15] The new domes have almost separated the Crater Glacier into an eastern and western lobe. Despite the volcanic activity, the termini of the glacier have still advanced, with a slight advance on the western lobe and a more considerable advance on the more shaded eastern lobe. Due to the advance, two lobes of the glacier joined together in late May 2008 and thus the glacier completely surrounds the lava domes. [15] [16] [17] In addition, since 2004, new glaciers have formed on the crater wall above Crater Glacier feeding rock and ice onto its surface below; there are two rock glaciers to the north of the eastern lobe of Crater Glacier. [18] Crater Glacier is the only known advancing glacier in the contiguous United States. [19]

      Geologic history

      Ancestral stages of eruptive activity

      Map of the west coast of United States with dark lines in the ocean and location of Cascade Volcanoes.

      Plate tectonics of the Cascade Range

      The early eruptive stages of Mount St. Helens are known as the “Ape Canyon Stage” (around 40,000–35,000 years ago), the “Cougar Stage” (ca. 20,000–18,000 years ago), and the “Swift Creek Stage” (roughly 13,000–8,000 years ago). [20] The modern period, since about 2500 BCE, is called the “Spirit Lake Stage”. Collectively, the pre–Spirit Lake stages are known as the “ancestral stages”. The ancestral and modern stages differ primarily in the composition of the erupted lavas; ancestral lavas consisted of a characteristic mixture of dacite and andesite , while modern lava is very diverse (ranging from olivine basalt to andesite and dacite). [21]

      St. Helens started its growth in the Pleistocene 37,600 years ago, during the Ape Canyon stage, with dacite and andesite eruptions of hot pumice and ash. [21] Thirty-six thousand years ago a large mudflow cascaded down the volcano; [21] mudflows were significant forces in all of St. Helens’ eruptive cycles. The Ape Canyon eruptive period ended around 35,000 years ago and was followed by 17,000 years of relative quiet. Parts of this ancestral cone were fragmented and transported by glaciers 14,000 to 18,000 years ago during the last glacial period of the current ice age . [21]

      The second eruptive period, the Cougar Stage, started 20,000 years ago and lasted for 2,000 years. [21] Pyroclastic flows of hot pumice and ash along with dome growth occurred during this period. Another 5,000 years of dormancy followed, only to be upset by the beginning of the Swift Creek eruptive period, typified by pyroclastic flows, dome growth and blanketing of the countryside with tephra . Swift Creek ended 8,000 years ago.

      Smith Creek and Pine Creek eruptive periods

      A dormancy of about 4,000 years was broken around 2500 BCE with the start of the Smith Creek eruptive period, when eruptions of large amounts of ash and yellowish-brown pumice covered thousands of square miles. An eruption in 1900 BCE was the largest known eruption from St. Helens during the Holocene epoch, judged by the volume of one of the tephra layers from that period. This eruptive period lasted until about 1600 BCE and left 18 inches (46 cm) deep deposits of material 50 miles (80 km) distant in what is now Mt. Rainier National Park . Trace deposits have been found as far northeast as Banff National Park in Alberta , and as far southeast as eastern Oregon . [22] All told there may have been up to 2.5 cubic miles (10 km3) of material ejected in this cycle. [22] Some 400 years of dormancy followed.

      St. Helens came alive again around 1200 BCE — the Pine Creek eruptive period. [22] This lasted until about 800 BCE and was characterized by smaller-volume eruptions. Numerous dense, nearly red hot pyroclastic flows sped down St. Helens’ flanks and came to rest in nearby valleys. A large mudflow partly filled 40 miles (64 km) of the Lewis River valley sometime between 1000 BCE and 500 BCE.

      Castle Creek and Sugar Bowl eruptive periods

      The next eruptive period, the Castle Creek period, began about 400 BCE, and is characterized by a change in composition of St. Helens’ lava, with the addition of olivine and basalt . [23] The pre-1980 summit cone started to form during the Castle Creek period. Significant lava flows in addition to the previously much more common fragmented and pulverized lavas and rocks ( tephra ) distinguished this period. Large lava flows of andesite and basalt covered parts of the mountain, including one around the year 100 BCE that traveled all the way into the Lewis and Kalama river valleys. [23] Others, such as Cave Basalt (known for its system of lava tubes ), flowed up to 9 miles (14 km) from their vents. [23] During the first century, mudflows moved 30 miles (50 km) down the Toutle and Kalama river valleys and may have reached the Columbia River . Another 400 years of dormancy ensued.

      The Sugar Bowl eruptive period was short and markedly different from other periods in Mount St. Helens history. It produced the only unequivocal laterally directed blast known from Mount St. Helens before the 1980 eruptions. [24] During Sugar Bowl time, the volcano first erupted quietly to produce a dome, then erupted violently at least twice producing a small volume of tephra, directed-blast deposits, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. [24]

      Kalama and Goat Rocks eruptive periods

      Painting of a rolling landscape with a conical mountain in background.

      The symmetrical appearance of St. Helens prior to the 1980 eruption earned it the nickname ” Mount Fuji of America”. The once familiar shape was formed out of the Kalama and Goat Rocks eruptive periods.

      Roughly 700 years of dormancy were broken in about 1480, when large amounts of pale gray dacite pumice and ash started to erupt, beginning the Kalama period. The eruption in 1480 was several times larger than the May 18, 1980, eruption. [24] In 1482, another large eruption rivaling the 1980 eruption in volume is known to have occurred. [24] Ash and pumice piled 6 miles (9.7 km) northeast of the volcano to a thickness of 3 feet (0.9 m); 50 miles (80 km) away, the ash was 2 inches (5 cm) deep. Large pyroclastic flows and mudflows subsequently rushed down St. Helens’ west flanks and into the Kalama River drainage system.

      This 150-year period next saw the eruption of less silica -rich lava in the form of andesitic ash that formed at least eight alternating light- and dark-colored layers. [23] Blocky andesite lava then flowed from St. Helens’ summit crater down the volcano’s southeast flank. [23] Later, pyroclastic flows raced down over the andesite lava and into the Kalama River valley. It ended with the emplacement of a dacite dome several hundred feet (~200 m) high at the volcano’s summit, which filled and overtopped an explosion crater already at the summit. [25] Large parts of the dome’s sides broke away and mantled parts of the volcano’s cone with talus . Lateral explosions excavated a notch in the southeast crater wall. St. Helens reached its greatest height and achieved its highly symmetrical form by the time the Kalama eruptive cycle ended, about 1647. [25] The volcano remained quiet for the next 150 years.

      The 57-year eruptive period that started in 1800 was named after the Goat Rocks dome, and is the first time that both oral and written records exist. [25] Like the Kalama period, the Goat Rocks period started with an explosion of dacite tephra , followed by an andesite lava flow, and culminated with the emplacement of a dacite dome. The 1800 eruption probably rivalled the 1980 eruption in size, although it did not result in massive destruction of the cone. The ash drifted northeast over central and eastern Washington , northern Idaho , and western Montana . There were at least a dozen reported small eruptions of ash from 1831 to 1857, including a fairly large one in 1842. The vent was apparently at or near Goat Rocks on the northeast flank. [25] Goat Rocks dome was the site of the bulge in the 1980 eruption, and it was obliterated in the major eruption event on May 18, 1980 that destroyed the entire north face and top 1,300 feet (400 m) of the mountain.

      Modern eruptive period

      1980 to 2001 activity

      Main article: 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

      This composite photograph of the May 18 eruption was taken from 35 miles (60 km) west in Toledo, Washington. The ash-cloud stem is 10 miles (16 km) wide, and the mushroom top is 40 miles (64 km) wide and 15 miles (24 km) high. The footprint of the cloud stem is roughly the same as the devastated area north of the mountain where the forest was knocked down and which three decades later is still relatively barren.

      On March 20, 1980, Mount St. Helens experienced a magnitude 4.2 earthquake ; [2] and, on March 27, steam venting started. [26] By the end of April, the north side of the mountain had started to bulge. [27]
      On May 18, a second earthquake, of magnitude 5.1, triggered a massive collapse of the north face of the mountain. It was the largest known debris avalanche in recorded history. The magma in St. Helens burst forth into a large-scale pyroclastic flow that flattened vegetation and buildings over 230 square miles (600 km2). More than 1.5 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide was released into the atmosphere. [28] On the Volcanic Explosivity Index scale, the eruption was rated a five, and categorized as a Plinian eruption .

      Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980, at 08:32 Pacific Daylight Time

      The collapse of the northern flank of St. Helens mixed with ice, snow, and water to create lahars (volcanic mudflows). The lahars flowed many miles down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers , destroying bridges and lumber camps. A total of 3,900,000 cubic yards (3,000,000 m3) of material was transported 17 miles (27 km) south into the Columbia River by the mudflows. [29]

      For more than nine hours, a vigorous plume of ash erupted, eventually reaching 12 to 16 miles (20 to 27 km) above sea level. [30] The plume moved eastward at an average speed of 60 miles per hour (100 km/h) with ash reaching Idaho by noon. Ashes from the eruption were found collecting on top of cars and roofs next morning, as far as the city of Edmonton in Alberta, Canada.

      Diagram with different colored layers.

      Lava dome growth profile from 1980–1986

      By about 5:30 p.m. on May 18, the vertical ash column declined in stature, and less severe outbursts continued through the night and for the next several days. The St. Helens May 18 eruption released 24 megatons of thermal energy; [3] [31] it ejected more than 0.67 cubic miles (2.79 km3) of material. [3] The removal of the north side of the mountain reduced St. Helens’ height by about 1,300 feet (400 m) and left a crater 1 mile (1.6 km) to 2 miles (3.2 km) wide and 0.5 miles (800 m) deep, with its north end open in a huge breach. The eruption killed 57 people, nearly 7,000 big game animals ( deer , elk , and bear ), and an estimated 12 million fish from a hatchery. [8] It destroyed or extensively damaged over 200 homes, 185 miles (298 km) of highway and 15 miles (24 km) of railways . [8]

      Between 1980 and 1986, activity continued at Mount St. Helens, with a new lava dome forming in the crater. Numerous small explosions and dome-building eruptions occurred. From December 7, 1989, to January 6, 1990, and from November 5, 1990, to February 14, 1991, the mountain erupted with sometimes huge clouds of ash. [32]

      2004 to 2008 activity

      Main article: 2004–08 volcanic activity of Mount St. Helens

      Magma reached the surface of the volcano about October 11, 2004, resulting in the building of a new lava dome on the existing dome’s south side. This new dome continued to grow throughout 2005 and into 2006. Several transient features were observed, such as a lava spine nicknamed the “whaleback,” which comprised long shafts of solidified magma being extruded by the pressure of magma beneath. These features were fragile and broke down soon after they were formed. On July 2, 2005, the tip of the whaleback broke off, causing a rockfall that sent ash and dust several hundred meters into the air. [33]

      Large fairly smooth rock structure inside a crater

      Appearance of the “Whaleback” in February 2005

      Mount St. Helens showed significant activity on March 8, 2005, when a 36,000-foot (11,000 m) plume of steam and ash emerged—visible from Seattle . [34] This relatively minor eruption was a release of pressure consistent with ongoing dome building. The release was accompanied by a magnitude 2.5 earthquake.

      Another feature to emerge from the dome was called the “fin” or “slab.” Approximately half the size of a football field, the large, cooled volcanic rock was being forced upward as quickly as 6 ft (2 m) per day. [35] [36] In mid-June 2006, the slab was crumbling in frequent rockfalls, although it was still being extruded. The height of the dome was 7,550 feet (2,300 m), still below the height reached in July 2005 when the whaleback collapsed.

      Microscopic view of a rock

      Thin section of dacite from a dome created in 2004

      On October 22, 2006, at 3:13 p.m. PST, a magnitude 3.5 earthquake broke loose Spine 7. The collapse and avalanche of the lava dome sent an ash plume 2,000 feet (600 m) over the western rim of the crater; the ash plume then rapidly dissipated.

      On December 19, 2006, a large white plume of condensing steam was observed, leading some media people to assume there had been a small eruption. However, the Cascades Volcano Observatory of the USGS did not mention any significant ash plume. [37] The volcano was in continuous eruption from October 2004, but this eruption consisted in large part of a gradual extrusion of lava forming a dome in the crater.

      On January 16, 2008, steam began seeping from a fracture on top of the lava dome. Associated seismic activity was the most noteworthy since 2004. Scientists suspended activities in the crater and the mountain flanks, but the risk of a major eruption was deemed low. [38] By the end of January, the eruption paused; no more lava was being extruded from the lava dome. On July 10, 2008, it was determined that the eruption had ended, after more than six months of no volcanic activity. [39]

      360° panorama from the summit of Mount St. Helens as seen in October 2009. In the foreground is the ice-covered crater rim. Visible in the lower center is the lava dome. Steam rises from several dome vents. Above the dome, in the upper center, lies Mount Rainier and Spirit Lake . Mount Adams appears to the right of Rainier on the horizon as well as Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson on the far right. Also on the far right are glimpses of the Swift Reservoir , Yale Lake , Lake Merwin and the Lewis River . Climbers stand on the crater rim and are visible along the Monitor Ridge climbing route.

      Human history

      Importance to Native Americans

      Mt St Helens before the 1980 eruption (taken from Spirit Lake)

      Indigenous American legends were inspired by the volcano’s beauty.

      American Indian lore contains numerous legends to explain the eruptions of Mount St. Helens and other Cascade volcanoes. The most famous of these is the Bridge of the Gods legend told by the Klickitat people . In their tale, the chief of all the gods and his two sons, Pahto (also called Klickitat) and Wy’east, traveled down the Columbia River from the Far North in search for a suitable area to settle. [40]

      They came upon an area that is now called The Dalles and thought they had never seen a land so beautiful. The sons quarreled over the land, so to solve the dispute their father shot two arrows from his mighty bow — one to the north and the other to the south. Pahto followed the arrow to the north and settled there while Wy’east did the same for the arrow to the south. The chief of the gods then built the Bridge of the Gods, so his family could meet periodically. [40]

      When the two sons of the chief of the gods fell in love with a beautiful maiden named Loowit, she could not choose between them. The two young chiefs fought over her, burying villages and forests in the process. The area was devastated and the earth shook so violently that the huge bridge fell into the river, creating the cascades of the Columbia River Gorge . [41]

      For punishment, the chief of the gods struck down each of the lovers and transformed them into great mountains where they fell. Wy’east, with his head lifted in pride, became the volcano known today as Mount Hood. Pahto, with his head bent toward his fallen love, was turned into Mount Adams. The fair Loowit became Mount St. Helens, known to the Klickitats as Louwala-Clough, which means “smoking or fire mountain” in their language (the Sahaptin called the mountain Loowit). [42]

      The mountain is also of sacred importance to the Cowlitz and Yakama tribes that also historically lived in the area. They find the area above its tree line to be of exceptional spiritual significance, and the mountain (which they call “Lawetlat’la”, roughly translated as “the smoker”) features prominently in their creation myth, and in some of their songs and rituals. In recognition of this cultural significance, over 12,000 acres (4,900 ha) of the mountain (roughly bounded by the Loowit Trail) have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places . [43]

      Other area tribal names for the mountain include “nšh´ák´” (“water coming out”) from the Upper Chehalis , and “aka akn” (“snow mountain”), a Kiksht term. [43]

      Exploration by Europeans

      Royal Navy Commander George Vancouver and the officers of HMS Discovery made the Europeans’ first recorded sighting of Mount St. Helens on May 19, 1792, while surveying the northern Pacific Ocean coast. Vancouver named the mountain for British diplomat Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens on October 20, 1792, [42] [44] as it came into view when the Discovery passed into the mouth of the Columbia River.

      Years later, explorers, traders, and missionaries heard reports of an erupting volcano in the area. Geologists and historians determined much later that the eruption took place in 1800, marking the beginning of the 57-year-long Goat Rocks Eruptive Period (see geology section ). [25] Alarmed by the “dry snow,” the Nespelem tribe of northeastern Washington danced and prayed rather than collecting food and suffered during that winter from starvation. [25]

      In late 1805 and early 1806, members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition spotted Mount St. Helens from the Columbia River but did not report either an ongoing eruption or recent evidence of one. [45] They did however report the presence of quicksand and clogged channel conditions at the mouth of the Sandy River near Portland, suggesting an eruption by Mount Hood sometime in the previous decades.

      In 1829 Hall J. Kelley led a campaign to rename the Cascade Range as the President’s Range and also to rename each major Cascade mountain after a former President of the United States . In his scheme Mount St. Helens was to be renamed Mount Washington. [46]

      European settlement and use of the area

      Man by wooden building that has six fur pelts on it.

      19th-century photo of a fur trapper working in the Mount St. Helens area

      The first authenticated eyewitness report of a volcanic eruption was made in March 1835 by Meredith Gairdner , while working for the Hudson’s Bay Company stationed at Fort Vancouver . [47] He sent an account to the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, which published his letter in January 1836. James Dwight Dana of Yale University , while sailing with the United States Exploring Expedition , saw the quiescent peak from off the mouth of the Columbia River in 1841. Another member of the expedition later described “cellular basaltic lavas” at the mountain’s base. [48]

      Painting of a conical volcano erupting at night from the side.

      Painting by Paul Kane Mount St. Helens erupting at night after his 1847 visit to the area

      In late fall or early winter of 1842, nearby settlers and missionaries witnessed the so-called Great Eruption. This small-volume outburst created large ash clouds, and mild explosions followed for 15 years. [49] The eruptions of this period were likely phreatic (steam explosions). Josiah Parrish in Champoeg, Oregon witnessed Mount St. Helens in eruption on November 22, 1842. Ash from this eruption may have reached The Dalles, Oregon , 48 miles (80 km) southeast of the volcano. [6]

      In October 1843, future California governor Peter H. Burnett recounted a story of an aboriginal American man who badly burned his foot and leg in lava or hot ash while hunting for deer. The likely apocryphal story went that the injured man sought treatment at Fort Vancouver, but the contemporary fort commissary steward, Napoleon McGilvery, disclaimed knowledge of the incident. [50] British lieutenant Henry J. Warre sketched the eruption in 1845, and two years later Canadian painter Paul Kane created watercolors of the gently smoking mountain. Warre’s work showed erupting material from a vent about a third of the way down from the summit on the mountain’s west or northwest side (possibly at Goat Rocks), and one of Kane’s field sketches shows smoke emanating from about the same location. [51]

      A hiker at the summit of Mount St. Helens, as depicted in Frances Fuller Victor ‘s 1891 Atlantis Arisen . [52]

      On April 17, 1857, the Republican, a Steilacoom, Washington , newspaper, reported that “Mount St. Helens, or some other mount to the southward, is seen … to be in a state of eruption”. [53] The lack of a significant ash layer associated with this event indicates that it was a small eruption. This was the first reported volcanic activity since 1854. [53]

      Before the 1980 eruption, Spirit Lake offered year-round recreational activities. In the summer there was boating , swimming , and camping , while in the winter there was skiing .

      Human impact from the 1980 eruption

      Man sitting at a campsite

      David A. Johnston hours before he was killed by the eruption

      Fifty-seven people were killed during the eruption. [54] Had the eruption occurred one day later, when loggers would have been at work, rather than on a Sunday, the death toll could have been much higher. [8]

      83-year-old Harry R. Truman , who had lived near the mountain for 54 years, became famous when he decided not to evacuate before the impending eruption, despite repeated pleas by local authorities. [55] His body was never found after the eruption. [56]

      Another victim of the eruption was 30-year-old volcanologist David A. Johnston , who was stationed on the nearby Coldwater Ridge. Moments before his position was hit by the pyroclastic flow, Johnston radioed his famous last words: “Vancouver! Vancouver! This is it!” [57] Johnston’s body was never found. [58]

      U.S. President Jimmy Carter surveyed the damage and said, “Someone said this area looked like a moonscape. But the moon looks more like a golf course compared to what’s up there.” [59] A film crew, led by Seattle filmmaker Otto Seiber, was dropped by helicopter on St. Helens on May 23 to document the destruction. Their compasses , however, spun in circles and they quickly became lost. A second eruption occurred on May 25, but the crew survived and was rescued two days later by National Guard helicopter pilots. Their film, The Eruption of Mount St. Helens, later became a popular documentary.

      Protection and later history

      View of the hillside at the Johnston Ridge Observatory (named for David A. Johnston ), July 30, 2005, 25 years after the eruption
      Johnston Ridge from a proximate location, July 16, 2016, 36 years after the eruption, showing continued plant growth

      In 1982, President Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Congress established the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument , a 110,000 acres (45,000 ha) area around the mountain and within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest . [60]

      Following the 1980 eruption, the area was left to gradually return to its natural state. In 1987, the U.S. Forest Service reopened the mountain to climbing. It remained open until 2004 when renewed activity caused the closure of the area around the mountain (see Geological history section above for more details).

      Most notable was the closure of the Monitor Ridge trail, which previously let up to 100 permitted hikers per day climb to the summit. On July 21, 2006, the mountain was again opened to climbers. [61] In February 2010, a climber died after falling from the rim into the crater. [62]

      The mountain is now circled by the Loowit Trail at elevations of 4000–4900 feet (1,200-1,500 m). The northern segment of the trail from the South Fork Toutle River on the west to Windy Pass on the east is a restricted zone where camping, biking, pets, fires, and off-trail excursions are all prohibited. [63] [64]

      Climbing and recreation

      Mount St. Helens is a popular climbing destination for both beginning and experienced mountaineers . The peak is climbed year-round, although it is more often climbed from late spring through early fall. All routes include sections of steep, rugged terrain. [65]
      A permit system has been in place for climbers since 1987. A climbing permit is required year-round for anyone who will be above 4,800 feet (1,500 m) on the slopes of Mount St. Helens. [66]

      The standard hiking / mountaineering route in the warmer months is the Monitor Ridge Route, which starts at the Climbers Bivouac. This is the most popular and crowded route to the summit in the summer and gains about 4,600 feet (1,400 m) in approximately 5 miles (8 km) to reach the crater rim. [67]
      Although strenuous, it is considered non-technical climb that involves some scrambling . Most climbers complete the round trip in 7 to 12 hours. [68]

      The Worm Flows Route is considered the standard winter route on Mount St. Helens, as it is the most direct route to the summit. The route gains about 5,700 feet (1,700 m) in elevation over about 6 miles (10 km) from trailhead to summit but does not demand the technical climbing that some other Cascade peaks like Mount Rainier do. The route name refers to the rocky lava flows that surround the route. [69]
      This route can be accessed via the Marble Mountain Sno-Park and the Swift Ski Trail. [70]

      See also

      • icon Mountains portal
      • Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument
      • Cascade Volcanoes
      • Geology of the Pacific Northwest
      • Silver Lake (Washington)
      • List of volcanic eruptions by death toll


      1. ^ a b “Mount Saint Helens” . Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . 
      2. ^ a b “Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument” . USDA Forest Service . Archived from the original on 2006-11-23. 
      3. ^ a b c “Mount St. Helens – From the 1980 Eruption to 2000” . Fact Sheet 036-00. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
      4. ^ “May 18, 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens” . USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2009-05-29. 
      5. ^ Mullineaux & Crandell 1981 , p. 3.
      6. ^ a b “Description of Mount St. Helens” . USGS. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
      7. ^ Harris 1988 , p. 201.
      8. ^ a b c d Tilling (1990). “Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and Future” . Special Interest Publication. USGS. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
      9. ^ “Mount St. Helens at 35” . NASA. May 18, 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-18. 
      10. ^ Brugman, Melinda M.; Austin Post (1981). “USGS Circular 850-D: Effects of Volcanism on the Glaciers of Mount St. Helens” . Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
      11. ^ Wiggins, Tracy B.; Hansen, Jon D.; Clark, Douglas H. (2002). “Growth and flow of a new glacier in Mt. St. Helens Crater”. Abstracts with Programs – Geological Society of America. 34 (5): 91. 
      12. ^ Schilling, Steve P.; Paul E. Carrara; Ren A. Thompson; Eugene Y. Iwatsubo (2004). “Posteruption glacier development within the crater of Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA”. Quaternary Research. Elsevier Science (USA). 61 (3): 325–329. Bibcode : 2004QuRes..61..325S . doi : 10.1016/j.yqres.2003.11.002 . 
      13. ^ McCandless, Melanie; Plummer, Mitchell; Clark, Douglas (2005). “Predictions of the growth and steady-state form of the Mount St. Helens Crater Glacier using a 2-D glacier model”. Abstracts with Programs – Geological Society of America. 37 (7): 354. 
      14. ^ Schilling, Steve P.; David W. Ramsey; James A. Messerich; Ren A. Thompson (2006-08-08). “USGS Scientific Investigations Map 2928: Rebuilding Mount St. Helens” . Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
      15. ^ a b “Volcano Review” (PDF). US Forest Service . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26. 
      16. ^ Schilling, Steve (2008-05-30). “MSH08_aerial_new_dome_from_north_05-30-08” . United States Geological Survey . Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-06-07.  – Glacier is still connected south of the lava dome.
      17. ^ Schilling, Steve (2008-05-30). “MSH08_aerial_st_helens_crater_from_north_05-30-08” . United States Geological Survey . Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-06-07.  – Glacier arms touch on North end of glacier.
      18. ^ Haugerud, R. A.; Harding, D. J.; Mark, L. E.; Zeigler, J.; Queija, V.; Johnson, S. Y. (December 2004). “Lidar measurement of topographic change during the 2004 eruption of Mount St. Helens, WA”. American Geophysical Union. 53: 01. Bibcode : 2004AGUFM.V53D..01H . 
      19. ^ “Projects — Growing: Crater Glacier Caves on Mt St Helens” . Glacier Cave Explorers. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-11-06. 
      20. ^ “Mount St. Helens – Summary of Volcanic History” . USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. 
      21. ^ a b c d e Harris 1988 , p. 214.
      22. ^ a b c Harris 1988 , p. 215.
      23. ^ a b c d e Harris 1988 , p. 216.
      24. ^ a b c d “Mount St. Helens Eruptive History” . USGS. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
      25. ^ a b c d e f Harris 1988 , p. 217.
      26. ^ “Summary of Events Leading Up to the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens: March 22–28” . USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. 
      27. ^ “Summary of Events Leading Up to the May 18, 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens: April 26–May 2” . USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. 
      28. ^ “Emission of sulfur dioxide gas from Mount St. Helens, 1980-1988” . United States Geological Survey. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
      29. ^ Harris 1988 , p. 209.
      30. ^ Kiver and Harris, Geology of U.S. Parklands, 6th edition, page 149
      31. ^ “Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument” . United States Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2009-05-29. 24 megatons thermal energy 
      32. ^ Myers, Bobbie (1992). “Small Explosions Interrupt 3-year Quiescence at Mount St. Helens, Washington” . Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 23 (2): 58–73. Archived from the original on 2006-12-30. Retrieved 2006-11-26 – via 
      33. ^ “Before and After images” . USGS. 
      34. ^ “Mount St. Helens, Washington – ‘Plume in the Evening” . USGS. March 8, 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-03-11. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
      35. ^ “New slab growing in Mount St. Helens dome” . Fox News. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
      36. ^ “Rock Slab Growing at Mt. St. Helens Volcano” . Astronomy Picture of the Day. Credit: Dan Dzurisin, Cascades Volcano Observatory, USGS. May 9, 2006. 
      37. ^ “In the News” . Cascades Volcano Observatory. Archived from the original on 2007-01-07. Retrieved 2007-01-04. 
      38. ^ “Small Quake Reported at Mount St. Helens” . USA Today. January 17, 2008. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
      39. ^ “Mount St. Helens, Washington — Eruption 2004 to Current” . USGS. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
      40. ^ a b Satterfield, Archie (2003). Country Roads of Washington. iUniverse. p. 82. ISBN   0-595-26863-3 . 
      41. ^ “The Bridge of the Gods” . Archived from the original on 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2006-11-26. CS1 maint: Unfit url ( link )
      42. ^ a b “Volcanoes and History: Cascade Range Volcano Names” . USGS. Archived from the original on 2006-10-28. Retrieved 2006-10-20. 
      43. ^ a b “NRHP nomination form and supplementary listing record for Lawetlat’la [Mount St. Helens]” (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
      44. ^ Vancouver, George (1798). A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World . London. pp. 421–422. OCLC   54529835 . OL   24592146M . 
      45. ^ Pringle 1993 .
      46. ^ Meany, Edmond S. (1920). “Origin of Washington Geographic Names” . The Washington Historical Quarterly. Washington University State Historical Society. XI: 211–212. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
      47. ^ Harris 1988 , p. 219.
      48. ^ “The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark” . USGS. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
      49. ^ Harris 1988 , pp. 220-221.
      50. ^ Harris 1988 , p. 224.
      51. ^ Harris 1988 , pp. 225,227.
      52. ^ Victor, Frances Fuller (1891). Atlantis arisen, or, Talks of a tourist about Oregon and Washington . Philadelphia: Lippincott. Retrieved 2018-06-14. 
      53. ^ a b Harris 1988 , p. 228.
      54. ^ Valerie A. Smith (June 6, 2006). “The Victims of the Eruption” . The many faces of Mt. St. Helens. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
      55. ^ “Harry Truman and His 16 Cats” . Wheeling Jesuit University Center for Educational Technologies. January 27, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
      56. ^ “Sister, friend say Harry probably dead” . Spokane Daily Chronicle . Associated Press . May 20, 1980. 
      57. ^ LaFee, Scott (December 3, 2003). “Perish the thought: A life in science sometimes becomes a death, too” . San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2017-05-21. 
      58. ^ “Across the USA: News From Every State”. USA Today . 1993-06-30. 
      59. ^ “Mount St. Helens: Senator Murray Speaks on the 25th Anniversary of the May 18, 1980 Eruption” . U.S. Senate. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
      60. ^ “Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument: General Visitor Information” . USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2004-11-21. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
      61. ^ “Climbing Mount St. Helens” . USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on 2004-10-19. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
      62. ^ “Climber dies after rescue attempts fail on Mount St. Helens” . February 17, 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. 
      63. ^ “Loowit Trail” . Retrieved 2011-09-03. 
      64. ^ “Mount St. Helens Volcanic National Monument: Restricted Area” (PDF). USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2011-09-03. 
      65. ^
        “Climbing Mount St. Helens” . U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
      66. ^
        “Mount St Helens Climbing Permit System” . U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
      67. ^
        “Monitor Ridge” . Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
      68. ^
        “Monitor Ridge Climbing Route” . U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
      69. ^
        “Worm Flows Route, Mount St. Helens” . The Peak Seeker. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
      70. ^
        “The Worm Flows, Winter Climbing Route” . U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 


      • Harris, Stephen L. (1988). “Mount St. Helens: A Living Fire Mountain”. Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes (1st ed.). Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company. pp. 201–228. ISBN   0-87842-220-X . 
      • Mullineaux, D. R.; Crandell, D.R. (1981). “The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington” . Professional Paper 1250. USGS. Retrieved 2006-10-28. 
      • Mullineaux, D. R. (1996). “Pre-1980 Tephra-Fall Deposits Erupted From Mount St. Helens” . Professional Paper 1563. USGS. Retrieved 2006-10-28. 
      • Pringle, P. T. (1993). “Roadside Geology of Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument and Vicinity” (PDF). Circular 88. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources Information. 
      • “Description: Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington” . Vancouver, Washington: USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory. Retrieved 2006-10-28. 

      Further reading

      • “Eruption of Mount St. Helens”. National Geographic . Vol. 159 no. 1. January 1981. pp. 3–65. ISSN   0027-9358 . OCLC   643483454 . 

      External links

      Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mount St. Helens .
      Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mount St. Helens .
      Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mount St. Helens
      • “Deep Magma Chambers Seen Beneath Mount St. Helens” in Science (journal) 04 Nov 2015.
      • Mount Saint Helens May Share Magma with an Entire Field of Volcanoes
      • “Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument” . US Forest Service. 
      • “St. Helens” . Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
      • Mount St. Helens photographs and current conditions from the United States Geological Survey website
      • USGS: Mount St. Helens Eruptive History
        • Most recent photos (most aerial) from the United States Geological Survey
      • University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections:
        • Mount St. Helens Post-Eruption Chemistry Database This collection contains photographs of Mount St. Helens, post-eruption, taken over the span of three years to provide a look at both the human and the scientific sides of studying the eruption of a volcano.
        • Mount St. Helens Succession Collection This collection consists of 235 photographs in a study of plant habitats following the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.
      • Audio recording of the May 18, 1980 eruption Recorded 140 miles (225 km) southwest of the mountain. Believed to be the only audio recording of the eruption.
      • The Royal Geography Society’s Hidden Journeys project:
        • The 1980 Mount St. Helens Eruption.
        • Audio slideshow: Mount St Helens (6:29 min) – Volcanologist Sarah Henton discusses the Cascade Mountains and explains the geology and impact of the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption.
      • A 3D model of Mount St. Helens
      • A 3D model of Mount St. Helens on 14 September 1975, before eruption.
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          Howard County Summer Theatre flies with ‘Mary Poppins’

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          Heather Reed and Justin Moe in Howard County Summer Theatre’s production of Cameron Mackintosh’s “Mary Poppins.”
          Heather Reed and Justin Moe in Howard County Summer Theatre’s production of Cameron Mackintosh’s “Mary Poppins.” (Courtesy Photo)

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          Howard County Summer Theatre celebrates its 43rd season with a production of Cameron Mackintosh’s "Mary Poppins" on June 29, 30 and July 1, 2, 5-8, at Mt. Hebron High School.

          This is the first flying production the company has done, as both the main character, Mary Poppins, and Bert, a chimney sweep, will take flight during the show, according to Tom Sankey, who has been directing HCST productions for 34 years.

          "We have been working with a company certified and trained to install a flying system," Sankey said. "Safety is our number one issue. It has been very, very challenging technically and musically."

          While the show is "obviously magical," Sankey said it is really about family.

          "I am really trying to focus the show on the family. They are why Mary comes in the first place," Sankey said, of the story that tells of a mysterious nanny who answers an ad written, but never sent, by the children of the Banks family.

          Art played a part in building Columbia

          Longtime residents thinking back on the 50-year history of Columbia have a lot to contemplate. If they really want to get the memories flowing, they should visit the exhibit “The HeART of Columbia: Creating community with art” at the Rouse Company Foundation Gallery at Howard Community College.

          There are 75 people in the cast and about 40 backstage and in the orchestra, Sankey said.

          "We have multi-generations in the cast," Sankey said. "It is truly a family affair with mothers and sons on stage and fathers and sons on stage. It is a nice group of new people as well as some veterans."

          This year, beneficiaries from ticket sales will be Prepare for Success and the Ellicott City Partnership.

          "It really is a show that every member of the family could enjoy," Sankey said. "It is a nice, family-centered show."

          Howard County Summer Theatre presents Cameron Mackintosh’s "Mary Poppins" June 29-30 and July 1, 5-8, at 7 p.m.; and July 2 at 2 p.m., at Mt. Hebron High School, 9440 Old Frederick Road, Ellicott City. Tickets are $18, $15 for seniors and ages 12 and under and can be purchased at or at the Ellicott City Music and Arts store. For more information, go to www.howardcountysummertheatre .

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          Best Construction Accounting Software Programs

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            Best Construction Accounting Software Programs

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            Glenn Tyndall
            Updated May 07, 2018

            Construction companies have to juggle both operational and accounting aspects in order to be successful. There are many programs on the market that claim to make these processes easier. These 10 programs listed below are the best accounting and business management applications that construction companies can use to run their businesses.

          • 01

            Jonas Construction Software

            Construction worker using laptop at construction site


            Blend Images – Chris Sattlberger/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images

            Jonas Software is an award-winning construction software that first came to the market in 1990. It offers an array of construction management applications for bid management, project management, service management, customer management and accounting.

            In fact, Jonas Construction Software has more than 40 modules designed to help construction companies manage both the accounting and operational aspects of the construction business. Jonas Construction Software is well suited for construction companies with at least $1 million of annual revenues.

          • 02

            QuickMeasure OnScreen

            Tally Systems is a construction software that is designed for companies that need a takeoff system for generating the estimates of the items needed for a project from the blueprints.

            QuickMeasure OnScreen is a good choice for small construction companies that do their estimations in Microsoft Excel but want an affordable software system to streamline operations and reduce takeoff times.

            QuickMeaure OnScreen data can be transferred to most job estimation software packages as well, which is another advantage of this takeoff software.

          • 03

            ID2WIN Estimating & Bidding

            ID2WIN Estimating & Bidding is an estimation and bid management software for heavy construction contractors, which includes earthwork, paving, utility, highway and other heavy construction companies.

            ID2WIN Estimating & Bidding helps heavy construction contractors track time and labor costs , materials and billings, as well as track communications with vendors and subcontractors and other workflow documentation.

            ID2WIN Estimating & Bidding can integrate with a few of the larger accounting software and enterprise resource management applications for mid- to large-sized heavy contractors with at least $25 million of annual revenues and 30 or more employees.

          • 04

            WinEx Master

            WinEx Master is a specialized construction accounting software for firms that need software to manage their excavation takeoff needs. The software is capable of creating a digital plan takeoff, which includes the ability to create both two-dimensional (2D) and three dimension (3D) takeoffs as well.

            WinEx Master also has the ability to import both CAD and Vector files. WinEx is not a comprehensive accounting software application but serves only to improve a construction firm’s excavation takeoff needs. WinEx Master can be used by any size excavation construction firm, large or small.

          • 05

            Primavera P6 Enterprise Project Portfolio Management

            Primavera P6 Enterprise Project Portfolio Management is a web-based enterprise resource planning (ERP) system for construction companies.

            Primavera P6 Enterprise Project Portfolio Management is capable of a wide array of functions from customer management, estimating, takeoff, bid management, project management and accounting.

            Primavera P6 Enterprise Project Portfolio Management is designed for construction companies with at least $25 to 30 million of annual revenues.

          • 06

            Sage Estimating

            Sage Estimating is an estimating software for all types of construction companies. Sage is a leading accounting software company for businesses, even developing the industry-specific Sage Construction Accounting Software product line.

            While Sage Estimating is a stand-alone product, it can be integrated with Sage’s construction accounting software. Sage estimating is good for small construction companies with at least $1 million of annual revenues.

          • 07

            Maxwell Systems StreetSmarts

            Maxwell Systems StreetSmarts is a business management software that can help heavy construction firms manage projects, takeoffs, and accounting. Maxwell Systems StreetSmarts can handle time and materials billings, job costing, and has document management functionality . Maxwell Systems StreetSmarts is designed for construction firms with more than $10 million of annual revenues.

          • 08


            COINS is designed for large contractors that need an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system that is capable of managing all aspects of their construction business.

            COINS has the basic accounting modules , including general ledger, accounts receivable , accounts payable, human resources , project management and others needed to run a business, but its project management application has job costing, change orders, purchase orders  and other functions that a large construction company will require.

          • 09

            Microsoft Dynamics SL for Construction

            Microsoft Dynamics SL for Construction is an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system for small- to mid-sized construction companies. Microsoft Dynamics SL for Construction has accounting, project management, service management, business intelligence, IT management and other functional modules construction firms need.