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what university course to take to become a doctor

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Articles

Life as a Medical Student: 12 Things You Really Have to Know



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180 comments


Being a medical student will involve working harder than you’ve ever worked in your life – but chances are, it’ll also involve having more fun than you’ve ever had before. There are plenty of off-putting myths about being a medical student, but in reality it’s enjoyable, interesting and highly rewarding, especially in light of what you’re working towards. In this article I will describe 12 things about being a medical student that I hope will reassure and excite you about the prospect of studying medicine.

 

1. You will be able to use what you learn for the rest of your life

This might seem like a fairly trivial point, but it should not be overlooked. The truth for many courses is that you are only really studying in order to pass your exams and once you have managed this the information which you have tried so hard to learn is largely useless to you. This is very much not the case in medicine, with areas of study including anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and pathology all being directly applicable in diagnosing, understanding and treating a disease. Not only is this a great incentive to learn the core course material well, in order that you will be a competent doctor, it is also an incentive to go beyond the basic lecture material and satisfy your curiosity about what you have been taught. As a medic this extra detail could one day be put into practice in a clinical situation and could make a crucial difference to a patient. When you are studying medicine you are not just studying for the next exam but taking the first steps on a course of lifelong learning, building your basis of professional knowledge throughout your medical career.

 

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Difficult at university, and no easier when you actually start working- but with a huge positive impact on lives.

 

2. Sometimes it’s hard work

Studying medicine comes with a certain expectation to work harder on average than most other students. There are generally more contact hours than other subjects (this year I have a 9-5 day every Friday) with practicals and lectures taking up a great deal of time. Of course it’s not just the contact hours when you are working: lecture notes need to be read over, essays have to be written, practicals should be prepared for and keeping on top of it all can be a challenge. This is especially the case as your work load will vary from week to week, sometimes being set a great deal of work and sometimes having a whole week with very little to do. Therefore it’s important to be flexible with how you work and appreciate that sometimes you will have to put in a long stint of work in order to have the time off when you need it.

There’s also a reasonable amount of pressure on to pass exams. In most subjects other than medicine what you are really studying and aiming for is the best grade possible. Obviously this is true to an extent in medicine, but there is an additional challenge, which is the very high pass marks for the “2nd MB” exams, the ones you have to pass in order to become a doctor. By being passed in these you are essentially being certified as competent enough in a subject area to continue towards a professional medical career. Passing these exams can often require cramming a great deal of knowledge in a small space of time and this can be stressful, but the reward after exams is a long summer to enjoy. Medicine can be challenging, but…

 

3. It’s not all hard work!

Don’t panic, medicine can be challenging but you’ll still have plenty of time to enjoy being an undergraduate, an experience that many people say is the best time of their life. The level of work in the course is such that you will have time to make the most out of other activities at university, such as sports, music and the huge range of other societies that are on offer at university. All that you need to do in order to manage these other activities is be efficient with the time you spend working; don’t spend a whole afternoon watching YouTube videos if you know you have a music rehearsal that evening. University is about a lot more than simply gaining a degree, you will learn a lot about yourself and other people and hopefully build yourself into someone who is capable of being a good doctor.

 

4. Being a medical student isn’t all about studying medicine

All these activities that you can do in your spare time aren’t just about having fun, however. While the main reason you do them is to enjoy yourself and take your mind off work they are actually very important in your “personal development”. This is, as mentioned above, working on skills that are outside the scope of academic study but are still vital to being an effective doctor. For example, by taking part in music or theatre you will become accustomed to performing in front of a large crowd of people and as a consequence if you ever have to present at a conference or even to a team of your colleagues, you will be able to stand up with confidence and say what you need to.

Equally, playing in a sports team will help you function with other people, some of whom you may have a personality clash with or strongly differ in opinions. You become used to a position of responsibility, with other people relying on you to perform your role, sometimes under pressure. Sports and societies also provide an opportunity to take a leadership and organisational role, which once again will become very important in a clinical context, whether it is organising ward staff or running a practice as a GP. Medicine is a career in which it is vital to emerge from university as a functional person who is capable of interacting well with others. This will not be achieved by sitting in your room every evening and studying the lecture notes: there is an important balance to be struck between working and having a life.

 

5. Studying anatomy involves more than looking at pictures

Anatomy can be rather full-on, especially at traditional institutions such as Cambridge, where throughout the course of your first year you dissect a “subject” who has decided to donate their body to training medical students. This means getting involved with a scalpel yourself and doing what can occasionally be a rather unpleasant task. Some people might be really excited by the idea of getting stuck in and having a really practical course in anatomy, but for those who don’t you shouldn’t panic. Most other universities use only pre-prepared dissections (prosections), which you will still have to learn the structures of and examine, but without necessarily getting your hands dirty.

 

6. You will make some of your closest friends studying medicine

Make sure you take the time to make the most of the people you’re at university with. They don’t necessarily have to be medics; many people become very close with people in their sports team or society, but medics do seem to end up hanging around together. Unfortunately this can sometimes lead to slightly geeky “medic chat” where before you know what’s happening you end up discussing what happened in the morning’s lectures, or how you found last week’s practical. This can be a good way to remind yourself what happened in the lecture earlier (no one can concentrate all the way through a full one hour lecture), but sometimes it’s just light-hearted discussion about which lecturer makes it very hard to stay awake!

 

7. Studying medicine brings you up to date with the latest medical research

For those of you who are really interested in the biological sciences, studying medicine is a great opportunity to be brought very close to the frontier of current scientific knowledge, beyond what you will find in textbooks. Your lecturers are all actively involved in their field of interest and as such it is part of their job to stay up to date with all the latest advances and studies that are going on in that area. Therefore they can teach things well before they are published in textbooks and make you aware of very up-to-date and relevant research papers. Be it the latest cell reproduction pathways associated with tumours or the most recently discovered ion channels in the heart, you will be brought up to the current level of understanding.

 

8. Medicine is a long course

Studying medicine is very much a marathon, not a sprint. It is a 5 or 6 year course, where in your final few years holidays become a lot shorter and you are studying almost all year round (instead of having three months off a year). The reason the course is so long is because of the volume of material that needs to be learned; both the basic scientific principles and the clinical skills needed to apply them must be taught.

While this may seem like a fairly monumental task the truth is that while at university time seems to pass incredibly rapidly, probably because the average student is so busy they don’t have time to notice each term flying past. While this is nice as it feels as if you’re making rapid progress through your studies it also means it’s very easy to get behind on work and not catch up until the holidays come around. Fortunately the holidays come around so quickly due to the short length of the terms you can usually get away with this and the holidays are often a valuable opportunity to make sure you understand the past term’s work before the chaos of term time starts again. Some academic staff even go as far as to say…

 

9. You have a vacation, not a holiday

What they mean by this is that the Christmas and Easter breaks are simply the times when you vacate your accommodation and not a complete holiday from work. Of course, this does not necessarily have to be true. If you’ve managed your work very well during term time and stayed on top of everything there is no reason why you can’t enjoy a well earned rest for a few weeks. If, however, you prefer to do as many activities as you can while in residence the vacations can be an important opportunity to pay back the time you borrowed during the term. Most importantly, it’s about finding a balance. You don’t want to start the term feeling fatigued from working too hard over the holidays, but equally you don’t want to start the term not having a clue what’s going on.

 

10. Organisation is key

Studying at university is a real contrast to being a student at school and one of the real challenges is organising your work and activities. You can no longer rely on your parents to keep a calendar of everything that’s going on and instead you must sort things for yourself. Add to this the fact that a significant proportion of time at university will be spent feeling tired, due to excessive studying or partying, and there is a recipe for potential disaster. Tutorials may clash with rehearsals, practicals may coincide with sports matches or a MedSoc event might be happening when you’re meant to be seeing your family. The most important thing is to have some kind of system, whether it is a paper diary you keep with you or a calendar on your phone. Make sure you’re not the one who is always nearly missing things or running round at the last minute trying to work out where you’re supposed to be.

 

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As a medical student, a stethoscope is a tool with which you become well-acquainted very soon.

11. If you pass your exams you’ll become a doctor

Bar any kind of disaster, if you pass all your exams while studying medicine you will go on to become a doctor. This may well seem like stating the obvious, but it’s worth taking a step back and thinking about this. By passing you in an exam a university is certifying that you are competent enough in that subject area to continue on the path to becoming a doctor. What does this mean for you? First of all it means that it can be quite difficult to pass your exams. In other subjects you are certified as competent by scoring a decent grade (usually a 2:1), however in medicine if you pass you will be guaranteed to continue down the path of clinical school and continue on to a professional medical career.

While there is the drawback of having an especially tough time passing exams this is also a very exciting prospect. If you manage to continue at a reasonable level, putting enough work in, you will qualify as a doctor. Compare this with a subject such as law, where if you pass your law degree with a 2:1 you are not guaranteed to become a lawyer; you are not even guaranteed a job. This is also the case with engineering, while you may become a certified engineer it does not mean you have any kind of reassurance that you will go on to have a job in engineering. If things get tough and you think you might struggle to pass just remember that by passing you are taking one step more towards being a doctor.

 

12. Most of your peers will be very intelligent

Medical students represent an extremely limited selection of people your age and they will tend to be both very capable and hard working. This can sometimes result in you feeling rather demoralised when comparing yourself to other medics, especially as you will tend to notice the ones working harder than you more than the rest. Remember, the people you are comparing yourself to represent the very top fraction of students in the country and as such you should not be disheartened if some of them are better than you. In fact there will be plenty of other medical students at the same level as you who are making the most out of university to develop themselves as a person, not just as a student.

 

Being a medical student puts you in a very privileged position, among the very top students across the country. It generally seems to be the case that medics follow the mantra “work hard, play hard”. Most importantly, remember that being a student is not only a means to an end, but an end in itself. Make sure you make the most of being an undergraduate!

 

Image credits: surgery ; stethoscope .

Comments (180)

  1. Carla

    January 9, 2014 at 6:14 pm


    Great post!

    Reply

    • Ochoga David Ogaba

      November 9, 2016 at 2:26 pm


      what an awsome article.In fact it inspired me alot

      Reply

    • ebhat

      January 7, 2017 at 1:29 pm


      > oh my God ,this is so complete..I felt really great and after reading this…I’m in my first year and the semester wasn’t great at all but this has made me do a rethink as to all the things i’ve been doing wrong….Thank you so much

      Reply

      • laine

        January 20, 2018 at 11:26 am


        is it so hard? cant wait to start, Im afraid that it might be so so so difficult

        Reply

    • mam

      September 1, 2017 at 5:45 am


      > yes

      Reply

  2. Aida

    March 27, 2014 at 4:36 pm


    Thank you !

    Reply

  3. Liz

    August 28, 2014 at 2:07 pm


    These last few points are a pathetic outlook on life. One should not be happy with scraping through, if your going to become a doctor you should try to become the best doctor you can be. There is no reason but laziness or selfishness that one who satisfied the stringent criteria to enter into medical school can not achieve a high standard of marks whilst there. This generation wuss dribble is ridiculous, anyone too lazy to aim higher than a pass can reassure themselves with the fact the medical schools are so strapped for cash these days that is it too costly for them to fail a student. So the school will baby you until you pass. Grow up, your no longer and insecure child now, you need to realise that the real world is tough, you don’t deserve any special treatment for being born into white privelidge, earn your privelidge or at least make it useful that the world has wasted several tonnes of fresh water, fossil fuels, rare animals and children’s backs and mental health to sustain your indulgent life thus far.

    Reply

    • Jane

      May 8, 2015 at 12:05 am


      > Bitter much?

      Reply

      • Pam

        September 30, 2015 at 11:14 am


        > Please learn how to spell and improve your grammar before you try to voice your simplistic opinions. But thanks for the attempt!

        Reply

        • sheza

          October 20, 2015 at 1:18 am


          > Pam, I think Liz is english, so her spelling would actually be correct in her culture.

          Reply

    • LC

      August 4, 2016 at 8:16 pm


      > An arguably reasonable point, sadly ruined by blatant bitterness and prejudice. The mentioning of race was the absolute low point- it was irrelevant and, more importantly, completely innaccurate. The numbers of non-white UK medical students are hugely disproportionate to the overall non-white UK population.
      I kindly suggest that you keep your uninformed vitriol to yourself.

      Reply

    • Naomi

      April 12, 2017 at 10:03 am


      > “you’re” going to become a doctor, “you’re” no longer “an” insecure child now, not “your”/”and” (not the only spelling/grammar mistakes in there).

      Reply

    • Amba

      September 18, 2017 at 10:41 pm


      > u better create ur own world with ur principles. ….saddist?

      Reply

    • UI

      February 5, 2018 at 9:33 pm


      Very well stated! Truth is hard to accept. Change is constant and we must find the strength of the most high to keep pressing for the high mark. Faith without works is dead! I know that God has to be at the beginning of all of my endeavors. Thanks:)

      Reply

      • TD

        February 5, 2018 at 9:35 pm


        Sorry, Comment intended for Liz

        Reply

    • kumar

      February 7, 2018 at 12:48 pm


      My daughter is considering medicine , we found the article very informative, I think you are taking things a little too seroius , this is not really the forum for the expressing such views.

      Reply

    • Carren

      April 13, 2018 at 12:30 am


      Great post. Very informative and inspiring.

      Reply

  4. Natasha

    September 4, 2014 at 8:55 am


    Great post! Extremely helpful and motivating. Thank you!

    Reply

    • ABDULRAHMAN IBRAHIM

      May 23, 2016 at 5:30 pm


      >Medicine,to me,It’s a simple course

      Reply

      • Anusha Munishvaran

        August 2, 2017 at 12:57 pm


        > Hi Abdul. U seem very cinfident . That’s good. I am currently a matric student I’m SA and my passion is to study medicine. I have very good academic marks. Unfortunately I did not do well in my nbt test. I applied for a rewrite and I need some help preparing for my next test. Is there any way u will be able to assist me. And please anyone that has recently written their nbt test. I would like to hear gr u as well. Thank you Soraya

        Reply

  5. nenye

    October 3, 2014 at 12:32 am


    Great post!

    Reply

  6. Paper

    November 25, 2014 at 6:47 pm


    To the third comment: You’re a moron.

    Reply

    • Faith Ng’uni

      December 27, 2017 at 3:22 pm


      This article is helpful and inspiring.Thanks

      Reply

  7. TeaBag

    January 12, 2015 at 7:36 pm


    Great! I’m in high school yet and this is a great incentive to become a doctor!!

    Reply

  8. omoola olamide

    January 19, 2015 at 9:01 am


    Thank u verymuch…xo helpful…more grease to ur elbow.

    Reply

  9. Dhaarshana

    February 11, 2015 at 11:09 pm


    Thank u so much for this post!! It really helped me to boost my confidence. 🙂

    Reply

  10. Rasan Gardi

    April 5, 2015 at 11:20 pm


    A very motivating post ! Unfortunately some doctors instead of supporting ,they tell us that you will not become good doctors when we dont know to answer one of their questions .It’s really disappointing , they should increase our self confidence

    Reply

    • franz

      August 17, 2015 at 6:56 am


      To tell you honestly it is not disheartening to be told as such but rather a challenge to do better. Life will be tough and doctors face a lot of hard choices each day. If one wants to become a doctor they should be well equipped and knowledgeable on what they do so that the public is reassured that medical schools are thus delivering sought for professionals that will be provide and care for the public’s health. Cheer up! It’s just a challenge.

      Reply

  11. BITUNGURAMYE ADAM

    April 6, 2015 at 10:10 am


    To the first,

    extremely true.. we do not study to pass exams only. rather to pass that exam and keep and use that knowledge for a lifetime

    Reply

  12. Sadeepani Karunathilaka

    May 8, 2015 at 8:23 pm


    Before I read this I had many problems as a medical student in Sri Lanka.But if I read this I gain a new path way to enter this subject.i had a very big stress .thank Thanks a lot for a giving guidelines in this way
    .

    Reply

  13. Shohini Maitra

    June 2, 2015 at 7:47 am


    Hi,
    I’m interested in doing medical research, but I’m a little (or REALLY) confused as to which path I should take for that. Is studying, say, microbiology/biomedical sciences a better idea, or medical school (and specialising in say, pathology/microbio after that?) I would be really thankful if you could help me out.

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      June 2, 2015 at 9:19 am


      Dear Shohini,

      You are better off pursuing a microbiology or biomedical sciences degree (or something similar, e.g. biochemistry) than going for medical school. Not only is a life sciences degree a more direct route into your chosen career, it’s also much less competitive than medical school.

      We hope this helps!

      The ORA Team.

      Reply

  14. flames

    June 13, 2015 at 6:38 am


    Thanks so much for your post.

    Reply

  15. linus Augustine

    June 25, 2015 at 10:27 pm


    Thanks a lot for sharing that insight, which gives me courage to study medicine.

    Reply

  16. asma

    June 27, 2015 at 10:40 am


    It helped a lot, i feel much better about medicine it really motivated me to study this major, Thanks for your cooperation

    Reply

  17. caleb

    June 27, 2015 at 2:18 pm


    indeed motivated. Being in high school and aspiring to take medicine. feel enthusiastic and bold to tackle it. thanks for the post

    Reply

  18. aishath nathuly

    July 3, 2015 at 8:02 am


    i wanted to ask if there is chance to study medicine even i am doing business in my o level

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      July 3, 2015 at 10:43 am


      Dear Aishath,

      It seems unlikely but you never know! We recommend emailing or phoning the medical school at a university you might like to attend, and asking their advice on what you would need to do in order to gain admission there.

      We hope this helps.

      The ORA Team

      Reply

  19. Sarah

    July 16, 2015 at 11:44 am


    Great post!! But I was wondering, How challenging are these exams ??

    Reply

  20. Kunal Nune

    July 19, 2015 at 11:35 am


    Thank you. It is a very helpful article and helps in lot of ways to us morally and it’s very true. But some of the things differ a lot in our country, India, where medical students face a number of problems.

    Reply

  21. Lerato Miggan Msiza

    July 19, 2015 at 6:45 pm


    Now I really know them,….thanks to you..

    Reply

  22. Abejide Temitope Elizabeth

    July 25, 2015 at 9:42 am


    Thank you very much. Now I know what I really need to do.Thanks for motivating us all.

    Reply

  23. Adaidearsley

    July 25, 2015 at 2:15 pm


    I was thinking of going for another course but now am fully convince that medicine is my area. Thank you for the post.

    Reply

  24. Victor

    July 30, 2015 at 2:57 am


    I really appreciate these post as it has me strong backups on my ambition to study medicine,it was really helpful.thank you.

    Reply

  25. samrach

    August 1, 2015 at 11:51 am


    I really thank you for your post … It is very helpful for me.

    Reply

  26. Devika

    August 5, 2015 at 7:11 pm


    well said.
    motivating words.
    🙂

    Reply

  27. Precious

    August 6, 2015 at 5:29 am


    Thanks so much for the post. I thought I could no longer make it due to the stress but now I have more reasons to be a good and happy medical doctor.

    Reply

  28. Henry Oghifo

    August 17, 2015 at 10:41 am


    Thanks for impacting more knowledge to us on medical students; may God bless you all.

    Reply

  29. Haruna Ya’u Haruna

    September 17, 2015 at 2:29 pm


    Thanks for energizing us on medicine…

    Reply

  30. Abdulrazaq

    September 20, 2015 at 5:13 pm


    Its a really nice post thanks but my question is , can one be allowed into a medical school if he has eye problem that requires him to use lenses for magnifying purpose?

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      September 21, 2015 at 9:03 am


      Dear Abdulrazaq,

      That should be no problem at all. Almost all universities will have a Disability Advisory Service (or something similar under a different name), who are there to make sure that students with disabilities are not disadvantaged in university study. You might be interested to read this article about how a student with visual impairments coped with the requirements of medical school.

      We hope this helps.

      The ORA Team

      Reply

      • Shwe Sin

        December 31, 2015 at 10:41 am


        This is a wonderful article and for the first time it made me feel like I actually have a chance at medical school and the feeling is overwhelming. I have had visual impairment from birth and have undergone cataract surgery and I need magnifying glasses to read and I always felt embarrassed about using the. So applied for a degree that I enjoy but am not passionate about. My father recently passed away and I had to put my studies on hold, so I started teaching science to 6th and 7th graders and my love for science was rekindled but deep down I was scared that I wasn’t good enough and wouldn’t be able to keep up because of my visual impairments, because I had struggled keeping up with my studies during my senior year because I couldn’t see the board during lessons and teacher was indifferent towards me and so I was terrified to ask questions. However this article has given me hope to pursue my dreams again and for that I am truly grateful (I mean it from the bottom of my heart).

        Reply

  31. camara

    September 23, 2015 at 1:33 am


    Thank you so much for this post.I am really motivated.Medicine is my dream course.

    Reply

  32. Parth verma

    September 25, 2015 at 7:29 am


    I want to do medicine in USA and I am from India is it possible can I pass USMLE . I’m in 12 th

    Reply

  33. Idawu abdulrahman babious

    September 28, 2015 at 7:13 am


    Hmmm, thanks so much for your post. I really appreciate it.

    Reply

  34. presh

    September 30, 2015 at 12:22 pm


    The post is really an intense one. Can some of the books used during medical study be bought before time? If yes, what are their names?

    Reply

  35. lysse

    October 3, 2015 at 4:34 am


    I’m so nervous because 2 years from now, I’ll be in college. and since when I was a kid, it’s been my dream to become a doctor. But I heard that taking BSc Biology is quite hard, maybe for me because I don’t like Math.. and BSc Biology is the best pre-med. Next year, I’m in grade 11 and I prefer to take Biology… 🙁

    Reply

  36. irene

    October 10, 2015 at 7:53 pm


    Wow, this is the first time I see someone being encouraging and positive about studying medicine. I’m thinking about studying this, but I’m still a little scared :/

    Reply

  37. Iwalokun Adebayo

    October 14, 2015 at 5:07 pm


    Thanks for your advice… My question is that,if someone is not good in chemistry in secondary school,can he/she still study medicine in other to become a medical doctor?

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      October 15, 2015 at 3:14 pm


      Dear Iwalokun,

      Usually, good Chemistry grades are essential to studying Medicine. You might find our articles on how to succeed in subjects you dislike and how to improve if you’re underperforming are useful in working out how to improve at Chemistry.

      Regards,

      The ORA Team

      Reply

  38. Awwal sabo

    October 15, 2015 at 11:51 pm


    Wow thanks for the advice, but if you are in Secondary School must you also be good in Physics to study Medicine?

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      October 16, 2015 at 3:33 pm


      Dear Awwal,

      Studying Medicine requires high grades across all sciences. For more information about studying Medicine, you might find the following article useful: ‘Are you thinking of studying Medicine?’ . Alternatively, you might be able to ask your school’s careers department for more information.

      Good luck!

      The ORA Team

      Reply

  39. Chia bill orseer

    October 16, 2015 at 2:26 pm


    Thanks for this article…. It’s like a guidebook…..

    Reply

  40. Iwalokun Adebayo

    October 22, 2015 at 2:01 pm


    Am not that good in chemistry but am good in biology and physic.can I stil study medicine?

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      October 22, 2015 at 3:09 pm


      Dear Iwalokun,

      Studying Medicine does generally require high grades across all sciences, but requirements can vary across Universities and courses and depending on what your grades are. If you are interested in studying Medicine you might want to look into specific courses for a better idea about the grades they require. For more information about studying Medicine, you might find the following article useful: ‘Are you thinking of studying Medicine?’ . Alternatively, you might be able to ask your teachers or school careers department for more information.

      Good luck!

      The ORA Team

      Reply

      • Abdillah

        December 18, 2017 at 10:59 am


        I’m not food in physics but I’m I have higher grade in biology and chemistry and now I’m second year of medicine

        Reply

  41. Iwalokun Adebayo

    October 23, 2015 at 1:14 pm


    Thanks u.
    If I want to study education in the university in other to be a biology teacher,which subject am I expect to do in jamb?

    Reply

  42. alaiya ayodele

    October 24, 2015 at 10:16 pm


    How to be a medical doctor is all my focus in life.

    Reply

  43. Anyaka Daniel

    October 27, 2015 at 11:32 am


    are you afraid @ sarah?….anyway, this post was really great…I can now feel and see my self on top

    Reply

  44. danielwhite

    November 4, 2015 at 11:24 am


    I am really grateful for that post thanks so much it boosted my confidence.

    Reply

    • Mellisa Chenge

      February 13, 2016 at 4:20 pm


      Thank you for this motivating post, I’m also interested in Medical studies…I’m in Grade 12 this year..

      Reply

  45. Adedipe pelumi. A

    November 4, 2015 at 9:38 pm


    Great post! A key to becoming a medical doctor. Thanks very much for the enlightenment.

    Reply

  46. Ridwan Rafid

    November 23, 2015 at 7:39 am


    I just got admitted in a medical college and my classes are going to start from January. Thanks for the post, this is going to help me my entire life. There is a rumour that studying medicine is the toughest work ever. But knowing from a medical student that it’s rather enjoying…. Feeling good.

    Reply

  47. alastor krey

    November 23, 2015 at 8:24 am


    9x post, keep it up.

    Reply

  48. clotilda unoakhe

    November 24, 2015 at 8:46 pm


    nice information,best i’ve read so far. Merci beaucou. Amazing!!!

    Reply

  49. David

    December 7, 2015 at 10:37 pm


    Helpful to me , it has improved my understanding and motivated me more. Thank you

    Reply

  50. naizar fathima ruhaiya

    December 21, 2015 at 6:57 pm


    It is very useful information because you make the medical students more interest. It is a nice discussion. Well done.

    Reply

  51. Idawu babious

    December 23, 2015 at 7:07 pm


    As a medical student, you don’t have to stay at home playing or working majestically in the street, thinking you are the best, you have to develop your time at least 5 hours to study per day which is 2 hours in the morning, 1 hour in the noon and 2 hours at night. I am sure by doing this you will achieve what you need by God grace. Secondly know who you mingle with, don’t risk your life to unknown person, everybody has his/her own achievement in life.

    Reply

    • ESTHER ENOYI ROBERT

      September 21, 2017 at 5:21 pm


      Thank You Very Much for the post, it Was Insightfull,Educating and Encouraging

      Reply

  52. Adeyemi Lydia

    January 2, 2016 at 7:17 pm


    Thanks for the post, it gives me more courage to become a doctor.

    Reply

  53. fredrick

    January 4, 2016 at 12:41 pm


    Thanks for the encouragement. I am from Kenya.

    Reply

  54. seyi

    January 8, 2016 at 10:34 am


    i’m a biochemistry student in a nigerian university and i would like to study medicine after my first degree…how would i go about this? and what advice have you got?

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      January 11, 2016 at 10:32 am


      Dear Seyi,

      Thank you for your comment. Unfortunately it is difficult for us to give you any specific advice about your studies after your degree, although we do have an article about studying medicine that may be able to help you out.
      Are you thinking of studying Medicine?
      Hopefully this will contain some information that will help you. Additionally, we recommend talking to a tutor or careers advisor at your university.

      Best of luck with your future studies!

      The ORA Team

      Reply

  55. i am nsama

    January 22, 2016 at 4:17 pm


    very helpful.thanks…

    Reply

  56. Lionel

    February 8, 2016 at 7:18 am


    Thanks… I’ll just go about it 🙂

    Reply

  57. Fat

    February 12, 2016 at 4:10 pm


    Thanks a lot. I’m sure that we are all aware of what’s awaiting us but some nice thoughts from time to time is really comforting.

    Reply

  58. Cletus Gabriel

    February 17, 2016 at 8:04 am


    Am really good in biology but when it comes to chemistry and physics I can’t stand it. Can I still go for medicine? I really need your help.

    Reply

    • OLUMOFE DEBORAH

      November 24, 2017 at 7:27 pm


      > I really have a challenge in Physics and chemistry will I still be able to study Medicine

      Reply

  59. Emmanuel Pius

    February 27, 2016 at 9:02 pm


    Great inspiring lesson hope with God and hard work medicine will be my life time career
    Amen!!!!!!!
    😊

    Reply

  60. minons123

    February 29, 2016 at 6:00 pm


    I love this inspiration

    Reply

  61. blessings phiri

    March 14, 2016 at 4:49 pm


    Yes it’s helpful but if for you it’s easy don’t think it is for us

    Reply

  62. FaraHinHunHan

    March 16, 2016 at 3:24 pm


    I was about to give up on a dream to be a medical student.
    thanks.
    I’m going to pursue this dream!

    Reply

  63. Jaspreet kaur singh

    March 20, 2016 at 10:29 pm


    Thxz a lot for giving information about it .
    I will try my best for it .. ☺?nd even its my dream nd i trust to fulfill my dream …

    ☺?☺☺??

    Reply

  64. Rosemary barko

    March 23, 2016 at 4:19 pm


    just a high school student but egger to study medicine. was scared at first but thanks a lot for your encouragement☺

    Reply

  65. Lorenzo

    March 29, 2016 at 1:59 pm


    I’m from south Africa and You just made me realise
    that I want to become a doctor thanks!!!

    Reply

  66. Sandipto Ghosh

    March 30, 2016 at 12:04 pm


    I am just a young student of class 10 and i have already started planning my future…
    This post have not only ignited a spark in my
    Eyes…but also it has boosted my confidence….towards my career.

    Reply

  67. Sammy

    March 30, 2016 at 7:04 pm


    I really love this post… it’s a challenge to do better…I’m already motivated and can never be deterred…

    Reply

  68. Htwe Ei Nge

    March 31, 2016 at 10:29 am


    Thank you. No.11 really gives me strength. I will try my best for exams.

    Reply

  69. Gadzo

    March 31, 2016 at 11:51 pm


    I’m 36 and a teacher. I got an E in Biology, D in Mathematics and Os in Chemistry and Physics under A level Cambridge, 1998. By then I was drinking and having fun. However, I qualified with BA degree majoring in Mathematics. I rewrote A level Chemistry and Mathematics and got As last year. I am busy with Physics which I am sure I will get an A. I have written several Maths textbooks for grade 12 which are currently being used in country. My dream career was always medicine, but now I am old. Do you think I will make it in medicine considering my age?

    Reply

  70. Olanrewaju Folakemi Roseline

    April 4, 2016 at 9:56 pm


    It was a nice post. Thanks

    Reply

  71. imrana abubakar kwaido

    April 16, 2016 at 9:57 pm


    I am Imrana Abubakar Kwaido. I am highly delighted and I appreciated this article. It is extremely true and add me a lot of interest to study medicine. Thank you a lot for your guidelines.

    Reply

  72. Shamsuddeen

    May 4, 2016 at 1:32 pm


    I am Shamsuddeen Alhassan Adam… am here to say that post is great, marvelous and encouraging i always have a dream of becoming a doctor i read b.sc chemistry (my first degree) because I was not opportuned to get medicine when I finished secondary school…. i finished my first degree (bsc. chemistry ) at the age of twenty and i applied for medicine again and now iam in 4th year of my studies (level 4) …I am happy i have no regret …I am about to become what i always dream of becoming….. am now 24

    Reply

  73. Mercy chisambi

    May 6, 2016 at 10:15 am


    Thanks

    Reply

  74. Mumbi Ellatone

    May 12, 2016 at 7:40 am


    Hi My name is Ellatone and am doing DP in “clinical officer” at one of the colleges here in Zambia.My question is; looking at this phase that am doing (study in general clinical officer), What personal advise can you give me on what can be the next best feild i should trigger when have completed the course?

    Reply

  75. Ice

    May 14, 2016 at 9:10 pm


    thanks

    Reply

  76. ABDULRAHMAN IBRAHIM

    May 23, 2016 at 5:31 pm


    OKAY

    Reply

  77. Sarah Samaha

    May 31, 2016 at 11:07 pm


    Great post ! Thank you ♡
    I have a question ,
    I have the chance to study medicine in Netherlands ,
    But medicine in the universities of Netherlands is studied in Dutch ,
    except in Groningen University , the first three years is studied English then the rest is studied in Dutch
    Is that good for me to study medicine in Dutch ?
    What is better ? Study in English or Dutch
    What is the difference between them ?

    Reply

  78. praveena

    June 3, 2016 at 11:43 am


    good post.tq .but i wanted to ask u some things i am lacking cofindence with ..i am a final year mbbs student in india .i find your post quite encouraging n boosting up my confidence .As u said in u’r post 12 things in med student’s life sports n music can be learned along with studying medicine ;it’s good but in indian medical colleges we can’t get assistance with sports or music. i am interested in them right from my school life but because of my parents i moved on with my studies and didn’t get a chance for these activities .But now i am having regrets about them .so as a 4th yr mbbs student can i learn those activities now along with my studies .Now i am not able to take any further step to learn them because i don’t want to hear from my parents that i can’t become a post graduate doctor because of these activities but i have confidence and i can work hard to manage my time for studies along with sports and music .so can i learn them now by taking one step further n become a good doctor .
    please suggest me …so that i can relieve my stress and can hav fun along with my studies .

    Reply

  79. yemi

    June 5, 2016 at 12:38 pm


    > remember praveena,you’re too blessed to be stressed, you can always participate in other extra curricular activities nw .and postpone your music and sport desires for some other times to make you av gud relationship wit ur parent. won’t you rather trust me

    Reply

  80. Kaytee

    June 7, 2016 at 6:38 pm


    I am extremely confused. I like biology, but am not the kind of person whp can study so much. i get great grades but i just cant. any suggestions? also, can i reach you personally somewhere to talk about this?

    Reply

    • ORA Admin

      June 8, 2016 at 12:27 pm


      Dear Kaytee,

      Thank you for getting in touch. If you are interested in studying Medicine, you may find the following article helpful:
      – Are you thinking of studying Medicine?
      Additionally, at ORA we offer an Introduction to Medicine course and a Medical School Preparation course, either of which (depending on your age) could be useful in preparing you to study medicine. I would suggest that you talk to a teacher or careers advisor at school about your study options, as they will know more about you as a student than we do.

      I hope this helps, we wish you the best of luck with your future studies.

      Best Regards,

      The ORA Team

      Reply

  81. nze kingsley chukwudi

    June 10, 2016 at 1:32 pm


    This was really helpful i saw a lot of comments from nigerians like me and am proud of us for choosing to study medicine and excel at it, but great articule. Am all fired up.

    Reply

  82. Heena kouser

    June 12, 2016 at 12:07 pm


    I’ve got 84.8% overall in 9th n now presently m in 10th. Do u think ths grade tells tht m capable t b a doctor? If no then how much % should I at least get in my 10th to choose medical field? ( plz ans my questions too cz m confused about choosing my goal… I’ve read all d comments n suggestions given by d ORA team. I thank u all for it… Plz suggest me about achieving my goal…)

    Reply

  83. Shibani

    June 16, 2016 at 2:57 am


    Really great post! I’m currently studying a degree unrelated to medicine which I know I’m not passionate for. I’m wondering whether I should pursue studying medicine?

    Reply

  84. Matiez

    June 23, 2016 at 11:26 pm


    I always thought that because i wasnt really academically talented naturally but anything and i mean anything is achievable with Jesus Christ and hard work. Amen

    Reply

  85. John

    June 30, 2016 at 5:19 pm


    I’m almost Good in all the courses I have to study as a medical student but I do have problem with Physiology.

    Reply

  86. Roderick

    July 12, 2016 at 1:48 am


    wow

    Reply

  87. Roderick

    July 12, 2016 at 1:49 am


    ? WOW

    Reply

  88. kendella

    July 16, 2016 at 10:19 pm


    How difficult and tough are these MB exams and How voluminous are the studies for medicine?

    Reply

  89. Lawrence

    July 18, 2016 at 7:16 pm


    Im a Pharmacist MPharm and a Doctor MD. Pharmacy was much harder them medical school. In Pharmacy i had to draw structures of over 100 medicinal drugs. and learn 2000 medications by heart.

    Medicine is more reading less drawing. Exams are MCQs. Pharmacy we had essays and long Calculus equations.

    Being a Doctor is simple hehehe. The real Horror starts after medical school, when you work 80-100hrs per week and trying to save people who are critical.

    Reply

  90. Matiya

    July 25, 2016 at 9:59 am


    Am now currently doing my third year of Medical school in Southern Africa (Zambia) it takes 7 years here, what are some tips you can share that can help me be the very be best I can become?

    Reply

  91. umar faruq

    July 31, 2016 at 1:46 pm


    That is a really encouraging article.

    Reply

  92. umar faruq

    July 31, 2016 at 1:51 pm


    Am in the senior high school .in my country we study mostly without practicals.we learn our books by heart but I have the confidence and hope in studying medicine in the united states.I happen to know nothing about the requirements of medicine. any help you can offer me?

    Reply

  93. Martin

    August 14, 2016 at 12:03 pm


    Thanks for this post. It is of immense help to me as a biginner

    Reply

  94. emmanuel appiah

    August 16, 2016 at 6:09 pm


    I’m emmanuel wanting to study medicine to be a doctor.. how to manage my time is my problem..

    Reply

  95. Ace

    August 18, 2016 at 8:48 am


    Thanks lots .now am prepared for this

    Reply

    • Dhruvi Jaiswal

      November 30, 2016 at 4:08 pm


      > can I have your any contact….I want to know more that are not writable, it will be appreciable. Thanks

      Reply

  96. Adnan

    August 27, 2016 at 11:41 pm


    i want to study mbbs seeing the career advantages of being a doctor. but i dont know if can take up too much stress and study everyday. my ques is whether mbbs is meant only for students who are 100% dedicated to being doctor? i am one of those who dont know what course to study. any type of help or suggested links will be appreciated. thankss.

    Reply

  97. juhar musa

    September 6, 2016 at 12:58 am


    Thanks you made me feel better and motivated.

    Reply

  98. Kofi awuah

    October 8, 2016 at 8:59 am


    Hello please am a high school graduate i did business in high school and i had B in intergrated science, B in mathematics and A in further mathematic(elective mathematics) and did well in other business subjects too but am asking if i can pursue medicine at college, please help me out i always wanted to do medicine but the school that i attended dont have a science school, it has only business and art.

    Reply

  99. Daniel

    October 9, 2016 at 10:20 pm


    this site is really helpful.But sir I need your guidance,because I want to go into medicine as a course

    Reply

  100. Theresah Amoako

    October 13, 2016 at 10:48 am


    Thanks a lot for this post.

    Reply

  101. Al’ameen abdulkadir

    October 14, 2016 at 5:58 pm


    Thank for d guidline i am new to medicine wish success to me and other colleages.what a hard journey with a sweet appreciable end junction

    Reply

  102. Al’ameen abdulkadir

    October 14, 2016 at 6:04 pm


    Thank for d guidline i am new to medicine wish success to me and other colleages.what a hard journey with a sweet appreciable end junction cute i am realy ready for it

    Reply

  103. Onuorah Francisca

    October 27, 2016 at 10:50 am


    Thanks a thousand time for this, i think u are giving an assurance for the future. Thanks once again.

    Reply

  104. BINYAM

    November 1, 2016 at 8:14 am


    Nice post

    Reply

  105. Leone Iram

    November 1, 2016 at 5:35 pm


    This post was extremely helpful. Medicine has always been the goal from the very beginning but I get discouraged about studying for too long. My question is, Does the fact that I am unable to study for long periods of time a good enough reason to not study medicine?

    Reply

  106. danish

    November 7, 2016 at 8:21 am


    Thanks a lot

    Reply

  107. hussein

    November 15, 2016 at 10:59 am


    thanks a lot for posting this important strategies and now I’m ready know to follow

    Reply

  108. Ekanem Victoria emmanuel

    December 8, 2016 at 3:48 pm


    Thank you for the post… I just got into the university and was scared about the course but your article has motivated me… thank you so much

    Reply

  109. Claire

    December 24, 2016 at 3:56 am


    I am only 12 years old but I have full intentions to become a doctor or a surgen. I have a hard time spelling, and the big words in medicine scare me; but I know that being a doctor is right for me. I belive in helping people and I think medicine is a great way to do that. Some people might think it tis crasi that a 12 year old who obviosly has the spelling abilaty of a 2nd grader will become a doctor; but I am a very diligent, smart, and hardworking child. I also am working on becoming fluent in spanish. Adios!

    Reply

    • Claire

      December 24, 2016 at 3:57 am


      > P.S. tomorrow is my b-day, so proud to share it with christ!

      Reply

    • Shruti

      February 1, 2017 at 5:09 pm


      > medicine is for the hard working… if u have that hunger in you u can overcome anything. Intelligence was never the key factor. Hard work always is…

      Reply

  110. gift nalavwe

    January 25, 2017 at 11:01 am


    iam 25 & a teacher, i did not manage to go into medical school due to some circumstances but still i have a passion for it & dream of becoming a medical doc one day.can i do it? pliz help.

    Reply

  111. Teddie Mar A. Molina

    January 30, 2017 at 6:54 am


    weel for me this article is very helpful and also inspiring. it helped me a lot for choosing a great coarse.

    Reply

  112. moses mambwe

    January 30, 2017 at 2:52 pm


    How possible is it for a person with one arm to become a medical doctor?

    Reply

  113. Shruti

    February 1, 2017 at 5:06 pm


    Really good! Potrayed our lives pretty well! I am in my 2nd year of MBBS… We have days like- party tonight n viva tomorrow- really incredible! All thats required is regularity and to be up to date with the day’s work so that you can be in the moment and do the right stuff at the right time.

    I have my bad hair days but all in all, medical college is a great experience and I’ve loved every bit of it- even the ones when you’re buried in ur books and think ur just gonna tear ur hair out.

    Learning does not feel useless anymore cz each word in the books is gonna make a difference some day in a clinical situations we’ll be put through later during internships and after.

    Tomorrow is my 3rd semester exams starting with Pathology. We’ve got a real huge syllabus for Pharmacology so at the moment I’m reading Pharma instead of Patho. My revision is not done yet. N I became really frustrated and came across ur article.

    Rejuvenated me totally!!! Thanks a ton!

    Reply

  114. Warda

    February 28, 2017 at 4:28 am


    What an ispiring article.
    Im now motivated to go do medicine knowing well the ups and downs

    Reply

  115. Jane Paragona

    March 7, 2017 at 8:36 am


    The medicine studies need to be very hard, this job is so importand and difficult. I know many medicine students, that’s sad they are the only one who can’t go out to often. 😀

    Reply

  116. Kingsley Chukwuemeka

    March 7, 2017 at 8:11 pm


    Am Emmyliouz,
    It’s an awesome nd great article to masses aspiring for medicine_including me..am motivated,more grease to ur elbow

    Reply

  117. Hlumelo

    March 10, 2017 at 5:00 am


    I’m so grateful to find this website so I can get an advice.
    I’m doing BSc complementary health science(natural medicine ), which is a 3 years degree. It’s not my passion, I love medicine and one day I’ll love to be an orthopedic surgeon. My family always disagree with me, as they wanted me to do engineering so I can I can get quick money.
    In my family I’m the last born of three children, and the first one to be at university.
    As my family says that it will take long years for medicine, but I don’t care as long as I fulfill my dream.

    I’ll like you to advise me on what you think I should do.

    Reply

    • V

      May 2, 2017 at 4:27 pm


      > Same here. Entering imperial master this sep and my dad wants me to get a job and earn money asap… because med courses are long and too expensive *sigh… But I am still gonna push it through! Despite may not be able to pay for med school in the future, I will continue to study my entrance exams as hard as possible and leave no regrets behind!!!

      Reply

  118. hasine

    March 23, 2017 at 12:01 pm


    Thanks for those hints

    Reply

  119. albarkaj

    April 9, 2017 at 2:08 pm


    nice I’m undergraduate wanting to be come a medical student and this guide me to put more effort on my studies

    Reply

  120. Otunte Christopher Jr

    April 9, 2017 at 8:06 pm


    Nice article, I was really inspired by this. I really wanna be a Medic not just for the high salary earn but for the passion I have for this career right from my Basic classes. Thanks for the article,it helps alot by rekindled my hope and passion for this great career

    Reply

  121. Abah Esther

    April 10, 2017 at 6:51 pm


    I was totally confused on what to study next at the university. I have my nce certificate and i wanted to go for medicine but all this time I taught medicine is going to be tough so i have decided to go for any related courses available. This article has made to focus on my dream again. Thanks for the counseling

    Reply

  122. mehru abbasi

    April 27, 2017 at 7:00 pm


    this was the very motivated post… its a really gud idea to become easily a doctor.if anyone read this post they will be so excited to study well in any university with a great interesting,and with no any worries…

    Reply

  123. Faith Splendour

    May 11, 2017 at 8:08 am


    Wow!Its Inspiring.I Know I Can Do It.U Boosted My Confidence.U Made Me Realized I Am Going To Be A Great Doctor Someday.Hardwork,dedication,willpower,tenacity,faith And Forbearance Is All One Need.

    Reply

  124. alaa yassin

    May 16, 2017 at 2:07 pm


    but what about studying medicine in developed country like egypt , I feel demoralizing … I cant compare myself to any other medical student in other countries …. I seek to present a good medical service to my patients in the future but what I have actually learned or what a bad way of teaching !?

    Reply

  125. femi

    June 8, 2017 at 3:38 pm


    the main route to become a successful doctor is through hard working,dedication managing your time and do not lag behind…….

    Reply

  126. Arya

    June 20, 2017 at 7:56 am


    Wow. I’m only just finishing up in high school and I am already so inspired by this article. Thank you so much. I feel so confident now going into medicine.

    Reply

  127. Vid

    July 8, 2017 at 7:22 pm


    So sweet advice any person can give

    Reply

  128. Edna

    July 18, 2017 at 10:10 am


    So nice and encouraging! This article really helped me understand how to tackle the challenges I will be encountering as I go into the university to study medicine to become a great and efficient doctor

    Reply

  129. NOBLE

    July 19, 2017 at 6:01 am


    VERY ENCOURAGING AND MOTIVATING THANKS A MILLION

    Reply

  130. fatuase Emmanuel

    August 1, 2017 at 8:44 am


    Tanks so much
    an encouraging article

    Reply

  131. Somto

    August 23, 2017 at 11:42 pm


    Thanks for this post. It’s really helpful

    Reply

  132. ayamhe steven

    September 6, 2017 at 2:49 pm


    i still need help about my spelling am still a kid ples anybook for that

    Reply

  133. Amaechi confidence

    September 12, 2017 at 9:43 am


    Am so grateful to have read this, thank you so much, so many people would only discourage you by asking u if u have brain to study medicine but what I know is that what they teach us while in the process of learning is what they will set for us in our exams but at the same time we should also broaden our perspective, our horizons, read with all our hearts, do not listen to the ill words people use on medicine, just believe in yourself that you can do it. Yes of course we should not base on lecturer’s note but we should also make research and study both the practical aspect and the theoretical aspect, and lastly leave God almighty to do the rest.
    Thank you so much.

    Reply

  134. Esther wausi kanyasya

    September 14, 2017 at 10:06 am


    please sent to me all categories based on medicine …
    mostly Im after the knowlge of all medicne programmes

    Reply

  135. katete James

    September 14, 2017 at 10:26 pm


    Thanks alot for the great post, it’s all about hardwork, determination, courage and being result oriented that can make you successful otherwise nothing is impossible, it’s a matter of giving it time.

    Reply

  136. Fidelis Arinze

    November 2, 2017 at 10:17 am


    Hi…am Fidelis Christian Arinze..
    Seriously i enjoyed this article alot because am a kind of person that love medical course. But my problem is that am that good in science subjects am confuse on to go about it i just finish my ssce and thankGod for the result all was credit. I so much gain alots this morning..
    Thank you somuch and remain. Please if i can get some advice on how to go.

    Reply

  137. Madelyn

    November 26, 2017 at 4:07 am


    Woah. I’m a graduating high school student and still thinking of what course will I take in college. This post help me a lot and now, studying medicine is one of my list. Can I be a doctor?

    Reply

  138. Salih

    December 26, 2017 at 11:15 pm


    I have no any connection with the medicine, but tonight I wrote in Google search ” important things in medicine” and it drove me to this text which I read, and it make me to respect the medicine even more.

    Reply

  139. Julia Wilhelm

    January 10, 2018 at 1:39 pm


    Thank you soo much! This really is helpful 😊

    Reply

  140. gadisjp.com

    January 11, 2018 at 7:31 am


    articles that are very good and for the future I hope your article more useful thanks again.

    Reply

  141. noora

    January 24, 2018 at 3:19 pm


    hi guys
    i want to be a doctor but i am scared i dont know that if i am choosing the right path pls help .
    i am confused

    Reply

  142. Sydney

    February 3, 2018 at 8:54 pm


    Add a comment…God bless..
    .
    THANKS.

    Reply

  143. amadi beauty chidinma

    February 22, 2018 at 1:04 pm


    WOW!
    it really a great post i love it
    thanks for your advice, i really do appreciate it

    Reply

  144. akash sharma

    March 12, 2018 at 8:47 am


    i like your post and it motivate me to do more hard work

    Reply

  145. Felicity

    April 11, 2018 at 6:58 pm


    I’m not that good in maths and science and I keep on doubting my self and ask if I can still qualify to study medicine and I’m in grade 11

    Reply


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By Andy Gardner
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|01 February 2018|4 min read

A-level choices

What A-levels do you need to become a doctor?

By Andy Gardner
(Careers Adviser)
|01 February 2018|4 min read

An aspiring medic? If you’re planning to study medicine at university, make sure your A-level line-up keeps your options open when it comes to applying to medical schools…

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Skip ahead to:

  • What A-levels are essential to study medicine?
  • What A-levels are useful to study medicine?
  • Examples of university entry requirements for medicine
  • Admissions tests for medicine

If you want to study medicine, then it’s crucial that you pick the right A-levels. Entry requirements do vary, but to get a medical degree you must study chemistry at A-level. 

There are also certain other essential qualifications you should be looking at depending on the particular university you want to go to. For example, some unis require you to have a biology A-Level too.

Your grades in these subjects are usually going to have to be high as well  medicine is highly competitive. These will vary depending on the uni, but generally you need to be looking at AAA or AAB. 

Medicine not quite right? The above information will apply to other medicine-related subjects such as veterinary medicine , dentistry or nursing ; but it’s best to check out our subject guides for more detailed information.
 

A-level subjects to study medicine

What A-levels are essential to study medicine?

As mentioned, chemistry is a must-have. 

Other must-haves depend on the uni, but it makes sense to assume you’ll need to have studied another science. Here’s a good idea of what might work:

  • chemistry, biology and either maths or physics (or both) will keep all the medical schools open to you
  • if you don’t take maths or physics but do take chemistry and biology, it will keep open the vast majority
  • if you don’t take biology, but do take chemistry and one from maths or physics, fewer medical schools will accept you

Medicine entry requirements: five things you should know
 

What A-levels are useful to have to study medicine?

Critical thinking will help with section three of the Biomedical Admissions Test (BMAT), but it is better to take this as a fifth AS-level rather than as a replacement for biology, maths or physics. Read more about the BMAT and other admissions tests  further ahead .

Take a look at individual medicine courses here on Which? University to find out the most popular subjects students studied before taking their degree in medicine.

See where your A-levels will take you before it’s too late,  try our A-Level explorer tool
 

Alternative qualifications to study medicine

If you’re studying Scottish Highers or International Baccalaureate , entry requirements will be communicated slightly differently. Meanewhile, the Welsh Baccalaureate is slightly more divisive – it might be a good idea to speak to the university you want to apply to, to see what their stance is. 

  • What are university entry requirements

Examples of university entry requirements for medicine

Below are a range of Bachelor of Medicine courses offered by different universities and the A-level requirements they ask for, for September 2018 entrants (as of January 2018).

You should always check  the entry requirements of your chosen university course when you come to apply, but this gives you a good idea of what to expect. You’ll generally have to achieve the highest grades to study medicine.

University of Birmingham: ‘A*AA at A-level, including chemistry and biology. Predicted AAA at A-level. AAAAA in Scottish Highers and AAB in Advanced Highers including chemistry and biology.’

University of Cambridge: ‘A*A*A at A-level. Applicants must have A-level passes in chemistry and two of biology/human biology, physics, mathematics. The success rate for students offering three or more science/mathematics A-levels has often been higher than those without.’

Lancaster University: ‘Each applicant will be considered on their own merits. Offers will be made taking into consideration the mix of reformed and unreformed A levels taken and whether or not applicants have had the opportunity to take a fourth AS subject or an EPQ . The offers will be in the range AAAB to A*AA, including both biology and chemistry at A-level. All entry requirements have been taken from the Medical Schools Council website.’

Search for a course now to see what entry requirements you need to meet

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A doctor’s words of wisdom for applicants

Make sure you have some work experience in the medical field to show that you know what you’re getting yourself into. 

Don’t forget extracurricular activities to show that you’re a wonderful, well-rounded human being too.

Interviews were painful, so if you’re the type of person who gets nervous for these, prep well! Jodie Nguyen | Doctor

Read our full #CareerGoals interview with doctor Jodie

Watch now: How to choose your A-levels

 

Admissions tests for medicine

UKCAT, BMAT and GAMSAT are admissions tests you might be required to take to successfully apply to a medicine course at a university. As we’ve mentioned above, medicine is a highly competitive subject so admissions teams will use these results to help distinguish between the strongest candidates.

Different universities will ask for different tests, so make sure you know which one you’ll need to take.

  • Which admissions tests do I need to take for medicine?

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Tabor Academy, Braintree

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This article does not cite any sources . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (September 2008) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Tabor Academy
Established1944 (1944)
Type Academy
TrustLoxford School Trust Limited
HeadteacherElizabeth Robinson
LocationPanfield Lane
Braintree
Essex
CM7 5XP
England
51°53′08″N 0°32′25″E / 51.885443°N 0.540165°E / 51.885443; 0.540165 Coordinates : 51°53′08″N 0°32′25″E / 51.885443°N 0.540165°E / 51.885443; 0.540165
Local authorityEssex
DfE URN 139179 Tables
Ofsted Reports
Capacity1050
StudentsApprox. 990 as of January 2015 [update]
GenderMixed
Ages11–18
HousesTurner, Brunel, Austen and Redgrave
Website www.taboracademy.co.uk

Tabor Academy is a Secondary school with Academy status located in Braintree , Essex , England .

Its Executive Headteacher is Anita Johnson and the Headteacher is Mrs Elizabeth Robinson.

History[ edit ]

The school started life in the early part of the twentieth century on Panfield Lane. While co-educational girls and boys were separated, with the school effectively split into two parts. Later with the introduction of the 1944 Education Act the school opened as a newly established secondary modern school, and was a coeducational school. It was renamed the Margaret Tabor Secondary Modern School. The Tabor part of the name derived from the then local and prominent Tabor family who were major woolen merchants in the 16th century. The family shield was used as the badge of the school, and can still be seen clearly today decorating Bocking bridge near the Old Covent, and on many old buildings in Braintree and Bocking. In September 1972 with the introduction of comprehensive education the school was merged with the local grammar school to form The Tabor High School.
The new school building was first built around 1992, sharing facilities with Braintree Leisure Centre. Since its opening it has been added to in stages. The original site contains 30 classrooms, and was intended to be the new building for the Senior section of the Tabor Science College located a short walk away.
The second stage was completed when the Senior and Middle schools merged, and contains a similar number of classrooms, and the Third stage (a new building built for the languages faculty was completed in the summer of 2006, adding an extra 5 classrooms and a new faculty office and locker space.
The school replaced the Tabor High School as the secondary school for west Braintree and surrounding villages and the old Senior section site was knocked down in 2004.
Steven Clark, its former Principal, was one of the youngest Head teachers in the UK.

The school converted to Academy status in January 2013. It is now part of the Loxford School Trust based in Ilford. Tabor Academy is also a partner in the Braintree Sixth Form which opened on the Notley High School site in September 2009.

School houses[ edit ]

Historically the school developed a reward scheme and mentoring system, all of which was developed by Steven Clark its former Principal.
The school is also split into houses , Brunel house, Turner house, Austen house and Redgrave house. These houses are then split into forms in which pupils from all years are placed. The School’s teacher/student mentoring program for year 11’s helps those under-achieving.

External links[ edit ]

  • Loxford School Trust official website
  • BBC NEWS league tables for Tabor Science College
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Independent
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Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tabor_Academy,_Braintree&oldid=838713100 ”
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  • Academies in Essex
  • Braintree, Essex
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        English as a Second Language (ESL) Definition

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        by
        Richard Nordquist
        Updated April 11, 2018

        English as a Second Language (ESL or TESL) is a traditional term for the use or study of the English language by non-native speakers in an English-speaking environment (it is also known as English for speakers of other languages.) That environment may be a country in which English is the mother tongue (e.g., Australia, the U.S.) or one in which English has an established role (e.g., India, Nigeria).

        Also known as English for speakers of other languages.

        English as a Second Language also refers to specialized approaches to language teaching designed for those whose primary language is not English.

        English as a Second Language corresponds roughly to the Outer Circle described by linguist Braj Kachru in “Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle” (1985).

        Observations

        • “Basically, we can divide up countries according to whether they have English as a native language , English as a second language, or English as a foreign language . The first category is self-explanatory. The difference between English as a foreign language and English as a second language is that in the latter instance only, English has actual assigned communicative status within the country. All told, there is a total of 75 territories where English has a special place in society. [Braj] Kachru has divided the English-speaking countries of the world into three broad types, which he symbolizes by placing them in three concentric rings:
          • The inner circle : these countries are the traditional bases of English, where it is the primary language, that is Great Britain and Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
          • The outer or extended circle : these countries represent the earlier spread of English in non-native contexts, where the language is part of the country’s leading institutions, where it plays a second-language role in a multilingual society. e.g. Singapore, India, Malawi, and 50 other territories.
          • The expanding circle : this includes countries that represent the importance of English as an international language though they have no history of colonization and English has no special administrative status in these countries, e.g. China, Japan, Poland and a growing number of other states. This is English as a foreign language.
            It is clear that the expanding circle is the one that is most sensitive to the global status of English. It is here that English is used primarily as an international language, especially in the business, scientific, legal, political and academic communities.”
        • “The terms (T)EFL, (T)ESL and TESOL [‘Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages’] emerged after the Second World War, and in Britain no distinction was seriously made between ESL and EFL, both being subsumed under ELT (‘English Language Teaching’), until well into the 1960s. As regards ESL in particular, the term has been applied to two types of teaching that overlap but are essentially distinct: ESL in the home country of the learner (mainly a UK concept and concern) and ESL for immigrants to ENL countries (mainly a US concept and concern).”
        • “The term ‘English as Second Language‘ (ESL) has traditionally referred to students who come to school speaking languages other than English at home. The term in many cases is incorrect, because some who come to school have English as their third, fourth, fifth, and so on, language. Some individuals and groups have opted for the term ‘Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages” (TESOL) to represent better the underlying language realities. In some jurisdictions, the term ‘ English as an Additional Language ‘ (EAL) is used. The term ‘English Language Learner’ (ELL) has gained acceptance, primarily in the United States. The difficulty with the term ‘ELL’ is that in most classrooms, everyone, regardless of their linguistic backgrounds, is learning English.”

        Sources

        • Barbara A. Fennell, A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Blackwell, 2001
        • Tom McArthur, The Oxford Guide to World English. Oxford University Press, 2002
        • Lee Gunderson, ESL (ELL) Literacy Instruction: A Guidebook to Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. Routledge, 2009

        • Indian School, Rajasthan, India

          What Is English as a Foreign Language?

        • What Is English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)?

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          What Is a Second Language (L2)?

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          The ‘Outer-Circle’ of English-Speaking Countries

        • expanding circle of English

          The ‘Expanding Circle’ of English-Speaking Countries

        • Who Speaks English as a Native Language (ENL)?

        • English as a second language

          What Is English As an Additional Language (EAL)?

        • Inner Circle of the English Language

          The ‘Inner Circle’ of English-Speaking Countries

        • Shakespeare Folio Goes Under The Hammer

          English as a Global Language

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          What Countries Have English as an Official Lanugage?

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          Troubled Definitions of ‘Native Speaker’

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          New Englishes – Adapting the Language to Meet New Needs

        • Dictionary

          The English Language: Its History, Definition, and Examples

        • Will Smith, a celebrity who learned Spanish

          20 Celebrities Who Speak Spanish as a 2nd Language

        • lingua franca

          What Is a Lingua Franca?







        VARIENG Home   Home   About the eSeries Volumes Authors   News   Search   Sitemap

        Volume 5 – National survey on the English language in Finland: Uses, meanings and attitudes

        ABSTRACT

        PREFACE

        CONTENTS

        LIST OF TABLES

        LIST OF FIGURES

        1 INTRODUCTION

        2 METHODS

        3 LANGUAGES IN YOUR LIFE

        4 ENGLISH IN YOUR LIFE

        4.1 Results

        4.1.1 Personal significance of English

        4.1.2 English in the respondents’ environment

        4.1.3 Most and least attractive varieties of English

        4.1.4 Opinions on teaching conducted in English

        4.1.5 Opinions on the use of English as the internal language of companies

        4.1.6 Opinions on Finns’ efforts when speaking English

        4.1.7 The importance of English in Finland

        4.1.8 English as an international language

        4.2 Summary and discussion

        5 STUDYING AND KNOWING ENGLISH

        6 USES OF ENGLISH

        7 ENGLISH ALONGSIDE THE MOTHER TONGUE

        8 THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH IN FINLAND

        9 DISCUSSION

        BIBLIOGRAPHY

         

        APPENDIX 1 Tables | Open PDF

        APPENDIX 2 Questionnaire | Open PDF

        4 ENGLISH IN YOUR LIFE

        The questions in this section of the questionnaire (13–20) concentrated on what English meant to the respondents, where they encountered English, and their attitudes towards English. We also wanted to know how the respondents viewed English when used by Finns and when used by others.

        4.1 Results

        4.1.1 Personal significance of English

        In question 13, the respondents were asked to evaluate on a five-point scale (very important, moderately important, not very important, not important at all, or no opinion) how important English was to them personally (Figure 16). Almost 60 % of the respondents regarded English as at least moderately important. For women, English was slightly more important than it was for men ( Table 13.1 ).

        To young respondents English was clearly more important than it was to older respondents ( Table 13.2 ). In the youngest age group almost 80 % regarded English as at least moderately important. Conversely, slightly over 60 % of the oldest age group regarded English as not very important or not important at all. The percentage of no opinion responses was highest in the oldest age group (13 %).

        In comparisons by area of residence, English was rated as significantly more important in cities than in the countryside ( Table 13.3 ). In cities, 73 % of the respondents regarded English as very or moderately important to themselves. This proportion decreased from the cities to the countryside, falling to only 36 % in the countryside.

        The distribution for the question “How important is English to you personally?”

        FIGURE 16 The distribution for the question “How important is English to you personally?”

         

        Comparisons by level of education also showed obvious differences ( Table 13.4 ). In particular, the group with the lowest level of education differed from the other groups. As many as 44 % of the respondents in that group saw English as not important at all to them, and only 4 % viewed English as very important. The percentage of respondents answering no opinion was also high (17 %) in this group. The personal significance of English rose with the level of education, so that 57 % of the respondents with a university degree viewed English as very important, and less than one per cent as not important at all. When the answers were classified by occupation ( Table 13.5 ), similar observations were made: in occupations which require a high level of education (managers and experts), English was viewed as more important than in occupations requiring a lower level of education.

        4.1.2 English in the respondents’ environment

        The aim of Question 14a was to explore where and how often respondents became aware of English as something seen or heard in their own various physical environments. This question was motivated by recent research on “linguistic landscape” (see e.g. Gorter 2006 ; Shohamy et al. 2010 ). Research of this kind focuses on the visibility of different languages, particularly in urban environments. It examines how far languages (in this case English) are present in the respondents’ life spheres even if they do not actively use the languages themselves. (Note that encounters with English via various media were explored separately, in Section 6 of the questionnaire.)

        The question listed 14 different places related to everyday life or working life (e.g. place of work, place of study, home, shops and stores, public transport; see Figure 17 and the questionnaire for details). The respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they saw or heard English in the places given as options. Figure 17 shows the percentage of respondents indicating that they saw or heard English in the places listed.

        English was seen/heard most frequently in the street (79 %), in shops and stores (73 %), in restaurants and cafés (70 %), and in public transport (61 %). The least frequent places to see/hear English were churches and offices. Accordingly, English mainly appears in the cityscape and in commercial contexts. English does not appear in institutionalised places such as offices or churches, which are clearly places that are more mono- or bilingual (in Finnish or Swedish).

        According to question 14a, only 4 % of the respondents did not recognise the English language (cf. question 12 in which approximately 3 % of the respondents indicated that they could not distinguish foreign languages from one another). Most of the respondents recognised English, even if they did not speak it.

        The frequencies of seeing or hearing English in different places (relative to total population)

        FIGURE 17 The frequencies of seeing or hearing English in different places (the percentages represent the number of positive responses relative to the total population)

         

        In Figure 17, the statistics are to some extent skewed by the fact that not all the respondents were in working life or studying, or had visited all the places listed in question 14a. In this case nonresponse is equivalent to a negative answer. Overall it appeared that answering question 14a was problematic, and the answers showed a great deal of inconsistency. For the sake of comparison, Figure 18 presents the percentage values calculated by excluding the nonresponse. It shows what proportion of the answers given to a given question were positive. In order to make comparison easier, the categories are presented in the same order as for Figure 17.

        The frequencies of seeing or hearing English in different places (positive responses)

        FIGURE 18 The frequencies of seeing or hearing English in different places (the percentages represent the number of positive responses relative to the responses in each option)

         

        The modification to the calculation method results in increased proportions of positive responses (Figure 18), but the differences from the previous results are minor. The most notable difference is the increased frequency of the option place of study. The new percentage values demonstrate that 71 % of those for whom the option was relevant (those who were studying) encountered English in their place of study. The percentage of the option libraries also increased more than the average (as compared to Figure 17). This suggests that many of the respondents in our data do not actually visit libraries. Interestingly, 78 % indicated that they saw or heard English at their place of work. This can be regarded as an indication of the proportion of Finns who encounter English in working life.

        In question 14b the respondents were asked to indicate three places (out of those listed) where they saw or heard English most often. Thus question 14b gives more precise information than is provided by 14a on the key environments where the respondents encountered English. The percentages are shown in Figure 19, and in Tables 14b.1–14b.5 . To assist comparison the categories are presented in the same order as in Figure 17.

        The frequencies of seeing or hearing English in three most common places

        FIGURE 19 The frequencies of seeing or hearing English in different places (the percentages represent the frequency of each option when it is mentioned among the three most common places where English is encountered)

         

        Even though the phrasing of question was changed, Figure 19 basically gives the same information as Figures 17 and 18. The street is still viewed as the most important place where English is seen and heard. Next come shops and stores, place of work, and restaurants and cafés. In addition, home, public transport, and place of study are viewed as fairly important. Other environments had only minor significance according to question 14b.

        The answers to question 14a showed significant differences between the sexes ( Table 14a.2 ). As environments for English encounters, place of work and places for hobbies were emphasised by men, whereas shops and stores, restaurants, recreational places, hospitals, public transport, and churches were emphasised by women. Roughly the same differences between the sexes were found in question 14b ( Table 14b.1 ). These differences seem to reflect the typical differences in the life spheres of men and women.

        Comparisons by age group revealed significant differences for all the environments in question 14a, except for church ( Table 14a.3 ). The main observation here is that in all the environments, the oldest age group (65–79) encountered English less than (in particular) the two youngest age groups. In addition, 16 % of the oldest age group indicated that they did not recognise the English language. This rate was 6 % among respondents aged 45–64, and less than 1 % among respondents of a younger age. In question 14b, the most important places for encountering English among the oldest age group were the street, shops and stores, and public transport ( Table 14b.2 ). The answers given by the youngest age group were more evenly distributed between several options. In the 15–24 age group place of study was emphasised (as one would expect), and among respondents of working age place of work and restaurants and cafés were given high ratings.

        Comparisons by area of residence ( Table 14a.4 ) show that in almost every case English encounters are most frequent in cities. The differences between towns and the countryside were minor for the most part, with the exceptions of the street, shops and stores, and restaurants and cafés. The only insignificant option was church, where English was rarely encountered. English was most poorly recognised in the countryside (9 % indicating non-recognition), and best recognised in cities (less than 2 % indicating non-recognition).

        Question 14b asked where English was most often encountered. The most frequently named location was the street regardless of area of residence (with the exception of the countryside). The street was mentioned by 53–58 % of the respondents, depending on the area of residence ( Table 14b.3 ). In the countryside the most frequent place to encounter English was shops and stores (62 %), with the street coming second (57 %). In towns and rural centres the second most frequently-mentioned environment was shops and stores (48–52 %), but in cities place of work (47 %) came second, after the street. We also noticed that the importance of home as a place where English is seen or heard increased systematically as the focus shifted from the countryside (17 %) to the cities (30 %).

        In question 14a, the differences between levels of education were clear in all cases ( Table 14a.5 ). Those who had attended only primary school encountered English least, and those with a higher level education encountered English most, regardless of the environment (the only exception to this pattern was place of study, in which English received quite high responses also from those with only lower secondary education; this is explained by the respondents being still at school, and as yet having no higher qualifications or degrees). One quarter of the respondents in the group with the lowest level of education indicated that they did not recognise the English language. In the other groups the rate was either zero or very low. The answers to question 14b ( Table 14b.4 ) show that along with higher levels of education, the importance of workplace and home as places where English is encountered increases, and the importance of shops and stores decreases. In addition, the respondents with the lowest level of education mentioned banks/post offices/insurance agencies more frequently than others. Respondents with the second lowest level of education (lower secondary school) mentioned place of study, public transport and libraries significantly more often than the others. This too can be explained by the high percentage of respondents still at school in this particular respondent group.

        In comparisons by occupation, the extremes appear to consist of experts and manual workers. According to question 14a, experts saw or heard English more than average in almost all environments, and manual workers less than average ( Table 14a.6 ). It is not surprising that healthcare workers mentioned hospitals and offices more frequently than other occupations, and that office workers mentioned banks/post offices/insurance agencies. On the other hand, healthcare workers mentioned workplace and banks/post offices/insurance agencies significantly less frequently than other occupations. In addition, compared to other occupations, managers mentioned libraries very seldom as places where they encountered English. Among manual workers, about 10 % said they did not recognise the English language. Among other occupations the rate was around one or two per cent.

        Question 14b resulted in fewer differences between occupations. All the occupations mainly mentioned the same places as the three most important places for encountering English. However, Table 14b.5 shows that among managers and experts the importance of place of work emerged strongly, especially in comparison to healthcare workers. Among healthcare workers, shops and stores and public transport were emphasised in addition to hospitals. This reflects the fact that the caring industry is dominated by women: one can see that the same environments were emphasised among women in comparisons by gender ( Table 14b.1 ). Experts mentioned home more frequently as a place where they saw or heard English, compared to other occupations.

        4.1.3 Most and least attractive varieties of English

        In question 15 the respondents were asked to indicate which of seven varieties of English spoken in different countries (British English, American English, Australian English, Irish English, Canadian English, Indian English, and Finnish English) appealed to them most, and which appealed least. This is an interesting issue since nowadays Finns hear (for example in the media) other English varieties than the traditional British English and American English standard varieties, which are also the ones best represented and respected in language education (see e.g. Pihko 1997 ; Lintunen 2004 ). In addition, we were interested in seeing how the respondents viewed other varieties, including Finnish English (the way in which Finns typically use and pronounce English).

        In 15a the respondents were asked to select one out of seven varieties given as options (or to indicate some other variety) as the one that appealed to them most. The option no opinion was also given. In 15b the respondents were asked to indicate the variety that appealed least to them. Question 15 was aimed only at those respondents who in 14a indicated that they saw or heard English in some environment. If a respondent felt incapable of recognising different varieties, he/she was told not to answer. These respondents made up 11 % of the total.

        The distribution for question 15a is shown in Figure 20. By far the most popular varieties were British English (40 %) and American English (36 %). Thus the varieties that are central in school teaching (and are obviously the most familiar in general) were the ones that seemed to appeal to respondents the most. Preferences for any other variety were extremely rare.

        The variety of English perceived as the most appealing

        FIGURE 20 The variety of English perceived as the most appealing

         

        The main difference between men and women was that women (48 %) preferred British English and men (41 %) preferred American English (see Table 15a.1 ). American English was the most appealing variety to 31 % of women, and British English to 31 % of men.

        Among the two oldest age groups ( Table 15a.2 ), almost half mentioned
        British English as the most appealing variety, whereas in the two youngest age groups American English was the most popular variety (approximately 40 % in both groups). The appeal of American English to young people may be explained by its central role in popular culture. Finnish English was chosen as the most appealing variety somewhat more frequently among the 65–79 age group (12 %). However, one quarter of that age group indicated non-recognition of different varieties of English.

        In comparisons by area of residence, the most significant difference was that British English was most popular in the cities (43 %), but lost its popularity in the countryside (29 %), where American English was clearly more popular (43 %). In rural centres, American English was less popular than British English ( Table 15a.3 ). In addition, country dwellers indicated more often than city dwellers that they did not recognise different varieties of English: the “non-recognisers” made up 18 % of the respondents living in the countryside, whereas in cities the percentage was 7 %.

        Statistically significant differences were found in comparisons by level of education and occupation ( Tables 15a.4–15a.5 ). The second lowest level of education (lower secondary education) stood out, with American English clearly the most popular variety. In other groups, British English was more or equally appealing. The probable explanation is that in the lower secondary group over 40 % were young people (basically still at school), representing an age group preferring American English to British English. Finnish English was found to be more appealing as educational levels went down (in the least educated group 15 % viewed Finnish English as the most appealing variety). At the same time the ability to recognise different varieties of English decreased. Almost one third of the least educated indicated non-recognition of varieties of English.

        Managers and manual workers considered American English more appealing than British English. Among other occupations the situation was the opposite, and experts in particular preferred British English. Finnish English was most appealing to 9 % of healthcare workers and 11 % of manual workers, whereas among other occupations the proportion was significantly lower. Among healthcare workers and manual workers it was also more common not to recognise different varieties. It should also be noted that for this question, among manual workers, 13 % answered no opinion and ca. 20 % left the question unanswered.

        In question 15b the respondents were asked to evaluate which variety of English appealed to them the least (Figure 21). The least appealing variety was Indian English (28 %), and the second least appealing was Finnish English (18 %). For easy comparison of the answers for questions 15a and 15b, the categories in Figure 21 are presented in the same order as in Figure 20. The response distributions were fairly similar for men and women, though women answered no opinion more frequently than men. The distributions were the converse of the earlier finding, according to which women tend to prefer British English, and men American English ( Table 15b.1 ).

        The differences between age groups were more significant ( Table 15b.2 ). In the two mid-range age groups (25–44 and 45–64), Indian English was clearly the least appealing variety (14–35 %). The oldest age group found American English (25 %) the least appealing. For the youngest age group, Indian English (25 %) and Finnish English (25 %) were equally the least appealing varieties of English.

        Some differences were found in comparisons by area of residence ( Table 15b.3 ). The most unpopular variety in all areas of residence was Indian English and the second most unpopular was Finnish English. In cities Indian English (32 %) was clearly less appealing than Finnish English (17 %), but in towns and in the countryside the unpopularity of Indian English decreased and that of Finnish English increased, so that both varieties were almost equally unpopular (20 %). An interesting result, which lacks any explanation, is that in the countryside British English was mentioned remarkably often (17 %) as the least appealing variety (cf. question 15a, in which the popularity of British English was significantly lower than in other areas of residence). The proportion of respondents answering no opinion was equal in all areas (approximately 15 %).

        The variety of English perceived as the least appealing

        FIGURE 21 The variety of English perceived as the least appealing

         

        In the results classified by level of education ( Table 15b.4 ), one should note the group of respondents with the lowest level of education. This group found Finnish English (21 %) and American English (19 %) the least appealing varieties of English. The result is at least partly related to the fact that the group includes a high proportion of elderly respondents. Among the other groups, Finnish English (in addition to Indian English) was found to be the least appealing variety. Among respondents with the highest levels of education, Indian English was clearly the least appealing variety. In these groups, British English was seldom mentioned as the least appealing variety. The influence of young respondents, who are still in school, is again seen in the answers of the group with the second lowest level of education: Finnish English emerges as the least appealing variety, whereas American English was mentioned somewhat less often than it was by other groups.

        The distributions by occupation ( Table 15b.5 ) also revealed some significant differences. The most significant difference concerned how the respondents viewed Finnish English: managers and experts only rarely viewed it as the least appealing variety (managers 7 %, experts 13 %), whereas among other occupations more than one fifth found it the least appealing. Among managers and experts, Indian English was emphasised as the least appealing variety. In addition, one should note the responses of healthcare workers, of whom a fairly high proportion (21 %) answered no opinion.

        Answers to questions 15a and 15b interestingly demonstrate that Finnish English is seldom found appealing. In contrast, British English and American English are appreciated, possibly reflecting the models that Finns are expected to follow. An interesting finding is that opinions on British English and American English are divided: respondents with a high level of education, city dwellers, and older respondents prefer British English, whereas country dwellers and young respondents prefer American English.

        It is worth recalling that in this question the response rates in the oldest age group, and also among the respondents with the lowest education level, were the lowest in the whole survey (under 70 %). In addition, the proportion of no opinion responses was relatively high. It seems that the respondents in these groups found it difficult to evaluate or even recognise the varieties of English in question.

        4.1.4 Opinions on teaching conducted in English

        Question 16 addressed Finns’ views on the use of English in Finnish educational settings, a phenomenon that has increased, especially during the past couple of decades. The background to this question is the popularity of language immersion and English Language Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) methodologies, a trend which developed strongly around the turn of the millennium (see e.g. Nikula & Marsh 1996 ; Lehti et al. 2006 ). In public debate the phenomenon has raised concerns, with fears that English language instruction will take up time scheduled for the teaching of the mother tongue, impair learning results, and even affect thinking capacity (see e.g. Virtala 2002 ; Leppänen & Pahta, forthcoming ). Against this background, it is interesting to discover what the general opinion on the issue is.

        Opinions about Finnish children attending English-speaking schools

        FIGURE 22 Opinions about Finnish children attending English-speaking schools

         

        Respondents were asked for their opinions concerning the fact that some Finnish children attend English-speaking schools. A five-point scale was used (very positive, moderately positive, moderately negative, very negative, or no opinion). The results showed a large majority of Finns with a positive attitude to Finnish children attending English-speaking schools: very positive was indicated by 48 % of the respondents and moderately positive by 41 % (Figure 22).

        Gender does not have a great influence on the response distribution, even if the proportion of very positive opinions is higher among
        women (50 %) than men (45 %) (see Table 16.1 ). Comparisons by age group showed that the two mid-range age groups have the most positive opinion on the issue ( Table 16.2 ). In these two age groups half of the respondents viewed the attendance of children at English-speaking schools as very positive. Distributions by area of residence ( Table 16.3 ) showed no statistically significant differences. The results by level of education and occupation ( Tables 16.4–16.5 ) showed the main differences in the no opinion response. This response was highest among respondents with the lowest level of education, and among manual workers.

        4.1.5 Opinions on the use of English as the internal language of companies

        Question 17 asked respondents’ opinion on the use of English as the internal language of some Finnish companies. A five-point scale was used (very positive, moderately positive, moderately negative, very negative, or no opinion). The aim was to explore Finns’ attitudes towards the growing importance of English in Finnish business and working life (see e.g. Virkkula 2008 ).

        Opinions about using English as the internal language in Finnish companies

        FIGURE 23 Opinions about using English as the internal language in Finnish companies

         

        The majority of the respondents had a positive opinion: the total percentage of very positive and moderately positive answers
        was 60 %, whereas the corresponding percentage of negative answers was 22 % (Figure 23).

        Differences between the sexes were not statistically significant ( Table 17.1 ), but the other background variables showed significant differences ( Tables 17.2–17.5 ). The most positive opinion was found in the 25–44 age group (72 % positive). The 65–79 age group showed a lack of enthusiasm or involvement (no opinion was highest in this group). The highest actual negative response (28 %) came from the 45–64 age group; on the other hand, this same age group came second in the very positive category, so this age group appears to be slightly more bipolar than the others. All in all, there seems to be a clear difference in the attitudes of younger and older respondents of working age ( Table 17.2 ).

        In comparisons by area of residence, positive opinions were more frequent in the cities than in the countryside ( Table 17.3 ). The proportion of positive opinions reached almost 70 % among residents of cities, around 60 % among residents of towns and rural centres, and 49 % among country dwellers. The percentages of negative opinions and of respondents answering no opinion were correspondingly higher among country dwellers.

        A very positive opinion on Finnish companies’ use of English as their internal language correlated strongly with the respondent’s level of education ( Table 17.4 ). At least a moderately positive opinion was given by 77 % of the respondents with a higher level education. Among respondents with a moderately positive opinion, no great differences were found by level of education, except in the case of respondents with only primary education, who had the least positive opinion (36 %). In addition, a high proportion (39 %) of respondents in this group were unable to give an opinion on the subject. Comparisons by occupation ( Table 17.5 ) offer similar information: the proportion of very positive opinion was highest among managers (27 %) and experts (25 %). No significant differences were found among respondents with moderately positive or moderately negative opinions, but the proportion of no opinion responses was highest among healthcare workers and manual workers (24 % in each case).

        4.1.6 Opinions on Finns’ efforts when speaking English

        Question 18 was in three parts. It asked about respondents’ feelings when they hear a famous Finn speaking English on TV or on the radio. Question 18a concerned non-fluent speech, question 18b concerned fluent speech with a Finnish accent, while 18c concerned native-like fluency. In questions 18a and 18c the respondents were offered seven options (see Figures 24 and 26, and questionnaire ). In 18b they were offered nine options (see Figure 25 and questionnaire ).

        In Question 18, the notion of a “famous Finn” was chosen because the English skills of public figures have often inspired critical public commentary, for example in letters to the editor and in discussion forums on the internet (see Kytölä 2008 ). Opinions on the language use of public figures are likely to reflect more general language attitudes. As the answers to question 15 already indicated, Finns do not seem to value their own way of speaking and pronouncing English, finding it in some way problematic. Question 18 offers more specific information on respondents’ reactions to Finns’ use of English.

        Attitudes to hearing a famous Finn speaking English poorly

        FIGURE 24 Attitudes to hearing a famous Finn speaking English poorly

         

        Opinions on the non-fluent English speech of a Finn (question 18a) varied greatly: most frequently the respondents felt sympathy (28 %), but other feelings were also common (Figure 24). Approximately 14 % of the respondents said that a Finn speaking English poorly in public aroused no feeling at all. Women felt sympathy, admiration for a good effort, and embarrassment on behalf of Finns more often than men, whereas men felt amusement and irritation more often than women ( Table 18a.1 ).

        With regard to age groups ( Table 18a.2 ), the two oldest groups (45–64 and 65–79) had more sympathy and admiration for a good effort than the younger age groups. In addition, one fifth of the oldest age group said that speaking English poorly aroused no feeling at all. In the youngest age group (15–24) it was common to feel amusement and embarrassment on behalf of Finns. Sympathy was felt significantly less in the youngest age group than in other age groups. It may be that among older respondents even the bare attempt to speak English is admired, whereas among younger respondents the general attitude is that English should be mastered fairly well if it is spoken in public. This implies that English skills are not taken for granted by older respondents in the same way as they are by younger age groups.

        No statistically significant differences were detected between areas of residence ( Table 18a.3 ). Comparisons by the other background variables ( Tables 18a.4–18.a.5 ) showed that feeling sympathy was felt more as the level of education increased. The same phenomenon was detected among occupations requiring a high education, e.g. experts. Among those with the lowest level of education, 29 % had no feeling at all when they heard a Finn speaking English poorly. This was also common among manual workers. Healthcare workers were distinct among occupations in that on the one hand they felt admiration for a good effort more than the others, but on the other hand embarrassment on behalf of Finns less than the others.

        The most common reaction to a Finn speaking English fluently but with a Finnish accent (question 18b) was admiration (29 %) and pride in Finns (24 %) (Figure 25). The proportion of women having these opinions was higher than the proportion of men ( Table 18b.1 ). Feeling admiration and sympathy was more typical of older than of younger respondents, whereas younger respondents more often felt pride in Finns or amusement, or else no feeling at all ( Table 18b.2 ).

        Attitudes to hearing a famous Finn speaking English fluently with a Finnish accent

        FIGURE 25 Attitudes to hearing a famous Finn speaking English fluently with a Finnish accent

         

        Comparisons by level of education and occupation did not show statistically significant differences ( Tables 18b.4 and 18b.5 ). Differences between areas of residence appeared minor ( Table 18b.3 ), but we noticed that admiration for the speaker was more common in the countryside than in the cities. In all areas of residence a substantial proportion (18–25 %) of respondents said they had no feeling at all when they heard a Finn speaking English fluently but with a Finnish accent. The results indicate that fluency is to some extent more important than a native-like accent.

        A Finn speaking English like a native speaker of English (question 18c) gained a strong positive response: the most common feeling was clearly admiration for the speaker (54 %) (Figure 26). No statistically significant differences were found between age groups ( Table 18c.2 ). However, women felt admiration for the speaker and pride in Finns slightly more than men, whereas men indicated no feeling at all more often than women ( Table 18c.1 ). There were no statistically significant differences between areas of residence ( Table 18c.3 ). Having no feeling at all was most common among respondents with the lowest level of education (30 %) and manual workers (27 %), whereas admiration for the speaker was felt less frequently among these groups ( Tables 18c.4–18c.5 ). Admiring a speaker who sounded like a native speaker was most common among those with a university education, and among experts.

        Attitudes to hearing a famous Finn speaking English like a native speaker

        FIGURE 26 Attitudes to hearing a famous Finn speaking English like a native speaker

        4.1.7 The importance of English in Finland

        Questions 19 and 20 addressed the respondents’ attitudes towards English in Finland and elsewhere. The questions are motivated by the undeniably strong global position of English: more than 500 million people speak it as their first or second language, approximately one fifth of the world’s population speak it to a varying extent, and a growing number among the rest want to learn it ( Graddol 1997 , 2006 ). The exceptional status of English – and its expansion in the world – has been seen as both a positive ( Crystal 1997 ) and a negative phenomenon ( Skutnabb-Kangas 2003 ; Phillipson 1992 ), and it also has contributed to polarised language attitudes in Finland (for details see Leppänen & Nikula 2008 ).

        The statements in question 19 concerned the importance of English in Finland and internationally. The respondents were asked to respond to the following 15 statements on a five-point scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or no opinion):


        (a) young people must know English,
        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (c) elderly people must know English,
        (d) the spread of English in Finland is a threat to our own languages,
        (e) the spread of English in Finland is a threat to Finnish culture,
        (f) Finns traveling abroad must know English,
        (g) Finns can be international without knowing English,
        (h) it is important for the development of a multicultural society that everybody should be able to speak English,
        (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English,
        (j) for Finns, the mother tongue is more useful than English,
        (k) English is more useful to Finns than Swedish,
        (l) the English language enriches our native languages,
        (m) English skills are overrated,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish,
        (o) all companies in Finland must offer services also in English.

        To simplify the reporting of the results, we shall here refer to the percentages of those respondents who agree (strongly agree or agree) with the statements. This simplification does not lose any essential information. The proportion of respondents answering no
        opinion
        was moderately low in the statements in question 19; it was only in statement (l) the English language enriches our native languages that the proportion was above one tenth (14 %) of the respondents.

        Examination of the data (see Figure 27) produced the following findings: the vast majority of the respondents felt that both (a) young people (97 % agreed) and (b) people of working age (80 % agreed) must know English, but that (c) the elderly do not have to (only 23 % agreed with the statement offered). The majority of the respondents felt that (f) Finns travelling abroad must know English (69 %) and that (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English (67 %). The majority of the respondents did not think that (m) English skills are overrated (though 34 % had the opposite opinion). Most Finns thus seem to have a neutral and practical attitude towards English. They feel that young people and adults, excluding the elderly, should know English.

        Opinions on statements (h) It is important for the development of a multicultural society that everybody should be able to speak English and (g) Finns can be international without knowing English were divided more evenly. For these statements, the rates for agreeing and disagreeing were relatively close to each other.

        The percentages of respondents who agree with the statements about the importance of English in Finland

        FIGURE 27 The percentages of respondents who agree with the statements about the importance of English in Finland

         

        Less than one fifth of the respondents saw the spread of English as a threat, either to (d) domestic languages (18 %) or to (e)
        Finnish culture (17 %). Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated that (l) the English language enriches our native languages
        (53 %). However, a clearer majority took the view that (j) for Finns, the mother tongue is more useful than English (81 %) and that
        (k) English is more useful to Finns than Swedish (82 %). The majority (59 %) of the respondents felt that (n) social services
        (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish
        , but only 39 % took the view that (o) companies must offer services also in English.

        From the above, it would appear that most respondents do not think that English could potentially displace Finnish and Swedish, or undermine Finnish culture. Interestingly, more than half of the respondents felt that English enriched the Finnish language and influenced it in a positive way. It appears that Finns place high value on their national languages and culture, even to the extent that these could benefit from the influence of English.

        Between the sexes, only a few statistically significant differences were found ( Table 19.1 ). Women agreed more often than men with the following:


        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish,
        (o) all companies in Finland must offer services also in English.

        Men felt more often than women that:


        (j) for Finns, the mother tongue is more useful than English,
        (l) the English language enriches our native languages.

        Comparisons by age group showed statistically significant differences concerning almost all the statements ( Table 19.2 ). For many of the statements, the difference can be expressed simply as a difference between the two youngest (15–24 and 25–44) and the two oldest (45–64 and 65–79) age groups. The clearest difference concerned statement (m) English skills are overrated. Here 48 % of the 45–79 age group were in agreement, as opposed to 21 % of the 15–44 age group. Statement (f) Finns travelling abroad must know English was agreed to by 80 % of the respondents under the age of 45, but by only 60 % of respondents aged 45 and over. The statements with which the older age groups agreed more frequently than the younger were:


        (d) the spread of English in Finland is a threat to our own languages,
        (e) the spread of English in Finland is a threat to Finnish culture,
        (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English,
        (j) for Finns, the mother tongue is more useful than English,
        (m) English skills are overrated.

        The statements with which the youngest age groups agreed more frequently than older age groups were:


        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (c) elderly people must know English,
        (f) Finns travelling abroad must know English,
        (h) it is important for the development of a multicultural society that everybody should be able to speak English,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish.

        In addition, the 25–44 age group differed from the other age groups in some statements. These included:


        (a) young people must know English,
        (l) the English language enriches our native languages.

        Here, the proportion of respondents in agreement was higher in the 25–44 age group than in the other age groups. In addition, this age group
        disagreed more often than other age groups with (g) Finns can be international without knowing English.

        There is a clear difference in the attitudes of younger and older respondents: the older age groups take a more negative attitude towards English than the younger ones. They do not consider it to be as useful or as positive a phenomenon as younger people do. The younger respondents tended much more towards the opinion that everyone, regardless of age, should know English, and that society should function in English as well as in the domestic languages. An interesting finding is that the 25–44 age group – i.e. those persons who are most likely to have children and young people in their family, and who are likely to be interested in their future – are most clearly of the opinion that young people should know English.

        Comparisons by area of residence revealed statistically significant differences concerning seven of the statements ( Table 19.3 ). In general terms, city dwellers differed from the others. Other areas of residence did not differ from each other significantly. Residents of cities agreed with the following statements more often than the residents of other areas:


        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (f) Finns travelling abroad must know English,
        (h) it is important for the development of a multicultural society that everybody should be able to speak English,
        (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish.

        The situation was the opposite concerning (m) English skills are overrated. Country dwellers agreed with this statement more frequently than city dwellers.

        A finding that differs from all the others comes from statement (o) all companies in Finland must offer services also in English. The respondents expressing strongest agreement were from the cities, and also from the countryside.

        Overall, the answers reflect a difference between cities and the rest of Finland. More frequently than the others, residents of cities find it important that people of working age in particular should know English and other foreign languages, and that society as a whole should operate in English as well as in the domestic languages. Respondents living in the countryside were more likely than the others to feel that the English language is overrated in Finland.

        In comparisons by level of education ( Table 19.4 ), the least educated were again clearly distinct from the others. Compared to the other groups, they disagreed more frequently with the following statements:


        (a) young people must know English,
        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (c) the elderly must know English,
        (f) Finns travelling abroad must know English,
        (h) it is important for the development of a multicultural society that everybody should be able to speak English,
        (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish.

        However, the least educated respondents felt more often than others that (m) English skills are overrated. Highly educated respondents, for their part, were more likely than the others to agree with these statements:


        (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish.

        In the same way as age, the level of education divides Finns into two groups in relation to English. The more educated the respondents were, the more positive was their attitude towards English and other foreign languages, and the more emphasis they placed on English as an important “civic skill”.

        Differences between occupations varied greatly from statement to statement ( Table 19.5 ). Managers and experts in particular, but also office and customer service workers, were more positive than healthcare workers and manual workers towards the following statements:


        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (c) elderly people must know English,
        (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English.

        Manual workers felt less often than other occupations that:


        (b) people of working age must know English,
        (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish.

        In other respects, manual workers did not differ greatly from other occupations. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, managers felt more often than other occupations that (m) English skills are overrated. Moreover, they thought less often than others that (f) Finns travelling abroad must know English.

        Office and customer service workers differed from other groups by a more negative attitude towards statement (j) for Finns, the mother tongue is more useful than English. Regarding statement (l) the English language enriches our native languages the majority of managers, office workers and manual workers were in agreement, but only a minority of experts and healthcare workers agreed. Regarding statement (n) social services (e.g. healthcare services) must be offered in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish, experts, office and customer service workers, and healthcare workers indicated most agreement, and manual workers and managers the least. Concerning the other statements, no striking differences were found.

        In terms of occupation, the respondents’ language attitudes do not form clear classes. Respondents in managerial positions have interesting views: on the one hand they emphasise the usefulness and importance of English to Finns, but on the other hand they also find it overrated. For this group, it may be that skills in other languages seem just as important, an attitude which may be reflected in their agreement with statement (i) Finns must know other languages in addition to English. A distinction can be observed in those occupations in which people are most likely to have to use English. In these categories it is thought that Finns should know English, and that social services should be offered also in English. English tends to be considered least useful in those occupations that do not require the use of English.

        4.1.8 English as an international language

        The statements in question 20 dealt with English as a language used in international communication. This question derives from the fact that English is often used in international situations as a lingua franca, making it possible for the participants to communicate when they do not have any other common language. The respondents were asked to indicate on a five-point scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, or no opinion) their attitude towards eight statements concerning English as an international language:


        (a) English is displacing other languages in the world,
        (b) English skills should become more common in the world,
        (c) the set of values that comes with English is destroying other cultures,
        (d) English is spreading the market economy and materialistic values,
        (e) English is the language of advancement,
        (f) English skills add to mutual understanding on a global level,
        (g) to be up-to-date, people must be able to function in English,
        (h) people with English skills are more tolerant than those who cannot speak English.

        The percentages of respondents who agree with the statements about English as a global language

        FIGURE 28 The percentages of respondents who agree with the statements about English as a global language

         

        As in question 19, the results here group together percentages for respondents strongly agreeing or agreeing with the statements. These percentages are shown in Figure 28. The percentages for different background variables are shown in the Tables 20.1–20.5 . No opinion responses were more frequent here than in question 19. This applied especially to statement (h), in which the no opinion response rate was 21 %. Statements (c), (d) and (e) also received no opinion from over 10 % of the respondents.

        The following results were obtained. The majority of all the respondents agreed with the following statements:


        (a) English is displacing other languages in the world,
        (b) English skills should become more common in the world,
        (f) English skills add to mutual understanding on a global level,
        (g) to be up-to-date, people must be able to function in English.

        Slightly less than half of the respondents agreed with the following statements:


        (d) English is spreading the market economy and materialistic values,
        (e) English is the language of advancement.

        A minority of the respondents agreed with these statements:


        (c) the set of values that comes with English is destroying other cultures,
        (h) people with English skills are more tolerant than those who cannot speak English.

        It appears that Finns mainly have a positive attitude towards English as an international language, and find it a useful tool, enhancing
        international communication and mutual understanding. What we find particularly interesting here is that when asked about English being a threat
        to languages other than Finland’s national languages, the majority viewed it as a threat. The proportion is significantly larger than for statement (d) the spread of English in Finland is a threat to our own languages in question 19, where only 18 % were in agreement. It seems that Finns do not consider Finland’s national languages to be as vulnerable as other languages (spoken by small populations).

        Between the sexes, a significant difference was found concerning these statements:


        (b) English skills should become more common in the world,
        (d) English is spreading the market economy and materialistic values.

        More men than women agreed with both statements (see Table 20.1 ). Other statements were viewed similarly by men and women.

        Between age groups ( Table 20.2 ), statistically significant differences were found concerning all statements except for (h) people with English skills are more tolerant than those who cannot speak English. For this statement there were no significant differences between any subgroups. In many cases the differences between age groups can again be simplified into a contrast between the two youngest age groups (15–24 and 25–44) and the two oldest (45–64 and 65–79). The youngest age groups agreed more frequently with the following statements:


        (b) English skills should become more common in the world,
        (f) English skills add to mutual understanding on a global level,
        (g) to be up-to-date, people must be able to function in English.

        Concerning the following statements, the result was the opposite – older respondents more frequently agreed with the following statements:


        (c) the set of values that comes with English is destroying other cultures,
        (d) English is spreading the market economy and materialistic values.

        Whereas young respondents view English positively and find it necessary in international contexts, older respondents are clearly more critical, seeing negative political influences connected with the spread of English.

        Nevertheless, the contrast between younger and older respondents did not apply to statement (e) English is the language of advancement. Here, a narrow majority of both the youngest and the oldest age group agreed with the statement. In the mid-range age groups (25–44 and 45–64), the respondents who were in agreement formed a narrow minority. Concerning statement (a) English is displacing other languages in the world, the 25–44 age group differed significantly from the other age groups: 54 % agreed, whereas among the other age groups the proportion was over 60 %.

        Between areas of residence ( Table 20.3 ) significant differences were found regarding these statements:


        (f) English skills add to mutual understanding on a global level,
        (g) to be up-to-date, people must be able to function in English.

        In simple terms, these were both cases of an opposition between cities and the rest of the country: agreement with these statements was more common in cities and in towns. It should be noted that statements (f) and (g) were also among the statements that the younger age groups viewed more positively than older age groups.

        Comparisons by level of education showed statistically significant differences concerning five statements ( Table 20.4 ). The two groups with the lowest level of education agreed most often with these statements:


        (d) English is spreading the market economy and materialistic values,
        (e) English is the language of advancement.

        Agreement with the following statements increased with the level of education:


        (f) English skills add to mutual understanding on a global level,
        (g) to be up-to-date, people must be able to function in English.

        The most essential finding concerning statement (a) English is displacing other languages in the world, was that those with a university degree agreed with it significantly more often than the others.

        As in the answers to question 19, comparisons by level of education showed that respondents with the highest levels of education found English a useful language, enhancing mutual intelligibility; however, they were also worried about its influence on other languages. In most of the cases education does not seem to offer a clear explanation for the distribution of the responses – the answers might even reflect or be coloured by the respondents’ political views.

        In comparisons by occupation, managers and experts differed in their opinions from healthcare workers and manual workers with regard to most
        statements ( Table 20.5 ). In general they showed more agreement with the statements. Office and customer service workers to some extent formed a group in the middle: depending on the statement, they had similar opinions to either managers and experts or to healthcare workers and manual workers. With regard to the following two statements, managers and experts showed more agreement than the other occupations:


        (a) English is displacing other languages in the world,
        (c) the set of values that comes with English is destroying other cultures.

        Compared to other occupations, managers and experts seemed to be more critical regarding the influence of English on other cultures and languages.

        The following statements received most agreement from managers and experts, and also from office and customer service workers:


        (b) English skills should become more common in the world,
        (f) English skills add to mutual understanding on a global level,
        (g) to be up-to-date, people must be able to function in English.

        Quite contrary to expectation, a positive attitude towards statement (e) English is the language of advancement, was most frequent
        among office and customer service workers and healthcare workers. It was least frequent among experts.

        4.2 Summary and discussion

        Personal importance of English

        More than half of the respondents viewed English as at least moderately important. The estimation of the importance of English was dependent on age, the geographical environment, and social status. The younger or more urban the respondents were, the more important English was to them: among the youngest age group 80 % and among city dwellers 73 % of respondents viewed it as important to themselves, personally. Occupation also affected the attitude to English: managers, experts, and office workers differed from other occupations. As was mentioned earlier, English is a part of young people’s lives through school, free time activities, and friends. In contrast, the importance of English in the older respondents’ lives is mostly explained by occupation and work tasks.

        English in the respondents’ own environment

        English is seen or heard in the respondents’ environment a great deal. The locations where English is encountered are directly linked to the kind of environment that respondents live in and move about in. In addition, age, education, and occupation correlate with the extent to which the respondents appear to see or hear English. English is encountered most frequently in streets, shops, stores, and restaurants – this was particularly typical for women’s responses. Almost 80 % of respondents in working life encountered English at work, and 71 % of students encountered it in their place of study. Encounters with English are especially linked to commercial contexts (see also Cenoz & Gorter 2009 ). English is not often seen or heard in institutional settings, offices, libraries, churches, or hospitals. In other words, the “official” linguistic landscape of Finnish society exists in the domestic languages only. For immigrants, for example, this may be challenging.

        The attractiveness of English varieties

        The response rate for question 15, in which respondents were asked to evaluate the appeal of varieties of English, was smaller than for the other questions in this section. Among elderly respondents and those with primary education only, the response rate was less than 70 %. These respondents probably did not recognise the varieties mentioned in the question, or were not able to evaluate their attractiveness.

        British English and American English were found to be the most appealing varieties. American English was preferred by men, and in addition by young respondents, country dwellers, and manual workers. British English was preferred by women, city dwellers, and respondents with a higher level education. The popularity of British English is not surprising since British English has traditionally been the variety taught in Finnish schools. The popularity of American English is probably due to its spread, familiarity, and associations with popular culture, especially through music, TV series, and films.

        The least appealing varieties were Indian English and Finnish English. Young respondents in particular look down on the Finnish way of using and pronouncing English. The oldest respondents reject American English most strongly, perhaps reflecting a more general antipathy towards the United States and the values associated with that country. All in all, the answers reveal that “authentic” varieties spoken by native speakers appeal to Finns. Non-native varieties of English are viewed as problematic, including Finns’ own way of using English. Finns associate good language skills with the notion of a non-native speaker who is able to sound like a native-speaker, and who does not show his/her own national origin in speech. In this sense Finns do not see English as “belonging to them”. They still treat it essentially as a foreign language, one used with an adopted “foreign” identity. In this respect Finns differ from many speakers of established World Englishes, for whom English has become one of their own languages, and for whom their own way of using the language and their own accent is acceptable in terms of displaying their ethnic and national identity (see e.g. Meshtrie & Bhatt 2008 ).

        Teaching conducted in English

        Almost all the respondents (approaching 90 %) viewed teaching in English positively. Age group comparisons showed that the most positive attitudes were found in the two mid-range age groups, perhaps because schoolchildren’s parents are likely to belong to those groups. In other words, the issue is of more immediate relevance to them than to young or retired respondents.

        In the cities, attitudes towards English language instruction were somewhat more positive than in the countryside. The difference may reflect the fact that English language instruction is offered mainly in urban and semi-urban municipalities (see Lehti et al. 2006 ).

        Finns’ fairly positive attitude towards Finnish children’s attendance at English-speaking schools can be seen as surprising, considering the public debate that has been going on around the subject (see Virtala 2002 ; Härkönen 2005 ; Leppänen & Pahta, forthcoming ). In this debate it is often suggested that English language instruction may threaten skills in the mother tongue and in other school subjects ( Hakulinen et al. 2009 ).

        English as the language of Finnish companies

        Respondents were more often for than against the use of English as the internal language of companies: over 60 % viewed the phenomenon positively. In particular, young respondents of working age and city residents had positive attitudes towards this use of English, whereas older respondents and country dwellers had twofold opinions. Many of the retired respondents could not form an opinion at all.

        The distribution of answers reflects the fact that even though English has been part of Finnish working life for a fairly short period of time, the recent internationalisation and globalisation of working life has made Finns more aware of the increasing need for English in many expert positions. The answers also indicate that respondents of working age in particular think that future employees should know English, even if they do not see English skills as necessary in their own situation.

        Attitudes to English spoken by Finns

        When a Finn speaks English, he or she should basically sound like a native speaker: 54 % of the respondents admire, and 23 % feel pride in Finns when they hear a Finn speaking English like a native speaker. If a Finn speaks with a Finnish accent, but fluently, he or she is still admired (28 %), with 24 % of the respondents feeling pride in Finns. If a Finn speaks English poorly, the respondents feel sympathy, amusement, and irritation. Negative feelings towards a Finn speaking English poorly are more common among young people and slightly more common among men than women. Elderly respondents seem to value a good effort, whereas younger respondents clearly have higher standards. Older country dwellers with a low level of education do not appear to place as much value on native-sounding speech as do those who are young, well-educated, and living in cities.

        The importance of English in Finland

        Finns consider foreign language skills to be extremely important: the view is that young people (97 %) and people of working age (80 %) should know English, but that for the elderly (23 %) it is not as necessary. When travelling abroad, English skills are seen as necessary (69 %), but it is thought that people should know other languages in addition (67 %). These results demonstrate how Finns genuinely appreciate English and want to learn it, but the same thing applies to other languages as well. Finns are interested in and motivated to study foreign languages, and in this respect differ from many other Europeans – particularly speakers of languages spoken by large numbers of people – who are not nearly as interested in foreign language studies (cf. Eurobarometer 2006 ). Keeping in mind the Finns’ interest in foreign languages, one may be alarmed at how far the language choices in schools are becoming narrowed down ( Saarinen 2008 ; Puustinen 2008 ). The mother tongue is still considered more useful than English (81 %), but English is seen as more useful than Swedish (82 %). In this atmosphere, especially when English is spreading through unofficial cultural channels as well, it may be difficult to strengthen the status of Swedish or even – despite legislative measures – to maintain it as a language studied by the Finnish-speaking population.

        English is not viewed as a threat to domestic languages and culture (83 %). Hence, the majority of Finns have fairly neutral and practical attitudes towards English. In this respect the majority of Finns seem to disagree with the prominent voices in public debate, expressing fears that English will fragment and displace Finnish national languages and culture. Interestingly, over half of the respondents viewed the influence of English on the Finnish language as positive and enriching.

        Almost all the young respondents felt that young people should know English, thus underlining the fairly central role that English already has in young people’s lives. In the youngest age group the respondents felt that every Finn should know English, and that Finnish society itself should function in English as well as in the domestic languages. Older age groups do not consider English to be as necessary or as positive as younger people do. The answers also revealed a dichotomy between the positively-disposed urban population and the negatively-disposed rural population – and a similar difference between highly-educated and less educated respondents. On the other hand, comparisons by occupation did not reveal such clear divisions.

        From these results, it appears that Finland is divided in two from the point of view of the respondents’ views and attitudes: English emerges as “linguistic capital” for the young and those leading an urban lifestyle, whereas older people, less educated people, and country dwellers have a more distant, negative, and less personal relation to English.

        Status of English as an international language

        In general, English was seen as important for internationality: 90 % of the respondents felt that skills in English enhance mutual understanding on a global scale, 74 % felt that to be up-to-date one must know English, and 60 % felt that English skills should become more common. English is associated with trendsetting, and is basically seen as something that modern people should be proficient in. Here again we notice that Finns have fairly pragmatic attitudes towards English, that is, they take the view that English is necessary for international communication. Nevertheless, the majority (60 %) of the respondents took the view that English was displacing other languages, though only 30 % believed that it was having a destructive effect on other cultures. Here an interesting contradiction was found between attitudes towards the influence of English on Finland’s own national languages and culture, as compared to the effect on other languages and cultures. English was seen as a threat to other languages, but not to Finland’s national languages. Finns would thus appear to have a high degree of confidence in their own languages, and in their continuing status and vitality.

        The results again show differences between the young and the old: young respondents emphasised the importance of English skills, while the old were more critical. In comparisons between occupations, managers and experts constantly differed from healthcare workers and manual workers by agreeing more frequently with almost every statement. In other words, managers and experts viewed English skills as important because of internationality, but their answers also revealed critical attitudes towards the “imperialistic” influence of English in the world. The comparisons by other background variables showed fewer differences, or else were not found to be consistent.

        Back to top

         

        Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 5: National survey on the English language in Finland: Uses, meanings and attitudes

        © 2011 the authors; series © 2007– VARIENG

        Last updated 2011-05-08 by Henri Kauhanen

         

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        March 27

        1350 While besieging Gibraltar, Alfonso XI of Castile dies of the black death.
        1512 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sights Florida.
        1794 The U.S. government establishes a permanent navy with the authorization to build six frigates. [From MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History ]
        1802 The Treaty of Amiens is signed, ending the French Revolutionary War.
        1814 U.S. troops under Gen. Andrew Jackson inflict a crushing defeat on the Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend in Northern Alabama.
        1836 The Mexican army massacres Texan rebels at Goliad.
        1866 President Andrew Johnson vetoes the civil rights bill , which later becomes the 14th amendment.
        1884 The first long-distance telephone call is made from Boston to New York.
        1899 The Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi achieves the first international radio transmission between England and France.
        1900 The London Parliament passes the War Loan Act, which gives 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause.
        1912 The first cherry blossom trees, a gift from Japan, are planted in Washington, D.C.
        1933 Some 55,000 people stage a protest against Hitler in New York.
        1941 Takeo Yoshikawa arrives in Oahu, Hawaii, to begin spying for Japan on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor .
        1942 The British raid the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France .
        1944 One thousand Jews leave Drancy, France for the Auschwitz concentration camp.
        1944 Thousands of Jews are murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania. The Gestapo shoots forty Jewish policemen in the Riga, Latvia ghetto.
        1945 General Dwight Eisenhower declares that the German defenses on the Western Front have been broken.
        1952 Elements of the U.S. Eighth Army reach the 38th parallel in Korea, the original dividing line between the two Koreas.
        1958 The United States announces a plan to explore space near the moon.
        1976 Washington, D.C. opens its subway system.
        1977 In aviation’s worst disaster yet, 583 die when a KLM 747 collides with a 747 flown by Pan Am on the island of Tenerife.
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        1906 Pee Wee Russell, jazz clarinetist.
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        1914  Budd Schulberg , journalist, novelist and screenwriter (What Makes Sammy Run).
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        real time systems course outline

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        CS 6396 / CE 6308 / EE 6308 – Real-Time Systems (Fall, 2013)

        Course Information

        Time:
        Friday 4:00pm – 6:45pm
        Place:
        ECSN 2.112
        Instructor:
        Dr. Cong Liu
        Office Hours:
        Friday 2:30-3:30 PM (held in ECSS 4.211)
        Email:
        cong at utdallas dot edu
        URL:
        Course Website
        Textbook
        (Required):
        Real-Time Systems, Jane Liu, Prentice Hall, 2000.

        Online references, including conferece and journal papers.


        Course Description

        To introduce students to the fundamental problems, concepts, and approaches in the design and analysis of real-time systems. To study issues related to the design and analysis of systems with real-time constraints. The problem of ensuring such constraints is ultimately a scheduling problem, so much attention is devoted to such problems. Note that this is a *must* course for anyone wanting to do real-time systems research in the department.


        Prerequisites

        CS 5348 (Operating Systems Concepts) or equivalent. In addition, one of the things you need to be comfortable with is computational-complexity issues pertaining to validating timing constraints. Because of this, for a class or two, some basic knowledge of NP-completeness, as covered in undergraduate or graduate algorithms classes, will be useful. Please note that I do not intend to zealously enforce the prerequisites. Anyone with a decent background in algorithms and operating systems should be able to handle the material.


        Topics

        • Overview of real-time applications and concepts with emphasis on the distinguishing characteristics of real-time systems and the constraints that they must satisfy.
        • Real-time scheduling and schedulability analysis, including clock-driven and priority-driven scheduling.
        • Real-time operating systems. Basic operating-system functions needed for real-time computing.
        • Resource managment in real-time systems, including potential problems and their resolution as well as practical issues in building real-time systems.
        • Resource sharing in real-time systems.
        • Distributed real-time systems, multiprocessor real-time systems (if time permits).

        Objectives

        Student Learning Objectives/Outcomes:

        1. Real-time scheduling and schedulability analysis a,b,c
        2. Formal specification and verification of timing constraints and properties a,b,c,d
        3. Design methods for real-time systems a,b,c
        4. Development and implementation of new techniques to advance the state-of-the-art real-time systems research c,d,e,f

        CS Outcomes:

        1. An ability to understand advanced concepts in theory of computer science;
        2. An ability to understand advanced concepts in applications of computer science;
        3. An ability to apply knowledge of advanced computer science to formulate the analyze problems in computing and solve them;
        4. An ability to learn emerging concepts in theory and applications of computer science;
        5. An ability to design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data; and
        6. An ability to function in teams and to communicate effectively.

        What to Expect

        Here are the major parts of all the assignments and projects.

        Reading assignments
        These will be general directions for reading the text book and selected papers. It is
        a better idea to do them before coming to each class.

        Homework Assignments
        We will probably have a couple of homework asssignemnts. These assignments must be completed individually. They are designed to make sure you are keeping pace (you should not find them extraordinarily time-consuming).

        Paper presentation
        Each student will present (in 15 minutes) an assigned paper. At the end of each presentation, please add one or two slides critiquing the paper. Think of yourself as a conference or journal reviewer on the same subject. Sample questions you can raise and discuss include: Are the assumptions reasonable and realistic? Are there any technical errors and limitations? How to improve the work?

        Exam
        There will be a open-book open-notes written final exame, which covers the whole course.

        Quiz
        There will be two quizzes. The second one will be close-book close-note.

        Project
        Each student must complete a research-oriented course project. You are responsible for defining your own project. The outcome of your project should be a decent quality research paper. The project must be a fairly significant piece of work. It is perfectly fine to use research from an RA position as the basis for your class project as long as it is related to real-time systems or scheduling. Two-person projects may be permitted, provided the total work involved is about twice that of the typical single-person project. More information on the project including my suggested project ideas (again I encourage you to come up with your own project ideas) can be found here .

        Attendance and Class Participation
        Attendance is required for this class. This class will be far more enjoyable for everyone if all students come to class ready and willing to discuss the materials to be covered. I plan to reward those who consistently participate in class by increasing their final grade by up to half a letter grade.

        Grading
        Homework Assignments: 10%
        Paper presentation: 10%
        Quiz: 20%
        Final exam: 20%
        Project:40%

        Late Policy

        No lateness (it’s a real-time class anyway).


        Honor Code

        • Homework and paper critique are to be entirely your own work. You may not
          collaborate with other students or use previously completed assignments.
        • Cheating, plagiarism (especially on writing project papers), collusion, and falsifying academic records will not be tolerated and will result in an “F” grade on the course.

        kertas paper one 80 gram


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        modern chemistry homework 6-11

        Chapter 6

        Chemical Bonding

        I: Introduction to Chemical Bonding

        chemical bond – definition

        high potential energy to a lower potential energy

        A: Types of Chemical Bonding

        valence electrons

        cations

        anions

        ionic bonding – definition

        giving up one or more electrons

        opposite attraction of the ions is what forms the bond

        covalent bonding – definition

        figure 6-1 page 162

        metallic bonding

        valence electrons

        kernel

        1. Ionic or Covalent?

        usually a blend of the two

        electronegativity differences

        figure 6-2 page 162

        nonpolar covalent bond – definition

        polar covalent bond – definition

        Polar – definition

        figure 6-3 page 163

        electron density

        d- and d+ e.g. HCl

        Homework: 6.1

        II: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Compounds

        molecule – definition

        two or more of the same type of atom or two or more different atoms – joined by covalent bond(s)

        figure 6-4 page 164

        molecular compound – definition

        chemical formula – definition

        molecular formula – definition

        diatomic molecule – definition

        A: Formation of a Covalent Bond

        hydrogen-hydrogen bond

        electron configuration

        orbital notation of valence electrons

        how can each element best get an octet?

        nuclei of one atom attracted to electron cloud of other atom and visa versa

        eventually the nuclei repel each other and so an optimal distance between the nuclei is reached

        figure 6-5 page 165

        figure 6-6 page 165

        B: Characteristics of the Covalent Bond

        the electron cloud and, therefore, the orbitals overlap

        figure 6-7 page 167

        bond length – definition

        bond energy – definition

        in general, the shorter the bond length, the higher the bond energy

        table 6-1 page 168

        sharing electrons to get an octet or a noble gas configuration e.g. hydrogen molecule

        figure 6-8 page 168

        Homework: 6.2

        C: The Octet Rule

        stable electron configuration — filled s and p sublevel of the outermost energy level — octet

        noble gases – minimum of potential energy

        Octet rule – statement

        fluorine molecule F2

        figure 6-9a page 169

        hydrogen chloride molecule HCl

        figure 6-9b page 169

        1. Exceptions to the Octet Rule

        applies to most main group elements that form covalent bonds

        exceptions: B – three pairs of electrons instead of four e.g. BF3

        Some elements can be surrounded by more than four pairs of electrons when bonding with highly electronegative elements fluorine, oxygen, and chlorine — these are said to have expanded valence involving d as well as s and p orbitals

        2. Electron Dot Notation

        electron dot notation – definition

        shows paired and unpaired valence electrons

        figure 6-10 page 170

        electron dot notation for hydrogen, nitrogen

        3. Lewis Structures

        electron dot formula vs electron dot notation

        unshared pair or lone pair – definition

        Lewis structure replaces the bonding pair of electrons with a dash

        Structural formula – definition

        e.g. H-H or F-F or H-Cl

        Single covalent bond (single bond) – definition

        Homework: 6.3

        4. Multiple Covalent Bonds

        double covalent bond – definition

        two pairs of side by side dots or two parallel dashes

        C2H4 is the compound ethene – double bond betweent the two carbons

        triple covalent bond – definition

        N2

        figure 6-11 page 173

        C2H2 is the compound ethyne – triple bond betwen the two carbons

        multiple bonds – definition

        bond energy of single vs double vs triple bond

        length of bonds of single vs double vs triple

        carbon, oxygen and nitrogen can form multiple bonds with the same element

        Homework: 6.4

        5. Resonance Structures

        Some molecules and ions cannot be represented by a single Lewis structure e.g. O3

        diagram page 175

        O = O – O <—-> O – O = O

        the two bonds are identical but we don’t have a good way to represent it using a single Lewis structure – thus resonance

        the two structures are resonance structures or resonance hybrids

        Resonance – definition

        double headed arrow – only place this is allowed – between the two resonance structures

        Homework: 6.5

        6. Covalent Network Bonding

        molecules with covalent bonding usually consist of molecules

        molecules THEMSELVES ARE held together by forces holding the molecules together – NOT COVALENT BONDS

        more on this in a later chapter

        Homework: Chapter 6, 6.6

        III: Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds

        ionic compound – definition

        most ionic compounds are crystalline solids – figure 6-12 page 176

        Empirical formula – definition

        the ratio of ions in an empirical formula depends on the charges of the ions combined e.g. calcium fluoride v sodium fluoride; CAF2 V NAF

        A: Formation of Ionic Compounds

        electron dot equation for reaction of sodium and chlorine to yield sodium chloride page 177

        electron dot equation for the reaction between calcium and fluorine to yield calcium fluoride page 177

        1. Characteristics of Ionic Bonding

        ions minimize their potential energy by combining in an orderly arrangement known as a crystal lattice

        figure 6-13 page 177

        attractive forces present in ionic crystal include: a) those between oppositely charged ions; b) those between the nuclei and electrons of adjacent ions

        repulsive forces in an ionic crystal include: a) those between like-charged ions; b) those between electrons of adjacent ions

        distance between ions and their arrangement in a crystal represent a balance among all these forces

        figure 6-14 page 177

        the arrangements of ions and the strengths of attraction between the ions vary with a) the sizes and charges of the ions and b) the numbers of ions of different charges

        figure 6-15 page 178

        lattice energy – definition

        it is used to compare bond strengths in ionic compounds

        table 6-3 page 179

        negative values indicate energy is released (exothermic)

        B: A Comparison of Ionic and Molecular Compounds

        The forces between molecules are much weaker than the forces of ionic bonding — thus different properties

        Melting point, boiling point and hardness depend on how strongly its basic units are attracted to each other

        Many molecular compounds melt at low temperatures while many ionic compounds have higher melting and boiling points

        Ionic cpds do not vaporize as readily at room temperature as molecular cpds do

        Ionic cpds are hard but brittle

        figure 6-17 page 179

        In the molten state (melted) or when dissolved in water, ionic cpds conduct electricity but not in the solid state

        Those ionic cpds that are not soluble (dissolve) in water are cpds in which the water molecules cannot overcome the attraction between the ions of the cpd

        C: Polyatomic Ions

        Polyatomic ions – definition

        As with any ion, these result from the shortage or excess of electrons

        Difference is that they contain more than one type of element

        polyatomic ions – page 180

        Homework: 6.7

        IV: Metallic Bonding

        The bonding in metals reflects their properties

        Mobile valence electrons

        A: Metallic Bond Model

        In metals, usually, the s sublevel is filled and the three orbitals of the p sublevel are empty

        Also, some have some vacant d orbitals

        The vacant orbitals and the atoms’ outer energy levels overlap. This overlapping of orbitals allows the outer electrons of the atoms to roam freely throughout the entire metal

        delocalized

        sea of electrons

        Metallic bonding – definition

        1. Metallic Properties

        delocalization of electrons explain the high electrical and thermal conductivity

        because they contain many orbitals separated by extremely small energy differences, metals can absorb a wide range of light frequencies – luster

        Malleability – definition

        Ductility – definition

        Metallic bonding is the same in all directions throughout the solid. One plane of atoms in a metal can slide past another without encountering any resistance or breaking any bonds, unlike ionic crystals

        2 Metallic Bond Strength

        Varies with the nuclear charge of the metal atoms and the number of electrons in the metal’s electron sea

        Both are reflected in the metal’s heat of vaporization

        Heat of vaporization – definition

        The amount of heat is a measure of the strength of the bonds that hold the metal together

        table 6-4 page 182

        V: Molecular Geometry

        properties depend on bonding and molecular geometry

        polarity of each bond and the geometry of the molecule determines the molecular polarity

        molecular geometry – definition

        molecular polarity – definition

        molecular polarity influences the forces that act between molecules in liquids and solids

        the chemical formula does not tell us directly about molecular polarity

        two theories are prevalent a) molecular bond angles; b) describe the orbitals that contain the valence electrons

        A: VSEPR Theory

        figure 6-20 page 183

        when there are only two atoms (diatomic) the geometry must be linear

        more complicated molecules – consider all electron pairs surrounding the bonded atoms — VSEPR theory

        VSEPR – definition

        we will consider molecules with no unpaired (unshared) electron pairs then those with unpaired (unshared) electron pairs and see how they differ

        first example: BeF2

        methodology: a) inert gas electron configuration; b) orbital notation for valence electrons; c) dot structure for each element; d) dot formula for molecule; e) consider effect of electron pairs on geometry

        BeF2 dot formula

        VSEPR states that electron pairs orient themselves to be as far away from each other as possible

        figure 6-21 page 184

        AB2

        second example: BF3

        methodology: same as above

        AB3

        third example: CH4

        methodology: same as above

        carbon uses its four valence electrons to bond with four other atoms; the four atoms occupy the corners of a tetrahedron, bond angles are 109.5 degrees; a tetrahedron consists of four identical triangles put together

        other molecules on table 6-5 page 186 – know the general formulas, the geometry, the bond angles and examples

        keep in mind that if the "B" atoms are not all the same, this will distort the molecule’s geometry

        1. VSEPR and Unshared Electron Pairs

        central atom has unshared electron pairs e.g. water and ammonia

        How VSEPR theory handles this: electron dot formula for ammonia, NH3; one pair occupies space just as the bonding pairs do

        ammonia is described as an AB3E, where A is the central atom, B represents atoms bonded to the central atom, E represents lone pair(s)

        bond angle is 107 degrees, less than the 109.5 degrees of a tetrahedron — lone pairs repel electrons more than bonding pairs do; geometry is trigonal pyramidal

        water molecule: the oxygen has two lone pairs; it is an AB2E2; oxygen is at the center of a modified tetrahedron, with two hydrogen’s occupying two of the three corners of the base, one lone pair at the third corner of the base and one lone pair at the top. Geometry is described as bent.

        Figure 6-22 page 185

        Links to websites:

        http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/animations/chang_7e_esp/bom3s2_7.swf

        http://www.hnhsoakland.org/faculty/kconover/Sites/PreviousPages/shapes.html

        http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314F00/Lecture/Chapter10/VSEPR.html

        Homework: 6.9

        B: Hybridization

        hybridization – definition

        the compound methane, CH4

        or carbon: electron configuration and orbital notation; change that results from hybridization that involves the 2s and 2p orbitals to form a new orbital called the sp3 hybridized orbital

        figure 6-23 page 188

        new electron configuration to show hybridization

        hybrid orbital – definition

        explain the geometry of molecules formed by Group 15 and 16 elements

        Homework: 6.10

        C: Intermolecular Forces

        boiling point is a good measure

        intermolecular forces – definition

        weaker than chemical bonds

        comparing boiling points of metals and ionic compounds with boiling points of molecular substances table 6-7 page 190

        1. Molecular Polarity and Dipole-Dipole Forces

        strongest intermolecular forces exist between polar molecules

        polar molecules act as tiny dipoles

        dipole – definition

        The direction of the dipole is from the positive to the negative end of the molecule

        Indicated by an arrow pointing toward the negative end of the molecule. The tail of the arrow is crossed and is at the positive end of the molecule

        dipole-dipole forces – definition

        short range forces

        figure 6-25 page 191

        For molecules containing more than two atoms, molecular polarity depends on both the polarity and the orientation of each bond; e.g. water

        figure 6-26 page 191

        e.g. ammonia

        In some molecules, individual bond dipoles cancel one another, causing the resulting molecular polarity to be zero e.g. carbon tetrachloride and carbon dioxide figure 6-26 page 191

        A polar molecule can induce a dipole in a nonpolar molecule by temporarily attracting its electrons; The short range intermolecular force is somewhat weaker than the dipole-dipole force

        The force of an induced dipole accounts for the solubility of nonpolar oxygen in water

        Figure 6-27 page 192

        2. Hydrogen Bonding

        strong type of dipole-dipole force

        Occurs between the hydrogen of one molecule and the F, O, or N of an adjacent molecule

        examples are HF, water and ammonia

        hydrogen bonding – definition

        represented by dotted lines connecting the hydrogen of one molecule to the highly electronegative atom (fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen) of an adjacent molecule

        Figure 6-28 page 192

        effect can be seen by comparing boiling points of phosphine and ammonia; hydrogen sulfide and water on table 6-7 page 190

        3. London Dispersion Forces

        noble gases and nonpolar molecules still experience a weak intermolecular attraction

        because of the random motion of the electrons, the distribution of the electrons may become uneven; creates a temporary dipole in the molecule; this temporary dipole can induce a dipole in an adjacent molecule and the two molecules are attracted for an instant then the effect disappears

        figure 6-29 page 193

        London dispersion forces – definition

        These forces operate between all atoms and molecules

        they are the only intermolecular forces acting among noble gas atoms, nonpolar molecules, and slightly polar molecules

        Notice the low bp’s of the noble gases, etc. on table 6-7 page 190

        Because these forces depend on the motion of the electrons, their strength increases with the number of electrons in the interacting atoms or molecules i.e. the forces increase with increasing atomic or molar mass

        Note the BP’s of helium and argon, hydrogen and oxygen, chlorine and bromine

        Homework: 6.11

        end of notes

        London dispersion forces are the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

        Hydrogen bonding is the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

        Dipole-dipole forces are the forces of attraction between polar molecules

        A dipole is created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance

        Intermolecular forces are the forces of attraction between molecules

        Hybrid orbitals are orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom

        Hybridization is a mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies

        VSEPR theory states that repulsion between the sets of valence level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible.

        VSEPR stands for valence shell electron pair repulsion

        Molecular polarity is the uneven distribution of molecular charge

        Molecular geometry is the three dimensional arrangement of a molecule’s atoms in space

        Heat of vaporization is the heat necessary to convert a metal from the solid state to individual metal atoms in the gaseous state

        Ductility is the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire

        Malleability is the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets.

        Metallic bonding is the bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons.

        A polyatomic ion is a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

        Lattice energy is the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions

        An empirical formula (formula unit) indicates what elements are present and the simple whole number ratio of those elements

        Ionic compound is composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal

        Resonance refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure

        A triple covalent bond is a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms

        Multiple bonds are double or triple covalent bonds

        A double covalent bond is a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms

        A single covalent bond is a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms

        Structural formula indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule

        An unshared pair of electrons is a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom

        Electron dot notation is an electron configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element’s symbol

        Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level.

        Bond energy is the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms

        The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy is the bond length

        A diatomic molecule is a molecule containing only two atoms.

        The diatomic molecules are fluorine, chlorine,bromine, iodine, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

        A molecular formula shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound

        A chemical formula indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts

        A molecular compound is a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

        A molecule is a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds

        Polar means an uneven distribution of charge

        A polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons

        A nonpolar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge

        Covalent bonding results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms

        Ionic bonding is a chemical bond that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions

        Chemical Bond is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together