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Charlie Chaplin – The Idle Class (1921)



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The Idle Class

The Idle Class

The Idle Class watch online free without downloading

Hello to everyone, Im Paul and I write movie reviews for this website Few hours of great experience youll remember for life. By far, this is the best movie I have ever seen in my life. This movie was so great it drove me to write here review, first time for a long time really. Youll change your mind after watching this movie, Im sure. The music is seriously soul of this movie. You know what? This movie should be at least twice as recognizable as it is. This was unexpected, I thought The Idle Class will be terrible, but I loved it. You dont need to register here to watch this movie online, it is available for free on your iphone and computer. I hope you liked my review, now dont waste any moment and start watching The Idle Class.

Show plot description

Genre:
Comedy

Actors:
Charles Chaplin , Edna Purviance

Directors:
Charles Chaplin

Country:
United States

Quality: HD

Release: 1921

IMDb: 8,2

Duration: 32 min

Views: 17

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    9.2


    “This is a nice hotel, especially for the price. There isn’t much around in walking distance, but you could drive to eat or shop, without having to go too far. It’s right off the highway so it was easy to get around. The hotel room was spacious and comfortable, but the furniture were a little dated. The building itself was nice and clean. The breakfast was basic, but good. There was a good mixture of hot foods, cereals, and baked goods. I didn’t watch much TV, but the satellite kept going out when I did. The front desk clerk was professional and friendly. I’d prefer a few more modern style room, but aside from that, it was a very comfortable, clean hotel with good service.”


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    Brilliant!


    Facilities of Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    Great facilities! Review score, 8.8


    Most Popular Facilities


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    Pool and Spa

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    • Outdoor Pool


    • Fitness Center





    Pets
    • Pets are not allowed.





    Internet
    • Free!
      WiFi is available in all areas and is free of charge.

    • Free!
      Wired internet is available in the hotel rooms and is free of charge.





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    • Free!
      Free public parking is available on site (reservation is needed).





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    • All Spaces Non-Smoking (public and private)


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    House Rules

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    Check-in


    From 3:00 PM

    Guests are required to show a photo ID and credit card at check-in





    Check-out


    Until 12:00 PM





    Cancellation/
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    Cancellation and prepayment policies vary according to room type.
    Please enter the dates of your stay and check what conditions apply to your preferred room.




    Children and Extra Beds

    All children are welcome.

    Free!
    All children under 18 years stay free of charge when using existing beds.

    Free!
    Any additional older children or adults stay free of charge when using existing beds.

    Free!
    One older child or adult stays free of charge in an extra bed.

    Free!
    One child under 2 years stays free of charge in a crib.

    The maximum number of extra beds/cribs in a room is 1.

    Any type of extra bed or crib is upon request and needs to be confirmed by management.




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    Pets are not allowed.




    Groups

    When booking more than 9 rooms, different policies and additional supplements may apply.







    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station accepts these cards and reserves the right to temporarily hold an amount prior to arrival.


    The Fine Print
    You must show a valid photo ID and credit card upon check-in. Please note that all special requests cannot be guaranteed and are subject to availability upon check-in. Additional charges may apply.

    Please note that carrying a weapon on hotel premises is prohibited and violators may be subject to arrest for criminal trespass under applicable law.

    Guests are required to show a photo ID and credit card upon check-in. Please note that all Special Requests are subject to availability and additional charges may apply.

    Or, take a look at these appealing alternatives:


    • La Quinta Inn & Suites College Station South has a location score of 9



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    What guests loved the most:


    “We were there for the State Trackmeet, it was extremely hot outside all day, but to be able to arrive to friendly staff and our room for showers and relaxation was awesome, not to MENTION location right next door to Ninfas. Amazing good.We thank you all, and if we’re ever in the area again, we’ll definitely stay at the Hampton…”

    Vickey

    Vickey

    United States of America

    “Very friendly staff. Excellent breakfast choices. Very clean. We would stay here again. ”

    Steven

    Steven

    United States of America

    “Easy check in. Room was clean and quiet. I would stay there again. Note that there is only one entrance/exit and it is not obvious.”

    Ggj

    Ggj

    United States of America

    “Would have liked more variety of meats. Didn’t really care for the eckrich type sausage for breakfast”

    Gary

    Gary

    United States of America

    “Friendly staff, lots of room in the suite. very clean, nice decor in the lobby”

    Kathy

    Kathy

    United States of America

    “Our room with the jacuzzi tub was huge, water was HOT, bed was comfy. We’ll be back for sure.”

    Brittany

    Brittany

    United States of America

    “Room was spacious, clean, and staff was amazing! The breakfast was to be expected, decent for a hotel breakfast.”

    Beverly

    Beverly

    United States of America

    “This was a wonderful place to stay. The staff was very friendly. Our beds were like sleeping on clouds! The sofa bed was very comfy too. It had a gel memory foam mattress. It was extremely clean. The breakfast was very good also. We had a great stay and would stay here again.”

    Tiffani

    Tiffani

    United States of America

    “All the staff extremely friendly. Very clean hotel. Beautiful property inside and out. Comfortable beds. Very good breakfast.”


    United States of America

    “The staff was friendly. The breakfast was good and had variety from day to day. The room was clean.”


    United States of America

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    Baymont by Wyndham College Station


    This rating is a reflection of how the property compares to the industry standard when it comes to price, facilities and services available. It’s based on a self-evaluation by the property. Use this rating to help choose your stay!

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    Offering an outdoor pool and continental breakfast, Baymont Inn & Suites – College Station is located 2.1 mi from Texas A&M University. The hotel offers rooms with free WiFi and a flat-screen cable…

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    See all guest reviews for Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    Newest Reviews for Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    • Reviewed: August 1, 2018

      Barbara




      United States of America



      7.5

      “Stay was nice, breakfast was not great.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Couple

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Coffee and fruit was not refilled.

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 30, 2018

      Nelda




      United States of America



      7.5

      Good

      • Group of friends

      • King Room

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      It was kind of noisy…kids running down the hall.

      Everything was close by.

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 29, 2018

      Vickey




      United States of America



      9.0

      “Our stay was Fantabulous”

      • Family with young children

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      The only issue we had was the icemaker on the 2nd floor wasn’t working.

      We were there for the State Trackmeet, it was extremely hot outside all day, but to be able to arrive to friendly staff and our room for showers and relaxation was awesome, not to MENTION location right next door to Ninfas. Amazing good.We thank you all, and if we’re ever in the area again, we’ll definitely stay at the Hampton…

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 26, 2018

      Raj




      United States of America

      Age group: 45 – 54



      7.5

      “stay was fine and breakfast was horrible.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 1 night

      Breakfast was bad no one there to re fill buffet bread has become so hard and old bread served.

      Hotel was nice

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 15, 2018

      Steven




      United States of America



      10

      Exceptional

      • Leisure trip

      • Couple

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Very friendly staff. Excellent breakfast choices. Very clean. We would stay here again.

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: June 18, 2018

      Gerardo




      United States of America



      5.4

      “Will not stay there again.”

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Studio with Two Queen Beds – Disability Access/Non-Smoking

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Pool was dirty, elevator sounded like it was going to break. Ceiling roof had water damage everywhere and looked like it was going to fall through. Room needs to updated.

      Softball tournament

      Stayed in June 2018

    • Reviewed: June 13, 2018

      Kim




      United States of America



      7.5

      “Good location, nice accomodations”

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Studio with Two Queen Beds – Non-Smoking

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Little hard to access the hotel from higjeay

      Nice pool area, updated decor, nice big room.

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: June 7, 2018

      Gary




      United States of America



      9.6

      Exceptional

      • Business trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Location

      Stayed in June 2018

    • Reviewed: June 4, 2018

      ggj




      United States of America

      Age group: 55 – 64



      9.6

      “Very nice, quiet room close to where I needed to be.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Solo traveler

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Highway access.

      Easy check in. Room was clean and quiet. I would stay there again. Note that there is only one entrance/exit and it is not obvious.

      Stayed in June 2018

    • Reviewed: June 2, 2018

      Sonya




      United States of America



      7.5

      “Graduation accommodations ”

      • Leisure trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      The OJ served for breakfast was terrible, it tasted like it was old. I reported it and they checked, but it was not out of date.

      Everything else was great.

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: May 7, 2018

      Anonymous




      United States of America



      9.2

      Awesome

      • Leisure trip

      • Solo traveler

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      A/C was loud and a little awkward to operate.

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: May 6, 2018

      Gary




      United States of America



      9.6

      “Was a good stay, will be returning in a month for another two nights.”

      • Business trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Location was okay but getting to the location was difficult. If you didn’t have a general knowledge of the area you could get frustated

      Would have liked more variety of meats. Didn’t really care for the eckrich type sausage for breakfast

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: April 30, 2018

      Kathy




      United States of America



      7.5

      “We had a good visit with family the hotel was very near thier home.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Couple

      • King Room

      • Stayed 2 nights

      no resturant or lounge

      Friendly staff, lots of room in the suite. very clean, nice decor in the lobby

      Stayed in April 2018

    • Reviewed: April 26, 2018

      Damion




      United States of America



      10

      Exceptional

      • Leisure trip

      • Family with young children

      • King Studio with Sofa Bed

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      I liked everything

      Overall experience

      Stayed in April 2018

    • Reviewed: April 14, 2018

      Anonymous




      United States of America



      10

      “I will stay there again and looking forward to other Hampton stays.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Solo traveler

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      There was nothing I didn’t like.

      All the staff extremely friendly. Very clean hotel. Beautiful property inside and out. Comfortable beds. Very good breakfast.

      Stayed in April 2018

    The Best of College Station

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      sunnyside school district tucson boundaries

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      Home > Schools > Sunnyside Unified School District

      Sunnyside Unified School District

      The Sunnyside Unified School District  includes 93.6 square miles in the southern area of the City of Tucson and locations adjoining in Pima County, including the northern two miles of the Tohono O’odham Nation . built in 1921, it is the 2nd biggest district in Pima County, Arizona ; its neighbors feature Raytheon, Tucson International Airport , Texas Instruments and Intuit.

      Sunnyside serves more than 17,000 students preK-12 in 22 schools, including two huge high schools. The District works an early childhood education center that started in the 2010-11 school year, 13 elementary schools, five middle schools, and three high schools including one alternative education school. The district serves families with children from birth to 5 years of age as well as preK-12 pupils. All  Sunnyside Unified School District schools have full-time counselors, registered nurses, music instructors, art instructors, real knowledge instructors and librarians.

      The percentage of pupils who happen to be determined as minority is 94.4%. Specifically, the ethnic make-up of the student human body is 87.7% Hispanic, 5.6% Anglo, 4.1% indigenous American, 2.1% African American, and 0.5% Asian American. Approximately 86% of The Sunnyside Unified School District students are eligible for free or reduced-price meals. About one-third of students are described as English language learners (ELL). About 14% of the district’s student population receive Special Education services. There are more than 2,000 District staff. In inclusion, the District employs roughly 150 substitute teachers and 80 categorized as substitute employees.

      About Sunnyside Unified School District

      The Sunnyside Unified School District is a success-oriented organization in which students meet high academic standards are prepared to make excellent contributions in a varying and changing society. In a spirit of equity as well as in relationship with all people in the neighborhood, The District provides a quality education for all students in a secure, disciplined, effective environment.

      All Sunnyside District schools have real full-time art teachers, counselors, music teachers, parent participation assistants, physical training instructors, registered nurses, librarians and safety monitors.

      Of the district’s 1,000+ classroom teachers, 95 % satisfy the Arizona division of Education’s requirements as “highly competent.” also, all Sunnyside Unified School Districts have achieved North Central Association accreditation. Each of all of our schools has a distinct character.

      Call Kai Realty at (520)-616-3426 to visit Sunnyside Unified School District Homes for Sale.

       

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      journal of physical chemistry letters editor

      Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

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      Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters  
      Letters.gif
      Discipline Physical chemistry
      LanguageEnglish
      Edited by George C. Schatz
      Publication details
      Publication history
      2010-present
      Publisher
      ACS Publications  (United States)
      FrequencyBiweekly
      Impact factor
      (2017)
      8.709
      Standard abbreviations
      Bluebook ( alt1  · alt2 ) · ISO 4 ( alt )
      NLM ( alt ) · MathSciNet ( alt Paid subscription required)
      ISO 4
      J. Phys. Chem. Lett.
      Indexing
      MIAR
      CODEN JPCLCD
      ISSN 1948-7185
      OCLC  no. 819373282
      Links
      • Journal homepage
      • Online access
      • Online archive

      The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society , designed to complement the Journal of Physical Chemistry . The editor-in-chief is George C. Schatz ( Northwestern University ). The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters covers research on all aspects of physical chemistry . According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal had an impact factor of 8.709 for 2017. [1]

      References[ edit ]

      1. ^ “Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters”. 2017 Journal Citation Reports . Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters . 2018. 

      External links[ edit ]

      • Official website

      Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Journal_of_Physical_Chemistry_Letters&oldid=847662962 ”
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      • American Chemical Society academic journals
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          steps in setting accounting standards

          Accounting Notes


          Learn Accounting: Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions
          Learn Accounting: Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions
          Read Accounting Notes, Procedures, Problems and Solutions

          Process of Setting Accounting Standard in UK and USA

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          In this article we will discuss about the process of setting accounting standard in UK and USA.

          Setting Accounting Standard in United Kingdom:

          The first substantial British interest in the area of accounting policy making seems to have been seen in the 1940s. The underlying cause of this concern was discontent with the accounting establishment.

          The first committee of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales (ICAEW) charged with laying down guidelines concerning accounting practice emerged as a by-product of a compromise which allowed Council to continue to be composed of mainly practicing members.

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          However, up to 1960, there was little concern with the process of accounting policy making. There was some evidence of fresh thinking in the 1960s and a research committee was formed in 1964.

          The strong concern was felt by many academic accountants who suggested research programmes to explore the possibility of setting accounting standards. All these (and other) pressures led the ICAEW to issue a Statement of Intent on Accounting Standards in the 1970s. Subsequently, the Accounting Standards Committee (ASC) was established in 1970.

          The ASC has been replaced by Accounting Standards Board (ASB) in 1990.

          In establishing the ASC, the ICAEW stated its intention to advance accounting standards along five lines as follows:

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          (1) Narrowing the areas of difference and variety of accounting practice. This was to be achieved by publishing authoritative statements on best accounting practice.

          (2) Disclosure of accounting bases. This was to be required when accounts include significant items whose values depend upon judgement.

          (3) Disclosure of departures from established definitive accounting standards.

          (4) Wider exposure for major proposals on accounting standards.

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          (5) Continuing programme for encouraging improved accounting standards in legal and regulatory measures.

          In seeking to meet its terms of reference the ASC set Statement of Standard Accounting Practices (SSAPs) by a process which entailed effectively four elements research; drafting; evaluation; and approval. Similar characteristics determined the preparation of another type of document which was introduced by the ASC, the Statement of Recommended Practice (SORP).

          SORPs were designed to apply to matters of less general applicability than SSAPs and could be produced by the ASC itself or by groups of organizations representing an economic sector. In the case of latter, if SORPs were judged to have been properly prepared, they would be franked by the ASC.

          Following a continuing concern that the standard setting process needed a thorough revision, the accounting bodies in 1987 set up a review committee, named after its chairman, Sir Ron Dearing, to review procedures for developing and enforcing accounting standards in Great Britain and Ireland.

          The Dearing Report recommended the establishment of a new body, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC). This was to oversee two independent entities, the Accounting Standards Board (ASB) and the Review Panel. These recommendations were accepted and implemented, with effect from August 1990.

          The FRC, comprising 20 members, gives guidance to the ASB on priorities, work programme and issues of public concern, and acts as an instrument for promoting good accounting practice. The ASB comprises nine members including a full-time chairman and technical director. An Urgent Issues Task Force (UITF) is an offshoot of the ASB. Its role is to tackle urgent matters not covered by existing standards.

          The Review Panel has fifteen members. It is concerned with monitoring the accounts of large companies to note and investigate any departure from accounting standards. In the last resort, the Review Panel may bring civil proceedings against a company which will not revise its accounts in order to give a true and fair view.

          In 1991, the ASB published its “Statement of Aims” which stated that it aims to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting, for the benefit of users, preparers and auditors of financial information.

          The Board intends to achieve its aims by:

          (1) Developing principles to guide it in establishing standards and to provide a framework within which others can exercise judgement in resolving accounting issues.

          (2) Issuing new accounting standards, or amending existing ones, in response to evolving business practices, new economic developments and deficiencies being identified in current practice.

          (3) Addressing urgent issues promptly.

          The Board follows certain guidelines in conducting its affairs:

          (1) To be objective and to ensure that the information resulting from the application of accounting standards faithfully represents the underlying commercial activity. Such information should be neutral in the sense that it is free from any form of bias intended to influence users in a particular direction and should not be designed to favour any group of users or preparers.

          (2) To ensure that accounting standards are clearly expressed and supported by a reasoned analysis of the issues.

          (3) To determine what should be incorporated in accounting standards based on research, public consultation and careful deliberations about the usefulness of the resulting information.

          (4) To ensure that a process of regular communication of accounting standards is produced with due regard to international developments.

          (5) To ensure that there is consistency both from one accounting standard to another and between accounting standards and company law.

          (6) To issue accounting standards only when the expected benefits exceed the perceived costs. The Board recognizes that reliable cost/benefit calculations are seldom possible. However, it will always assess the need for standards in terms of the significance and extent of the problem being addressed and will choose the standard which appears to be most effective in cost/benefit terms.

          (7) To take account of the desire of the financial community for evolutionary rather than revolutionary change in the reporting process, where this is consistent with the objective outlined above.

          In 1983, the Accounting Standards Committee (ASC) obtained a written opinion from counsel on the meaning of true and fair with particular reference to the role of accounting standards. The opinion states that financial statements will not be true and fair unless the information they contain is sufficient in quantity and quality to satisfy the reasonable expectations of the readers to whom they are addressed.

          But the expectations of the readers are likely to be influenced by the practices of accountants because, by and large, they will expect to get what they ordinarily get and that, in turn, will depend upon (he normal practices of accountants. Therefore, the compliance with accepted accounting principles is treated as prima facie evidence that the financial statements are true and fair.

          The opinion states that since the function of the ASC is to formulate what it considers should be generally accepted accounting principles, the value of a Statement of Standard Accounting Practice (SSAP) to a court is:

          (а) A statement of professional opinion which readers may expect in financial statements which are true and fair.

          (b) That readers expect financial statements to comply with standards.

          The opinion concludes, therefore, that financial statements which depart from standards may be held not to be true and fair, unless a strong body of professional opinion opts out of applying the standard.

          The Companies Act, 1989 introduced a requirement to state whether the accounts have been prepared in accordance with applicable accounting standards and give details of, and the reasons for, any material departures.

          Statement of Standard Accounting Practices (SSAPs), which are produced mainly by a committee after a period of exposure and comment on the proposed statements, are mandatory for all qualified accountants involved in producing company financial statements.

          Such accountants (preparers) must ensure that stated standards are implemented by the companies by whom they are employed, unless circumstances dictate that there should be a departure; in which case, this has to be fully disclosed in the published financial statements. Company auditors are also required to verify that companies have been following standard accounting practices and to report any disagreement with the departures made.

          Despite these impositions on accountants, however, Statements of Standard Accounting Practices (SSAPs) are not mandatory on the persons ultimately responsible for the production and quality of financial statements (company directors), unless they also happen to be accountants to whom the statements apply.

          Thus it appears to be quite conceivable that company managements can deviate from the stated accounting standards, irrespective of the circumstances, though this will require to be verified by their auditors. In other words, professional statements of this kind do not appear to have the same force as those contained in statutory provisions such as the Companies Acts.

          The onus for implementation appears to be largely with individual accountants. However, Part II Schedule and Companies Act, 1948 and Companies Acts of 1980 and 1981, contain most of the main accounting principles underlying the present series of SSAPs. Also, SSAPs intended to add to truth and fairness are effectively to be considered by the company and its management when preparing its financial statements.

          Thus, those persons responsible for presenting company financial statements cannot ignore such SSAPs. But the ASB, whose authority is not backed by a government agency like SEC in USA, has to rely on acceptance of its pronouncements on the existence of a consensus of views among practicing accountants, industry, commerce, and on occasion, the government.

          UK accounting standards always indicate, in an appendix, whether or not they are consistent with IASB standards. Companies which apply UK standards are therefore to a considerable extent applying IASs implicitly but seldom acknowledge that fact in their annual reports.

          The ASB has identified three different strategies for reacting to the mounting pressure for harmonization:

          i. Adopt international standards for domestic purposes

          ii. Develop domestic requirements without regard to international standards, or

          iii. Harmonize national requirements with international standards where possible.

          Analysis of benefits and limitations led the ASB to support the third strategy. The Board has taken the view that it will depart from international consensus only when:

          i. There are particular legal or fiscal problems which dictate such a cause, or

          ii. The Board genuinely believes that the international approach is wrong and that an independent UK standard might point the way to an eventual improvement in international practice.

          Setting Accounting Standard in USA:

          In USA until the early 1930’s, accounting evolved in accordance with the best professional judgment of CPAs and managers. Heavy dependence was placed on the leadership of thoughtful practitioners. Then, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was created in 1934 to administer the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

          The Commission is given the responsibility and authority to prescribe accounting standards and rules for reports filed pursuant to the securities acts. Further, the Commission defines the conditions under which public accountants who attest to the statements are considered independent, and disciplines attesting accountants who violate these conditions.

          In 1936, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) established a Committee on Accounting Procedure. The AICPA devoted its attention almost entirely to resolving specific accounting problems and topics rather than developing general accounting principles.

          The Accounting Principles Board (APB) succeeded the Committee on Accounting Procedure of AICPA in 1959. The APB was created partially in response to criticism of the old Committee as being too concerned with putting out bush fires, as being too wedded to an ad hoc approach that lacked an overall conceptual framework.

          In contrast, the APB pronouncements were supposed to sprout from fundamental research that would formulate a grand set of tightly integrated, internally consistent accounting principles. Indeed, the APB commissioned such research, but the APB’s series of 31 opinions was often criticised for being unrelated to any overall framework.

          Despite the good intention of the APB programme, history repeated itself. The APB approach was similar to the piecemeal approach of its predecessor. In fact, the Wheat Study Group that gave the APB the kiss of death devoted a section of its report to a negative appraisal of the APB research Programme.

          Of course, this kind of criticism of the APB flowed from many other sources. For instance, the academic community and many practitioners flayed the APB because it was working without any accounting objectives or any collection of general principles. In short, observers alleged that there was not enough tidy rationality embedded in the process of accounting policy making.

          As a result of the criticism of the Accounting Principles Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board was set up in 1972 as a designated organisation in the private sector for establishing standards of financial accounting and reporting in U.S.

          Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB):

          In October 1985, the FASB issued a statement of what is conceived to be its mission:

          “To establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the public including issuers, auditors and users of financial information.”

          The statement further says that the Board seeks to accomplish its mission by the following measures:

          (1) Improving the usefulness of financial reporting by focusing on certain primary characteristics (relevance, reliability, comparability, and consistency).

          (2) Keeping standards up to date.

          (3) Considering areas of financial reporting that need improvement.

          (4) Improving the general understanding of financial reporting, its nature, and its purposes.

          In pursuing these aims, the Board says that it follows the following precepts:

          (1) To be objective in its decision making and preserve neutrality in the information that results from its standards.

          (2) To weigh the views of its constituents but ultimately to rely on its own judgment.

          (3) To issue standards only when benefits are expected to exceed costs

          (4) To minimise disruption when making needed changes.

          (5) To review past decisions and to make changes when necessary.

          Before the FASB promulgates a major standard, it is required by its rules to follow extensive ‘due process’ procedures that gives those concerned with the subject-matter of the standard plenty of opportunity to influence the outcome of the Board’s deliberations.

          In connection with each of its major standards, the Board:

          (a) Appoints a task force of technical experts representing a broad spectrum of preparers, auditors and users of financial information to advise on the project.

          (b) Studies existing literature on the subject and conducts such additional research as may be necessary.

          (c) Publishes a comprehensive discussion of issues and possible solutions as a basis for public comment.

          (d) Conducts a public hearing.

          (e) After the results of the public hearing and other responses have been analysed by the Board’s staff and have been considered by the Board, an exposure draft of a proposed standard is issued for the public comment and 90 to 120 days are allowed for comment. If the comments indicate that substantial revisions of the exposure draft are necessary, a second exposure draft may be issued, with further time allowed for public comment.

          The end product of the above elaborate and costly procedure is the promulgation of a statement of financial accounting standards (SFAS). Besides the formal statement, the Board also issues, Statements of Concepts, Interpretations, and Technical Bulletins. Statements of Standard establish new standards or amend those previously issued.

          Statements of Concepts do not establish new standards or require any change in application of existing accounting principles. They establish new general concepts that will be used to guide the development of standards, and to provide guidance in solving problems.

          Because of their long range importance, Statements of Concepts are developed under the same extensive ‘due process’ the FASB must follow in developing Statements of Financial Accounting Standards on major topics. Interpretations clarify, explain or elaborate on existing standards.

          Since 1979, the Board’s staff has been authorised to issue technical bulletins giving guidance on the interpretation of a standard. These (bulletins) have to be reviewed by the Board members before they are issued, but they are not pronouncements by the Board. The Board has carried out many research projects also.

          Enforcement of Standards:

          The FASB itself, as a private rule making agency, has neither enforcement powers, nor the Financial Accounting Foundation. The force behind the FASB, standards comes from two other bodies, the SEC and the AICPA. A few months after the establishment of the FASB in 1973, the SEC issued ASR 150, and it is from that release that the FASB derives most of its authority.

          ASR 150 stated that “for purposes of this policy, principles, standards and practices promulgated by the FASB in its statements and interpretations will be considered by the Commission as having substantial authoritative support, and those contrary to such FASB promulgations will be considered to have no such support.”

          More recently, in ASR 280 (September 1980), the SEC reaffirmed its intention to rely on the FASB “for leadership in establishing financial accounting and reporting standards,” while recognising that “there is, of course, always the possibility that the Commission (SEC) may conclude it cannot accept the FASB standard in a particular area but such events have been rare.”

          Similarly, FASB derives authority from the Rules 203 and 204 of the Rules of Conduct of the AICPA’s Code of Professional Ethics. Rule 203 places a duty on auditors to report on departures from FASB standards in financial statements audited by them.

          An Interpretation of Rule 203 states categorically that rule “relates solely to the provisions of Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFASs) which establishes accounting principles with respect to basic financial statements (balance sheets, statements of income, statement of changes in retained earnings, disclosure of changes in other categories of stockholders equity, statements of changes in financial position, and descriptions of accounting policies and related notes).”

          SFASs that stipulate that certain information should be disclosed outside the basic financial statements are not covered by Rule 203. However, Rule 204 gives authority to pronouncements of the FASB on such matters.

          The SEC has statutory authority to establish financial accounting and reporting standards for publicly held companies under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Throughout its history, however, the Commission’s policy has been to rely on the private sector for this function to the extent that the private sector demonstrates ability to fulfil the responsibility in the public interest.

          Since its inception, the approach of the Commission has been to delegate its authority, import, to the private accounting profession to determine—subject to its oversight—the proper disclosure and measurement rules. The Commission’s hesitation probably stems from its realisation that the costs potentially incurred would exceed the benefits to it as an agency.

          The costs include disagreements among the constitutions {e.g., accountants, auditors, investors, financial analysts, brokers, companies, press, government, legislators) as to which standards apply. The commission perhaps also realizes that general content standards that imply economic measurements are open to potential criticisms.

          While the Commission (SEC) has steadfastly maintained its general policy of reliance on the accounting profession for accounting standard setting, it has nevertheless not adopted a totally passive role. It has established presentation standards and a very large number of specific rules that attempt to govern almost every situation that has come to its attention.

          Thus, companies and public accountants are faced with the expense of learning and following these regulations’ while it is doubtful that users have achieved much in the way of benefit.

          Benston stated that “The USA’s experience with the SEC leads me to conclude that it is not likely that such an agency will or even can determine the optimal set of information to be disclosed or ‘the best’ accounting standards to be followed. To the contrary, the agency has incentives to add considerable costs and few benefits to the disclosure process, and tends to do so.”

          Recently, a survey made about the attitudes towards the US Financial Accounting Standards Board shows that most of the financial community thought it produced too many standards, stressed technically correct solutions at the expense of practicability, did not consider significant areas of deficiency which could be improved by standard setting quickly enough and was not sufficient by responsive to the needs of small business.

          However, the survey also showed that over the last five years awareness and positiveness about FASB, its work and overall performance have increased. FASB statements were seen as effective since they improved generally accepted accounting principle and dealt with the right issues.

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          Home   >   Health   >   The Effects of Smoking

          The Effects of Smoking

          By Zeeshan Hussain on December 17, 2014

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          Your Life

          Smoking is termed as the ‘Silent Killer’; It has been scientifically proven to be one of the leading causes of a great deal of health related diseases such as cancer and emphysema to name a few. We all share the same desire, the ability to live healthy and spend as much time as we can with our loved ones and be able to keep up with our children. The catastrophic addictive consequences brought by the ill-effects of smoking leaves nothing unturned, destroying our ability to be active to enjoy the quality of life we all wish to have.

          There have been numerous research studies and presentations on how smoking impacts peoples lives for the worse once hooked. Most of us are familiar with the relationship between smoking and lung cancer but that’s just the tip of the ice-berg.  Smoking is also known to be one of the leading causes of the following; cardiac diseases, coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases or (COPD), cancers of the bladder, cervical, esophageal, laryngeal, hepatic, pancreatic, gastric (gut or stomach), trachea and blood. Use can also lead to or cause: pre-term birth, still birth, increasing chances of ectopic pregnancy, sudden death infant syndrome or (SIDS). Congenital defects such as: Cleft palate, affected libido, low sperm quality, poor bone density, cataracts, gum bleeding and so on.  As you can tell all the above seems overwhelming and it’s recently become more of an alarming issue nowadays as the number of people affected range from active to passive (second hand) smokers–see my previous article: 14 Health Benefits of Green Tea and how this super-food helps to prevent lung cancer. It is still far beyond sight to see the effects on the general population, as more people continue to smoke irrespective of having the knowledge about the damage they are doing to their bodies.  I believe that may people tend to turn the blind eye when it comes to awareness of the negative impacts of this addiction. My goal is to provide all the right information in one accessible place to help bring insight to motivate those who smoke or those who know someone who does to put an end to the slow potentially fatal harm that is damaging lives through every inhale.

           

          Tobacco

           

          Additives in Cigarettes

          Cigarettes contain nearly 5,000 chemicals identified in tobacco smoke to date. Approximately 400 hundred toxic substances; including over 40 known carcinogenic agents and compounds. When drawn, a cigarette burns at 700°C at the cherry (or the lit end of the cigarette) and around 59°C in the core.

          Covering the whole list would be cumbersome, but here we’ll have an overview of some of the most commonly known additives:

          1. Carbon monoxide:  Most widely known pollutant in cigarette smoke, Influencing oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
          2. Ammonia:  Caustic, and hazardous, Used in commercial cleaning products.
          3. DDT:  A banned insecticide.
          4. Arsenic:  Used in manufacturing glass, as a pesticide (rat poison), and weed killer.
          5. Cyanide:  Extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid.
          6. Nicotine:  An alkaloid poison occurs in tobacco; used in medicine, and as an insecticide.
          7. Methanol:  Wood alcohol.
          8. Pyridine:  Irritant, causing upper respiratory tract irritation upon inhaling.
          9. Benzene:  Highly inflammable, carcinogenic, gasoline additive, found in paints, adhesives, et al.
          10. Asbestos:  Used in making fireproof articles; inhaling fibers are known to cause occupation disease like, asbestosis, and causative of lung cancer, bowel cancer, and other lung diseases.

           

          Smoking and Ageing

          For a more effective reason to quit I’d like to put ageing in the forefront for a moment. Smoking hastens the optimal ageing process, thus progressing and contributing to wrinkles. These alterations may occur after roughly 10 years of smoking. the degree of wrinkles all depend on a persons smoking habits.  The more cigarettes you smoke or the longer you smoke the more wrinkled skin you’re likely to have. Early skin alterations from smoking may be hard to notice or it may remain unnoticed for quite some time. Wrinkling not only occurs on or around the face but also occurs on others parts of the body. Skin wrinkling may be irreversible no matter how many anti-ageing skin remedies and creams you use so the only way to prevent wrinkling would be quitting smoking. It initiates the cellular damage same as seen in Werner’s syndrome  which is an autosomal recessive disease in which a person ages at an accelerated pace. Or like Progeria  which is a syndrome that causes premature ageing manifesting at a really early age. Experts agree with the fact that smoking hastens the ageing process; adding that smokers on average look approximately 1.4 years older than non-smokers. In one research study it became evident that smoking not only contributes to speedy ageing, but also causing smokers to die roughly 10 years before their time.

           

          Smoking and Sexual Health

           

          Smoking and Sexual Health

          For all the men out there, smoking emphatically has a negative impact on sexual health and sexual performance. For years, studies have shown that smoking causes erectile dysfunction (ED) due to poor blood flow to the penis, and one’s risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) is about twice that of one who doesn’t smoke. Not only does smoking cause (ED) it can also cause infertility as smoking leads to a low sperm count. Also, impaired performance eventually leads to diminished desire. When erectile dysfunction and Impotence (infertility) are combined then overall satisfaction will most likely suffer. Men aren’t the only ones to suffer as women have inauspicious sexual effects as well. In women, smoking may result in early menopause, increased risk of cervical cancer, menstrual irregularities, and many more issues.

           

          "Neurons And Nervous System" by CoolDesign - FreeDigitalPhotos.net

          “Neurons And Nervous System” by CoolDesign – FreeDigitalPhotos.net

          Smoking and the Nervous System

          Smoking has massive damaging effects on the nervous system. A cigarette is a powerful central nervous system excitant and influence neurotransmitters like: serotonin , acetylcholine , dopamine and norepinephrine to name a few.  Nicotine is the main component in tobacco smoke and is highly addictive. Nicotine in large doses, acts like a deadly poison. But in smaller doses, acts like an excitant. From the first puff there undergoes a massive infusion of toxins into your lungs and throughout your body. Nicotine combined with tar molecules are drawn into the lungs and from there head straight to the brain via bloodstream, which takes roughly 8 seconds.

          As said, smoking affects neurotransmitters associated with anxiety and overall wellness. That is the reason why smokers have higher rates of clinical anxiety in comparison to non-smokers. Anxiety may be better explained in terms of tobacco effects on GABA (a neurotransmitter  mostly responsible for neuronal process and overall state of wellness). The largest co-factors in smoking-related anxiety were levels of addiction.

          Smoking is also related to depression as well. Nicotine and other additives in cigarettes affect serotonin and dopamine negatively, which are the neurotransmitters that are associated with mental health and depression. Smoking also elevates the sense of pleasure, that’s the reason why most of smokers feel better after a cigarette.  Aside from anxiety and depression nicotine causes other symptoms like confusion (difficulty concentrating), nervousness, and restlessness especially during nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine is considered to be one of the hardest substances to break, ranked with opiates and alcohol. Therefore, It’s hard to quit, but easy to avoid.

           

          "Human Heart Anatomy" by CoolDesign – FreeDigitalPhotos.net

          “Human Heart Anatomy” by CoolDesign – FreeDigitalPhotos.net

           

          Smoking and the Circulatory System

          Smoking is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) causing around 25,000 deaths a year from heart and circulatory anomalies. 1 in 5 premature deaths from heart or circulatory anomalies is also related to smoking. Free radicals, chemicals that are present in tobacco smoke can lead to cardiac diseases, myocardial infarction, and strokes. As elaborated earlier, tobacco smoke when entering our lungs can affect our bodies in a number of ways. Taking the circulatory system into consideration, smoking can raise blood pressure, heart rate, and cause thickening and hardening of the blood vessels.  Causing them to lose elasticity and leading to the constriction of blood flow of the vessels in the skin.  This eventually leads to a drop in skin temperature. Smoking also effects oxygen levels in the blood resulting in less oxygenated blood supply throughout the body.  Additives in Tobacco smoke also results in one’s blood to become stickier than normal, thus making it more prone to clotting resulting in clogged arteries and veins (Embolism, Thrombosis et al). It also damages the lining of arteries, which is a contributing factor to atherosclerosis. It also influences blood flow to extremities, fingers, and toes. Due to the blockage of normal blood supply the risk of stroke and heart attack raises considerably.

           

          Lung Cancer

           

          Smoking and Cancer

          When we think of smoking related cancers, lung cancer is often the first thought for majority of us. Smokers are more likely to get cancer than non-smokers. This is specifically true of lung cancer and oral cancer which usually effects smokers and rarely non-smokers. The link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer is clear. But in reality, there’re many more sorts of smoking related cancers. 80% to 90% of lung cancer cases occur as a result of smoking. In non-smokers, lung cancer would be a more rare diagnosis, only 0.5% of people who have never touched a cigarette develop lung cancer. In smokers, the risk of developing oral cancers is 4 times higher than of non-smokers with most common sites being on or beneath the tongue or on the lips but it may start anywhere but mainly areas of the mouth. Some common types of cancers in smokers are; pancreatic cancer (smoking being the cause in 30% of pancreatic cancer), head and neck cancer (tobacco use responsible for 85% of this type). Cancer of the esophagus (smoking doubles the risk), cancer of the kidneys (smoking is responsible for around 20%), gastric cancer (smokers twice prone than nonsmokers), colorectal cancers, blood cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the cervix, skin, breasts and prostate. There’s no safe way to use tobacco, as cigarettes, cigars, pipes, et al, all cause cancer.

           

          Smoking and Bone Health

           

          Smoking and Bone Health

          Most people are not aware of the ill effects that smoking has on the musculoskeletal system; it has a huge risk factor causing osteoporosis which was first identified more than twenty years ago. Almost every body tissue is affected by smoking, but as we elaborated earlier smoking is certainly avoidable and many effects can be reversible.  Only by quitting smoking we may be able to get back our normal healthy function. Modern researchers found a relation between smoking and the musculoskeletal system, this is crucial because the prime in building bone mass starts from childhood till about 30 years of age.

          Smoking increases risks of developing osteoporosis (abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to lack of calcium — most common in post-menopausal women). Elderly smokers are 30% to 40% more likely to have hip fractures than non-smokers. Smoking also causes Rheumatoid Arthritis , which is an auto-immune disease. People who smoke also tend to be much thinner than non-smokers. Smokers with fractures take a great deal longer to heal as they’re much slower in healing process as compared to nonsmokers and also experience more complications.  Evident from past studies done, smoking affects blood flow to the bones the same way as it affects the blood supply to other parts of the body.  Nicotine slows the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) thus resulting in less bone making or mass. Calcium, which is a mineral that aids in bone development and is necessary for bone mineralization and absorption is also affected by smoking.  This leads to fragile bones or osteoporosis. Smoking has a negative role in breaking down estrogen more quickly, which plays an important role in building and maintaining a strong skeleton in men and women. Post surgery recovery and healing is slow in smokers as compared to nonsmokers and they’re prone to more infections which adds more complications to their recovery process. Smoking damages blood vessels and at the same time it also damages nerves in toes and feet, which may lead to more falls and fractures, due to less sensation and circulation.

           

          "Glucose Test" by Gualberto107 – FreeDigitalPhotos.net

          “Glucose Test” by Gualberto107 – FreeDigitalPhotos.net

           

          Smoking and Diabetes

          Smoking has now proven to be an independent risk factor for diabetes related to increased risk of complications in diabetics. Smoking causes Type 2 diabetes and smokers are 30% to 40% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.  Smokers with diabetes have more problems with insulin dosing and disease control than nonsmoker diabetics. According to a study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology , smoking 16 to 25 cigarettes a day increases your risk for Type 2 diabetes 3 times higher than that of a non-smoker.

          Diabetic smokers are more likely to have health problems from diabetes. Serious complications include; kidney disease ( or Diabetic Nephropathy), eye disease (Diabetic Retinopathy–can cause blindness), heart disease, and nerve disease (Diabetic Neuropathy). Poor blood flow to the extremities which leads to infections, ulcers, diabetic foot and possible amputation (Removal of body parts such as feet and toes), Peripheral Neuropathy (nerve damage to the arms and legs causing numbness, weakness and poor coordination). Smokers with diabetes benefit once they quit smoking and can better control their blood sugar levels.

           

          Smoking and Oral Health

          Although smoking doesn’t increase the risk of having cavities, it causes considerable damage to the gums and other parts of the mouth. Some of the risks are; risks of tooth loss (smokers are 2 more likely to lose their teeth).  As mentioned above, it’s the main cause of throat and oral cancers, halitosis (bad breath), discoloured teeth, increased build-up of plaque (tartar) on teeth, mouth sores, caries (roots, also known as cavities), smoker’s patches, tooth loss, shifting teeth. There is an increased risk of developing oral cancers, sinusitis and the need for dental implants.  There is a lower success rate or a delay in healing after tooth extraction which leads to dry socket (which is a temporary and painful condition). Loss of taste and smell, smoker’s lip and hairy tongue.  Smoking accompanied by alcoholism synergistically amplifies its bad effects. Smokers who also consume alcohol are at the risk of oral cancer greater than the combined risk of those who only smoke or only drink alcohol.

           

          Smoking and the Sense of Taste and Smell

          No doubt, an impaired smelling sense would rob anyone from the ability to appreciate aromas and scents in and around the world. The only senses we know that are impaired by smoking are the sense of taste and smell. Sense of hearing is not affected in the short term, nor is our sense of vision or pain or touch. However in the long term they can be impaired as tobacco affects blood vessels to the nerves in our eye, brain and skin. Macular degeneration affecting our eyes increases 2 to 5 fold by smoking.

           

          Butt Out

           

           

          The Benefits of Quitting

          The advantages of quitting smoking begin right away and are extremely rewarding. There is a considerable reduction in diseases no matter what age one quits. When a person stops smoking before the age of 35 their life expectancy is slightly less than the people who never smoked because this gives their body time to recoup. Quitting smoking before the age of 50 decreases the risk of dying from smoking-related illnesses by 50%.  So in other words it’s never too late to quit smoking to improve health even if one already has cardiac disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.  The prognosis is greatly improved upon quitting in any case. It will also reduce the risk of getting various other conditions which although aren’t  always life-threatening. In this case conditions such as; impotence erectile dysfunction (ED), infertility, osteoporosis, tooth loss, et al. Other benefits would be; reduced pregnancy related complications, feel better about yourself, improvement in your finances, food and drink are more appetizing, fresher breath and cleaner teeth.  Why not have more control of your life and feel more energetic? If not think about yourself then think about your family and loved ones.

           

          Timeline of Health Benefits after Quitting Smoking

          • After 72 hours:  Breathing becomes easier, bronchial tubes begin to relax, and energy level increase.
          • After 1 month:  Skin appearance improves (improved skin perfusion).
          • After 3 to 9 months:  Cough, crackles, breathing problems improve, and pulmonary function increases by around 10%.
          • After 1 year:  Risk of myocardial infarction falls to about half that of a smoker.
          • After 10 years:  Risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker.
          • After 15 years:  Risk of heart attack falls to the same level that it would be for someone who has never smoked.

          Smoking causes devastating consequences to you and your family. But let us not forget that the addiction of smoking is definitely avoidable, never sell yourself short and believe that you can conquer the habit. So let’s think for a moment and decide; is smoking that next cigarette more valuable than our lives or happiness of our families? This is a question that only you can answer for yourself.

          Ageing Anxiety Cancer Circulatory System Depression Harmful Additives Health men’s health Musculoskeletal Nervous System new Osteoporosis Quit Smoking Sexual Health Stop Smoking

          Zeeshan Hussain

          About Zeeshan Hussain

          I am a Medical Observer at First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and an English Language Trainer at Beijing Century Consulting & Service Co. Ltd. I am passionate about healthy living and providing insight to others from my knowledge and experience. Maybe we can all influence healthy changes in each others day to day lives. Enjoy!

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          Last updated: June 29, 2018

          College , Money & Career

          Is College for Everyone? Part II: The Pros and Cons of Attending a 4-Year College

          vintage college campus students walking in and out of front gate

          Welcome to Part II of our series that asks the question of whether or not college is necessary. In Part I, we took a look at the history of higher education in America . What started as a place for a small, elite group of students began turning into an American rite of passage in the early 1900s. Enrollment boomed, endowments skyrocketed, and the idea of college became imbued with a romantic haze that has endured until the present day.

          This last decade, however, has started to show that four years of college immediately after high school may not be the best option for every student out there. Today, we’re going to look at the pros and cons a young man should consider before deciding to enroll in a four-year university.

          While some of these pros and cons apply equally to both four-year and two-year schools, in general, they are specific to four-year schools. For example, while tuition costs are skyrocketing at four-year institutions (especially private ones), community college remains pretty affordable at an average of just over $2,000/year. And while it’s possible to form close relationships at a community college (even if those friendships aren’t quite as wacky as depicted on the eponymous television show), it’s harder to do because students don’t live on campus.

          The reason we’ll be concentrating on the pros and cons of enrolling in a four-year school, particularly right after graduating high school, is because of the weight those particular institutions carry in the minds of Americans. The cultural pressure to go on to college after high school almost completely centers on enrolling in a four-year college. While plenty of students attend community and technical colleges, the majority of 18-year-olds that have graduated high school will attend four-year schools. In total, you see about twice the number of four-year students (~11 million) than two-year (~6.5 million).

          There is still a certain stigma attached to two-year schools – that they’re only for those who don’t get in or can’t afford “normal” college. Without a doubt the cultural perception is that two-year schools are a step down from four-year institutions. It’s an unfortunate side effect of the blanket prestige given to four-year schools.

          But is that level of prestige truly deserved? Should attending a four-year college be the aim of every high school senior in the country? In this post we will examine the positives and negatives of attending a four-year institution with the goal of receiving your bachelor’s degree.

          The Cons of Attending a Four-Year College

          Tuition Costs Are Skyrocketing

          Given the fact that we are still experiencing the aftershocks of the 2008 recession, it’s inevitable that many of these cons are related to money. I’ll try to address a few specific concerns within the broader category of college economics.

          The first is that the cost of tuition is growing at a rate far higher than the general inflation of the economy. What this means is that more and more students (and their families) aren’t actually able to afford college, but enroll anyway, because it’s still just what you do.

          Since 1990, just 24 years ago, the price of a four-year institution has soared 300%. That’s an eye-popping number to be sure, but you can say that about a lot of products. You have to factor in general inflation numbers in order to figure out the real significance. When we do that, we see that in those 24 years, tuition has risen at a rate that is 2.5-4 times that of the national inflation, depending on who you ask. Theoretically, when disproportional inflation occurs, that product becomes a luxury good. That has not been the case with college, however, as enrollments only continue to go up. (Minor caveat: enrollments dropped among all college types slightly in 2013 — by 2.3% from the year prior — but the majority of that number was in fewer adult learners enrolling at either for-profit schools or public community colleges.)

          Ultimately this means that families are spending money they don’t have for a luxury product they can no longer reasonably afford. At an average cost of around $20,000/year for college, families are looking at an expense that is 38% of their entire household income. That’s a rate at which most families would be denied a mortgage.

          Unfortunately, there’s no real end in sight. In 2011 alone, the cost of public schools rose 5.4 percent and private schools rose an astounding 8.3 percent, both of which significantly outpaced the 3 percent inflation for the economy. Wages simply aren’t keeping up with college costs, and Americans have not yet been able to cut back on this particular expense.

          A Degree Isn’t Yielding the ROI That It Used To

          Tuition may be going up, but a college degree is still thought to be a good investment. But it could be argued that while the cost of college has been rising, its actual value – on many different fronts – has been declining.

          The popular statistic thrown around in regards to the long-term, monetary value of a college degree is that graduates earn, on average, $1 million more over the course of their lifetime than non-degree holders. To a high schooler, or even a parent of a student, that’s a number that cannot be ignored.

          Unfortunately, it’s a little bit misleading, and also simply not as accurate post-recession. That $1 million number is quite top-heavy. If you make it into a top university and graduate with honors, your earnings are likely to be much higher than if you scrape by at Podunk U. Those at the very top are well above that $1 million figure, and skew the results for the rest of us. A recent study by PayScale.com found that there are only 72 schools (out of 2,700 4-year schools in America) at which earning a degree can get you a $1 million return on investment over high school grads. The median is closer to $500,000 according to that report, which while still being a lofty number, is half of what prospective college goers are often promised.

          That $1 million number may have been true 12 years ago when it was released in a report by the US Census Bureau, but with the recession, and wage inflation being lower than general inflation, to continue to throw that number around today is irresponsible.

          At one time, college certainly was a reasonable investment. Tuition was low ($1,200/year in the 1970s at public schools, including room and board!) and therefore affordable, and you’d be rewarded with a well-paying job. Forty years ago, over a third of the labor force didn’t even have four years of high school education, while only 10 percent of the population had a degree. That made college graduates more of a hot commodity, and in the mid-nineties, at the height of America’s economic success, the unemployment rate for college graduates was around 2%.

          That time is long gone. Tuition has become damn-near unaffordable for most, and well-paying jobs (heck, jobs period) are nowhere near the guarantee they once were after you graduate. In fact, recent grads (ages 20-24) have an unemployment rate that is now at about 7.8%. That’s higher than the national unemployment, and close to three times higher than it was about 20 years ago. This means you’re accumulating mountains of debt (which was not the case even a decade ago, when less than one-third of graduates used student loans – more on that below) that will strap your financial decisions for decades after graduating, and you may not even have a means of paying it off. Does that sound like a good investment?

          Another factor that has to be considered in this topic of ROI is your lost potential income during your college years. Let’s consider even the lowest wage scenario. If you make minimum wage, with zero raises over the course of four years, you’ll have made $56,000. That’s not chump change, and it’s likely you’d make much more than that. I had jobs in high school that were well above minimum wage, and you’re almost guaranteed raises if you’re competent. Then factor in the out-of-pocket expenses as well as the debt for someone in four years of school (which is generous in itself – the average these days for graduation is closer to 5 and even 6 years). You’re looking at anywhere from $25,000 to $100,000 for the average student. Then you consider interest on those student loans, and the fact that you’ll take an average of 16-18 years paying them off (during which that high school graduate likely moved up the ranks and is now earning a decent wage), and all of a sudden the difference is not as great as it once appeared in terms of total earnings. While there is still a difference in the earnings of college grads vs high school grads (I’ll cover that below in the “Pros” section), it’s not as great as what it used to be, and it’s not as great as what is often promised by college admissions offices.

          Loans and Debt are Crippling College Grads (and the Economy)

          In 2010, the total amount of student debt overtook the total amount of credit card debt in America. As of 2013, there is $1.2 trillion in outstanding student loans – that’s over $3,700 for every man, woman, and child in America. As our nation recovers from the recession, we’ve actually managed to cut down our credit card and mortgage debt. The one area that’s still growing? Student debt.

          The major issue, economically, is that about $1 trillion of that is backed by the federal government. This puts the American taxpayer at risk as the creditor, which means we the people carry the burden of unpaid student loans. And that burden is only increasing. Recent reports show that 10% (and the number is increasing) of student loans are in default. On government loans, this means they haven’t been paid in 9 months. Furthermore, only 4 in 10 student loan borrowers are paying back their loans at any given time. Graduates are not able to pay back their debt, and that hurts their credit tremendously, which impacts all future financial (and life) decisions, including car purchases, home purchases, even marriage.

          For this reason, many economic experts are calling this student loan crisis “ the next housing bubble .” In the mid-1990s, banks were giving out mortgages to anyone and everyone who applied. There wasn’t much due diligence in terms of the borrowers’ ability to pay back their loans. Eventually, that came to bite banks in the rear, and they needed a hefty (to say the least) government bailout in order to survive. The same thing is happening with student loans. Schools give out tens of thousands of dollars to students (and families) who may not have any realistic ability to pay back those loans. Eventually, as many experts are warning, this will create the same effect as what happened to our economy in 2008.

          Another crippling factor of student loan debt is that it’s not eligible to be discharged by declaring bankruptcy. While not affecting a great number of people, you never know when something catastrophic could come along and you need the fresh start that bankruptcy sometimes provides for those in dire straits. If you’re not able to discharge student loans, it could hamper your ability to ever recover financially. It’s worth noting that private student debt is far more dangerous than government student debt. While both are non-dischargeable, government loans have low, fixed rates (for the most part – depending on the mood of congress), and repayment can be adjusted based on income (although doing so increases the length of the loan and the interest).

          Two-thirds of all students are graduating with debt, and the average amount owed is over $26,000 (a 43% increase from just 7 years ago – right before the recession). With interest, that puts your average monthly bill at $320. When you get married that bill can double, and you’re looking at a lot of money each month that isn’t going into savings, isn’t going towards other debt (credit, car loans, mortgages), isn’t going towards helping the American economy recover.

          College Doesn’t Necessarily Grow Your Mind

          vintage college class professor lecturing at front of classroom

          The two reasons for attending college that are foremost in people’s minds are increasing one’s earning potential and sharpening one’s mind. As just discussed, the value college offers on that first front has been falling. And unfortunately, the benefits of higher education on one’s mind have been shriveling as well.

          Attending college isn’t necessarily the mind-expanding endeavor it’s always been made out to be. While it’s assumed you’ll be a better critical thinker, problem solver, philosopher, etc., those benefits don’t automatically accrue simply by sending in your tuition check. One study from 2011 found that about half of college students see no improvement in their problem solving, reasoning, or writing skills in their first two years, and over a third see no improvement during the entirety of their college experience. Sure, the environment can lend itself to growth, but attending college without vigorously applying yourself won’t magically sharpen your cognitive powers.

          At the heart of the problem is a shift in attitude amongst colleges and students alike towards viewing education as just another consumer commodity. Colleges see their students as customers, and the customer is always right.

          Take the practice of students evaluating their professors. Gaining popularity in the 60s and 70s when universities started to become more student-driven, evaluation forms are now a top metric in professor reviews. Even if subconscious, this means professors are now catering more towards making the students like them in the short-term rather than providing the kind of challenging, mind-expanding coursework that will benefit them in the long-term. Profs don’t want bad marks from students for being boring or too hard, so they water down their requirements in order to earn a thumbs up.

          Closely related to this is the softening of grading standards . At Harvard, for example, the most common mark given is a straight A. The pattern is repeated at other Ivy League schools as well, where upwards of 60% of all grades given are in the A range. Rising to the very top of the class no longer requires the maxing out of one’s cognitive abilities. Some schools are doing something about this rampant grade inflation by instituting limits on the number of A’s awarded, but it’s certainly not widespread practice.

          College Doesn’t Necessarily Prepare You for the Real World

          vintage college man passed on dorm room floor drunk

          Let’s go over how I spent my four years of college:

          • I spent four years in a dorm room, two of those years with roommates, two by myself as an RA. I had no kitchen in my room. I had no bathroom in my room. I had a bed, a desk, and a TV.
          • I had a meal plan for four years. I got two meals a day from a variety of cafeterias, and often just skipped a meal out of sheer laziness.
          • I spent hours each day playing video games with friends.
          • Related to the above, I was awake until well past midnight most evenings, and woke up around 7:30am for early classes.
          • I skipped class fairly regularly, with no real punishment. Sure, a grade may have slipped a notch or two, but that didn’t have any impact on my life.
          • My bills amounted to gas, car insurance, and my cell phone – totaling probably around $150/month.

          Does that sound like real-world experience? Another of the benefits that college supposedly imparts is that it prepares you for the real world and helps you develop into a mature adult. I can’t say I really received that. Quite to the contrary – when one places the responsibilities and expectations of a college student up against those required outside the corridors of higher ed, yawning gaps appear.

          Once you’re out on your own, if you skip or roll in late to work like you did for class, you’ll get canned. If you wait for a magical elf to come in and clean your bathroom, it will quickly turn into a cesspool. If you haven’t learned to budget, there can be serious consequences.

          College has in many ways become a womb of relatively carefree living. It’s sure fun while it lasts, but once you have to step into the light, it can be pretty blinding. The adjustment to living in the real world can be difficult – practically and emotionally. Young men often graduate without the life skills and decision-making abilities they need to navigate the next part of their lives. They may find themselves floundering in new responsibilities they have no experience in shouldering. Acute nostalgia for their undergrad days can set in, leading them to attempt to recreate those conditions to increasingly diminishing returns.

          Ideally, one’s teenage and early twentysomething years should be like a gradual on-ramp to adulthood, where you slowly accumulate the life skills and mindset you need to thrive as a grown man. Instead, moving from college to the real world now more often feels like getting shoved off a cliff.

          College Isn’t Preparing Students for the Job Market

          Many employers have said that the problem with the economy in this country is not necessarily a lack of jobs, but a lack of qualified people to fill those jobs. In fact, a survey by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools revealed that less than 10 percent of employers believe that colleges do an excellent job preparing students for the working world (whereas well over 90% of provosts believe their graduates are prepared – boosterism at its finest). And 50% of employers noted that it is difficult to find qualified prospects for the positions they’re trying to fill. Rep. Virginia Foxx, the chairwoman of the U.S. House of Representatives higher-education subcommittee, says, “Colleges and universities are pandering to the students and giving them what they want, instead of what the employers want. I don’t think you have to make a distinction between getting skills and getting an education. We need to do both.”

          Our colleges are simply no longer qualifying our students for gainful employment. The loosening of academic standards mentioned above not only negatively impacts the quality of the critical thinking and reasoning skills acquired in college in a general sense, but in a more tangible way, it makes students ill prepared for the job market.

          For instance, in our tech-obsessed world, many students want to be trained in using social media or developing their technology skills. But only 5% of business executives (the ones making the decisions) believe that to be a top-three skill for entering the business world. Those top three skills? Problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking.

          Another major deficiency is writing and oral communication; a hefty 80% of employers wish schools would put more emphasis on those skills. Not all students are required to take basic writing classes, but absolutely should be, based on the needs of the marketplace. I can say without a doubt that the single best class I ever took – the one that helped my professional career the most — was PR Writing, and letter grades were docked for each grammatical mistake. (Thanks, Professor Bodensteiner!)

          Again we circle back to the insidious effects that placing education in a consumer/customer framework has wrought. Students have come to expect their education to be tailored to their own personal pace, likes, and abilities. This most definitely is not how it works in the business world, where your supervisors are catering to the market and to their customers, not to you. Students graduate as consummate consumers who are wholly unprepared to switch roles and take on the mantle of producers .

          Not All 18-Year-Olds Are Ready for College

          People mature at different ages and different rates. Some students are ready for college at 16 and 17 and go on to do very well. Some, however, are thrown out the door at 18 into a totally new world, and just aren’t ready for it. Even Brett details that experience in the introduction to Heading Out On Your Own ; after floundering in his first semester at the University of Oklahoma, he had to move back in with mom and pop. Transitioning from the cocoon of home to all of a sudden living on your own and being entirely responsible for your life can be a bewildering experience.

          There is actually quite a high dropout rate for college freshmen that doesn’t get enough attention in the media. One in four college freshmen drop out in that first year, and half of all college freshmen won’t ever earn a degree. Reasons cited do include academic skills, but the greatest factors are social and emotional – self-esteem, self-care, anxiety, depression, etc.

          The company that administers the ACT test has found that students aren’t actually academically ready for college, either. They hold certain benchmarks to be “college ready” in the four subjects of the ACT test. Students deemed college ready in a particular subject have a 75% chance of passing a college course in that subject. In 2012, they found that more than 25% of students fell short in all four subjects, and over 60% fell short in two subjects. While this is a problem more related, perhaps, to our elementary and secondary school systems than the students themselves, the fact remains that many 18-year-olds simply aren’t ready for the rigors of college, either academically or socially/emotionally.

          Now that we covered the bad news, let’s move on to the positives of attending a 4-year college.

          The Pros of Attending a 4-Year College

          The Vast Majority of Students Don’t Pay Full Sticker Price

          While the sticker prices for a year’s worth of tuition at college can be quite shocking (New York University takes the cake at a whopping $62,000/year!), over 80% of all students receive some sort of financial aid. Between government Pell Grants, school-specific grants, and scholarships, there’s a lot of free money to be had that doesn’t take the form of student loans (and therefore debt).

          The average student (at private universities) receives about $17,000 in financial aid, with about half of that being student loans and half being grants/scholarships. This means that out-of-pocket costs are lowered to an average of just over $11,000 per year, per student. That makes college much more manageable for families and individuals.

          Many will complain that hours of filling out scholarship forms for a “measly” thousand dollars isn’t worth it, but when you’re out of college and paying back loans and trying to figure out how to balance your budget, you can be sure that that thousand bucks means a world of difference. With over $3.5 billion in yearly scholarship money available, it’s worth your time to go for it.

          It should also be mentioned that many colleges have scholarships based on merit. If you do well, you’re more likely to receive scholarships without having to fill out any forms at all. After a rough first year of college, my GPA went up each year, and much to my surprise, when I was junior I was given a scholarship that all students in my degree program received with a GPA above a certain level. The better you do in school, the more financial aid you’re likely to receive. (It should be noted this is true of high school, too. If you’re on the honor roll in high school, you’re much more likely to receive automatic scholarships and grants.)

          All of this is to say that the sticker shock of college prices doesn’t have to be so shocking. With the right financial aid package, many schools (including elite private colleges) become affordable – relatively speaking, of course.

          You Often Make Great, Lasting Personal Relationships

          vintage college students african american black men waking on campus

          What’s interesting in talking with people about the benefits of their college experience is that it’s often the intangibles that take center stage. Whereas with the negatives, you can point to stats and specific institutional problems, there’s just something about college that people really love.

          One of those somethings is certainly the unique relationships you make. At a four-year school, you’re surrounded by friends in the dorms at nearly all times; you have classes together, you eat all your meals together, you hang out playing MarioKart every night until 3am (was that last one just me?). When you spend that much time with people, you’re going to form very tight bonds. And because of that – spending so much time with friends – you end up having about the most fun on a daily basis that you’ll ever have. You don’t have the responsibilities of a full-time job or of owning a home, so you’re free to just hang out pretty much all the time with the people you care about. That’s a recipe for having a good time.

          The reality is that outside of close environs like that, it’s harder to make friends. If you’re working full-time, living by yourself or with just a roommate or two, you’ll have to put in more effort to create those lasting relationships.

          This is especially true in the dating world. Why do you think online dating has become so popular? Because outside of college – where you are no longer surrounded by people of roughly the same demographic – it’s just hard to know where to look for that special someone. You have bars, your workplace, and…that’s about it. So, people turn to online sites just because they don’t know where else to meet people. Connecting with your future spouse at college may save you from spending years surfing Match.com.

          You Often Make Great, Lasting Professional/Mentoring Relationships

          vintage college student talking with professor in classroom

          One of the great benefits of college, especially in regards to your professional career, is simply the astounding number of very smart, successful people you’re surrounded by, be they professors, advisors, deans, etc. Most colleges have internship programs, job boards, and entire staffs devoted to helping you land a job. Beyond that, professors often end up being the best connections and mentors you may ever have.

          In talking with various people about their college experience, you often hear the fact that college “opened doors” for them. While not always articulated, this usually means they had some type of networking connection that got them in a door somewhere. My first internships related to my major came through professors who recommended me for those positions. Those internships gave me experience that led to full-time jobs. Doors opened.

          Beyond just getting opportunities for jobs, you may also meet incredible mentors in college that serve as life advisors for decades, and will help you shape your own life philosophies (see below). Their benefit cannot be measured, and there are few opportunities outside of college for those types of relationships to be formed and fostered.

          College Can Expand Your Mind and Your Horizons

          vintage college students working at desk in dorm room

          While as mentioned above, college won’t necessarily expand your mind, it certainly has ample potential to do so. I know college was definitely a time for me of expanding my horizons and learning to think on my own. While vague, that’s without a doubt one of the most important things college did for me. Had I stayed close to home, or just gone right into the working world, I’m not sure how much I would have grown intellectually or emotionally. My worldviews changed quite dramatically over four years in college, and I’m quite thankful for that.

          I was able to have my religious and political and philosophical views that I’d carried from my parents and my hometown really torn down, and then built back up again by what I found in my independent thought processes. Brett and Kate, and subsequently this blog, were greatly influenced by Professor J. Rufus Fears at the University of Oklahoma, who taught them the importance of extracting life lessons from history.

          While tapping into the mind-sharpening power of college requires a student to be self-motivated and leave the path of least resistance by intentionally seeking out talented professors, rigorous courses, honors classes, and small seminars, the rewards can be incredibly worthwhile and truly unmatched.

          The honing of your mind is not always something that can be done completely on your own. We often need a gentle push to do so. College was that trigger for me, and for many other people. While it takes the individual being in the right mindset for growth, if that’s in place, there are few better places than college for shaping a perspective and philosophy you’ll carry throughout the rest of your life.

          A Degree Still Provides a Better ROI Than Just a High School Diploma

          Although a college degree is not necessarily the investment it once was, or is promised to be, it still provides a better opportunity for employment and higher income than not having a degree.

          The national unemployment rate is at around 6.7% right now. For college graduates (all college graduates, not just the recent grads I mentioned above in “Cons”), that rate is just 3.4%. For those with just a high school diploma, the rate is more than double that at 7.3%.

          I mentioned earlier that the ROI of college in terms of lifetime earnings over high school graduates, according to a PayScale.com report, was closer to about $500,000 than the $1 million often cited and touted. Their methodology is a bit complicated, though, and doesn’t include many small business owners, those who are self-employed, or freelancers/contractors. The real, tangible difference to me is in average yearly salaries. For college graduates, it’s $55,700. For high school grads, it’s $33,800. When doing the math over a 40-year career, that comes to a $876,000 difference over a lifetime.

          While grit and hard work will go a long ways in the working world, the best bet for many people is to couple that determination with a college degree.

          A Degree is Required for Many Jobs (Even Relatively Menial Ones These Days)

          There are a huge number of jobs in this country that require a college degree. More likely than not, it’s actually just what will get you in the door for an interview rather than getting you the job itself. Is that chance for an interview worth up to $100,000 in debt? It certainly could be, if the job is well-paying and a great fit for your goals.

          This is particularly true of “STEM” fields – science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. If you’re going into one of these fields, college is likely the right choice. Job postings in these categories outnumber all other job postings 3 to 1 . Sure, you could become a master coder, drop out of school, and start Facebook. But that’s not likely. In these fields, a college degree is largely not only required, but crucial to understanding the work you’ll be doing on a daily basis. And these categories aren’t done growing – they’re expected to outpace normal job growth by about 10% in the next decade.

          Aside from STEM fields, a degree is also a requirement for many mainstream jobs out there today. Be it non-profit, corporate, small business – owners and HR professionals will often throw out resumes that don’t list a college degree. Unfair? Certainly. Reality? Absolutely. A former supervisor of mine said it thusly:

          “I have written job descriptions. I have written the hiring qualifications for various positions. There have been times that one of the jobs I was hiring for had the qualification of “Degree Required.” More often than not, this means a four-year degree required. Yes/No. Black/White. It’s a toggle switch. “Yes” means the candidate moves to the next pile of potential hires. “No” means… well, it means no. No, you don’t have an opportunity to interview for this job. No, you don’t get to talk to someone to show them how much experience you have. No, you don’t get to demonstrate that your actual experience in this exact field is possibly much more beneficial to the company than another person’s 4-year degree in General Studies or European History. Is it fair? Not always. Is it right? Not always. Is it in the company’s overall best interest? Maybe.

          As an employer, here’s what a four-year college degree signifies to me, beyond subject knowledge:

          1) You know how to set and achieve long-term goals (i.e. ‘graduate from college’).

          2) You know how to prioritize and have the ability to put off the need for immediate gratification and see the bigger picture – at least sometimes.

          3) You know how to be a part of a team – not necessarily sports related (there are few college graduates who have not had to work on at least one team project).

          4) You are often self-motivating.

          5) You probably know how to speak in front of a small group.

          6) You probably know how to make a simple presentation.

          7) You understand the concept of deadlines and consequences for missing those deadlines.

          8) You know how to study and take notes.”

          This is how employers think, and how they perceive college graduates. Will this change in the future? Perhaps. But for now, this is the reality of the business world. I can say without a doubt that my own college degree opened doors that would not have been present otherwise.

          Conclusion

          vintage college ad advertisement next stop college

          There are more sides to this coin than expected, aren’t there? While many of these discussions surrounding college center on money, that’s not the whole story.

          Even if it’s not “right,” the college experience is part of the American experience. Most people you encounter will have some amount of college under their belts, whether they earned a degree or not. Dorm life, cafeteria food, sporting events – these are all things we wax nostalgic about when thinking of the “good ole days.” There’s certainly something to be said about that. If there truly was no value to college, people wouldn’t do it. No matter how you look at it, the decision to go to college is a weighty one – one that 18-year-olds have a hard time processing.

          It’s for this reason that we really advocate for taking a gap year . Have you ever wondered why it seems you have to go to college right after you graduate high school? Why must it be the automatic next step? More and more people are questioning this assumption and stepping off the education conveyer belt for a spell before deciding how they want to proceed.

          Colleges are even starting to take notice of this fact. Amazingly, to me, they’ve started providing financial aid for students to first spend a year volunteering overseas or interning with a local company. The gap year is gaining steam, with a nearly 20% increase in students participating between 2006 and 2013. For good reason.

          When you’re 18 you probably don’t know what you want to do with your life, what you want to major in, if college is really the right choice for you, or whether you’re emotionally ready to succeed if it is. So why figure out the answers to those questions while the debt-o-meter is running? A gap year (or two) allows you to mature, learn some life skills, serve others, see the world, and not only avoid debt, but maybe actually make some money. When the gap period is over and you enroll in college, you’ll have a much greater chance of being able to hit the ground running — lowering the possibility of flunking classes, changing majors three times, and taking six years to graduate.

          Or maybe after your gap year you’ll decide that college isn’t the right choice for you after all. What other pathways might you take?

          That is where we’ll turn in the next article in this series when we explore the alternatives to the 4-year college.

          What were some of the pros and cons of your own college experience? 

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          Pros and Cons of a College Education

          There’s no question that college has become more expensive.  For years, tuition has increased more quickly than cost-of-living expenses; students may find themselves paying thousands of dollars more their last year in college than they signed up for on their first year.  With the increasing financial difficulties involved in earning a degree, it can be tempting to consider foregoing a college degree. 

          The Drawbacks of a College Degree

          There are definitely some reasons why going to college is problematic. These reasons may be deal breakers for some; for others they are simply obstacles to overcome.  If you’re weighing your options, it’s important to take an honest look at the drawbacks—no matter what everyone else is telling you.

          Four years out of the workforce

          The four years you spend at a traditional campus are four years where you won’t be earning money.  You get started late compared to your high school graduate peers.  The delay to full-time work can be costly. 

          If you need to work full-time to support yourself while attending school, an online college may be a better option for you than a traditional college.  With the flexible schedule of virtual learning, it’s much easier to work full-time while you take classes at an online college.

          Student debt

          Many students graduate with many thousands of dollars in variable-rate loans from private lenders.  High student loan payments can prevent you from following your goals; if an entry-level position in your chosen career doesn’t pay enough to cover your student loans as well as your living expenses, you may have to give up or postpone pursuing your dreams.  For some, the freedom of living debt-free is worth the limitations of having no college degree.

          An online education may help you reduce student debt.  Although online degrees don’t always cost less, it’s easier to work while earning an online degree.  With virtual learning, you may be able to make payments toward your tuition while you’re still in school.

          Your major may not be your career

          You may love eighteenth-century French literature, but it’s tough to make a career in that field.  The truth is that your major may not prepare you for the career you eventually choose.  College is more focused on learning for its own sake than preparing you for a specific career.  Academics in the past have claimed that education for its own sake is more important than training for the workforce, but as college costs rise, it grows more difficult to defend that position.

          Why You Should Get Your Degree Anyway

          College may be getting more expensive, but most studies indicate it still does pay off. There are some compelling reasons why it’s not a good idea to skip the degree, despite rising costs.

          Higher earnings 

          A degree may cost a lot, but it gives you access to higher-paying jobs when you graduate. The College Board states that college graduates make $20,000 more each year on average than high school graduates. Over a lifetime, it is estimated that a college graduate will earn 1 million dollars more than a non-college graduate.

          More options

          Most higher education programs, such as those for law, medicine, and education, won’t let you start without a college degree. Many business, professional, government, and white-collar jobs won’t accept resumes from applicants who didn’t go to college—no matter how qualified they are.  Without a college degree, you may be held back from advancement in your company simply because you don’t fit the education requirements for the position.  If you don’t like that policy and try to find another job, you’ll have more difficulty getting hired without a college degree.

          An edge in the job market

          One of the reasons high school grads have such difficulty in the job market is that they’re competing with a rising number of college graduates. A college degree ensures you’re competitive against others at your experience level.

          With the costs of college rising and funding for students shrinking, it’s becoming more costly to get an education.  But most sources will tell you that the benefits still outweigh the costs.  Online education is becoming more and more accepted as an alternative to traditional college, and many adult students find that online degree programs are more practical for them.  If you’re thinking about whether or not to go to college, consider your options carefully—your choice will have a strong effect on the rest of your life.

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          washington state high school basketball recruiting

          Rankings Corner


            Portland State Elite Camp: Class of 2020 and 2021 Player Evaluations



            Battle in Seattle 2018: Most Impressive Inside Players



            Class of 2019 Recruiting Update: Nationally Ranked Players



            Hoop Test NW Recap: Top Point Guards in the 16U Division


          • 2019
          • 2020
          • #1Pierre Crockrell

            Garfield


          • #2Noah Williams

            ODEA


          • #3Jamon Kemp

            Garfield


          • #4Anton Watson

            Gonzaga Prep


          • #5Elijah Pepper

            Selah


          • #1Marjon Beauchamp

            Garfield


          • #2Peter Erickson

            Enumclaw


          • #3Tyler Patterson

            Mt.SI


          • #4Jalen Scott

            Bellarmine Prep


          • #5Jabe Mullins

            Mt.SI


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          Prospect Spotlight: Nate Stokes (2018 Wilson HS/2019 Putnam Science Academy)

          The Wilson High School graduate ran this summer with Seattle Rotary to prep for Putnam Science Academy this fall.

          Prep Hoops Top 250 Expo: The Place to Be This Fall

          It’s now the middle of August and school is right around the corner. Don’t get flustered, the fall also means it’s time for the Prep Hoops Expo Top 250, the event some of the best players in the country are attending, and you can join them!

          Prospect Spotlight: Jishai Miller (2019 Federal Way HS)

          The rising senior from Federal Way made the most out of his time with Seattle Rotary this summer.

          Featured Stories

          Prospect Spotlight: Nate Stokes (2018 Wilson HS/2019 Putnam Science Academy)

          Prep Hoops Top 250 Expo: The Place to Be This Fall

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          2018 Top Washington Basketball Recruits (8)

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          2018 Basketball Rankings Embed

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          2019 Team Rankings Powered by 247Sports Composite

            • Team
            • Avg.
            • Points
            • 1
            • USC
            • USC
            • 98.32
            • 67.77
            • 2
            • Kentucky
            • Kentucky
            • 97.74
            • 63.14
            • 3
            • UCLA
            • UCLA
            • 94.41
            • 56.69
            • 4
            • Auburn
            • Auburn
            • 93.44
            • 54.88
            • 5
            • Ohio State
            • Ohio State
            • 99.02
            • 52.30
            • 6
            • Villanova
            • Villanova
            • 97.81
            • 50.11
            • 7
            • DePaul
            • DePaul
            • 97.43
            • 49.59
            • 8
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            • North Carolina
            • 96.85
            • 48.79
            • 9
            • Alabama
            • Alabama
            • 96.82
            • 48.44
            • 10
            • Kansas
            • Kansas
            • 96.66
            • 48.05

          2019 Recruiter Rankings Powered by 247Sports Composite

            • Name
            • Team
            • 1
            • Jason Hart
            • Jason Hart
            • USC
            • 2
            • Antoine Pettway
            • Antoine Pettway
            • Alabama
            • 3
            • Kevin Broadus
            • Kevin Broadus
            • Maryland
            • 4
            • Jonas Hayes
            • Jonas Hayes
            • Xavier
            • 5
            • Rob Lanier
            • Rob Lanier
            • Tennessee
            • 6
            • Tony Barbee
            • Tony Barbee
            • Kentucky
            • 7
            • Mike Schrage
            • Mike Schrage
            • Ohio State
            • 8
            • Eric Mobley
            • Eric Mobley
            • USC
            • 9
            • Hubert Davis
            • Hubert Davis
            • North Carolina
            • 10
            • Ryan Pedon
            • Ryan Pedon
            • Ohio State

          About

          About 247Sports Composite:

          The 247Sports Composite is a proprietary algorithm that compiles rankings and ratings listed in the public domain by the major media recruiting services, creating the industry’s most comprehensive and unbiased prospect and team rankings.

          More Info

          About 247Sports Recruiting:

          Powered by innovative technology products, 247Sports employs a staff of more than 50 full time recruiting reporters and evaluators that rank and compile data on the nation’s elite high school recruits.

          More Info

          247Sports Composite Top247

          The list below ranks players by 247Sports Rating

          • Last updated on 08/10/18 at 4:00 PM CST
            • 247Rating Explanation
            • 247Sports has one of the industry’s largest and most recognized national recruiting staffs. Led by industry veterans Barton Simmons, Steve Wiltfong and Jerry Meyer (basketball), 247Sports employs a staff of more than 50 reporters, analysts and evaluators that rank the nation’s elite high school football and basketball recruits from multiple class years.
            • 247Sports Rating Explanation
            • Each recruit we evaluate is assigned a numerical rating as well as a star rating. Ratings are determined by our recruiting analysts after countless hours of personal observations, film evaluation, and input from our network of scouts.
            • Players are first grouped qualitatively with a star rating, then given a numerical rating based on their future potential, and finally ranked according to these numerical ratings.
            • 110 – 101 = Franchise Player. One of the best players to come along in years, if not decades. Odds of having a player in this category every year is slim. This prospect has “can’t miss” talent.
            • 100 – 98 = Five-star prospect. One of the top 30 players in the nation. This player has excellent pro-potential and should emerge as one of the best in the country before the end of his career.
            • 97 – 90 = Four-star prospect. One of the top 300 players in the nation. This prospect will be an impact-player for his college team. He is an All-American candidate who displays pro-potential.
            • 89 – 80 = Three-star prospect. One of the top 10% players in the nation. This player will develop into a reliable starter for his college team and is among the best players in his region of the country.
            • 79 – below = Two-star prospect. This player makes up the bulk of Division I rosters. He may have little pro-potential, but is likely to become a role player for his respective school.
          • Rank
            Player
            • Pos
            • Ht
            • Wt
            Rating

            Team
          • 1
            1

            Kevin Porter

            Kevin Porter Rainier Beach (Seattle, WA)
            • SG
            • 6-5
            • 210
            98

            USC Enrolled
          • 2
            2

            J'Raan Brooks

            J’Raan Brooks Garfield (Seattle, WA)
            • PF
            • 6-8
            • 215
            92

            USC Enrolled
          • 3
            4

            Erik Stevenson

            Erik Stevenson Timberline (Lacey, WA)
            • SG
            • 6-4
            • 180
            89

            Wichita State Signed
          • 4
            3

            Emmitt Matthews Jr.

            Emmitt Matthews Jr. Wilson (Tacoma, WA)
            • SF
            • 6-6
            • 160
            88

            West Virginia Enrolled
          • 5
            5

            Phillip Pepple

            Phillip Pepple Shorecrest (Seattle, WA)
            • PF
            • 6-8
            • 220
            86

            None
          • 6
            6

            C.J. Elleby

            C.J. Elleby Cleveland (Seattle, WA)
            • SF
            • 6-6
            • 180
            86

            Washington State Enrolled
          • 7
            9

            Riley Sorn

            Riley Sorn Richland (Richland, WA)
            • C
            • 7-3
            • 235
            84

            Washington Enrolled
          • 8
            10

            Cameron Tyson

            Cameron Tyson Bothell (Bothell, WA)
            • SG
            • 6-3
            • 185
            82

            None