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Format for a Research Paper

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Format for a Research Paper

Regardless of the nature of your research, if you are writing a paper an outline will help you to not only organize your thoughts, it will also serve as the template for your entire paper. An outline for a research paper is a visual reminder to include all of the pertinent details of your research into your essay or paper. It is essentially a skeletal version of the true paper, and will guide you through the entire process.

How do you create an outline for your paper?

Initially, separating your essay, research or other paper into various components (Introduction, Body, Conclusion, etc.) will help you to stay better organized and reduce the risk of important information being forgotten or unintentionally omitted. Furthermore, breaking the essay down into these parts will allow you to address specific parts individually and lessen the chances of feeling overwhelmed or like you might be in over your head.

How to Write an Outline for a Research Paper

The structure of your outline will be similar regardless of whether you are writing a scientific paper or something more general. Interestingly, the structure of a research outline is nearly identical

to that of a research paper template.  In order to better acquaint yourself with the structure of an

outline, check out sample research papers online. The USC Guide to Making an Outline will also help you.

The chief components to an outline are:

  1. The Introduction
  2. The Body
  3. The Conclusion

Relatively straightforward, right? However, the part to remember is that each part serves a specific purpose and how you arrange information in your outline will drive how your paper reads upon completion.

The Introduction is one of the most important elements of any great research paper, and interestingly enough, often written LAST. This is because the purpose of the introduction is to grab the attention of the reader, this is done by presenting the reader with the topic, and using the thesis statement as an opportunity to ‘hook’ the attention of the reader.

The Body is the heartiest part of the essay, it includes many fact-rich paragraphs or subsections and will allow you to build upon your thesis statement by providing facts to support your argument. This section should not only elaborate on your opening statement, but also provide insight into the methods used to conduct your research and also include investigative points or answers to questions pondered.

You will also want to consider using a literature overview. This is achieved by documenting the literary sources used to support your theories and hypothesis. The topic of your paper and the selected literature should be adjacent.

If you used any sort of data validation, this will typically follow the methodology and literature sections. This is where you will highlight your results and mention other variables that you’ve uncovered in your research. You might choose to use graphs or tables, but remember to explain these to your readers.

Lastly, you will write your Conclusion. The conclusion typically does not offer new information, but rather summarizes the main points addressed in the paper. It is mandatory to also reiterate the thesis statement and mention any future research.

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How to Format a Research Paper

There are a number of sources you can turn to for research paper examples and, depending on your field of study, a plethora of potential high quality topics exist to pull your subject matter from.

As you will learn from looking any good research paper example, writing a great paper involves so much more than simply throwing a bunch of text and citations into a word processor and hoping for the best.

A passing grade means not only thoroughly researching your topic and ensuring that all of your sources are accurately cited, it also means ensuring that your research essay is properly formatted. The following guideline will help you to create finished paper that not only reads like it was professionally written – but also looks like it!

Formatting A Research Paper

1. Paper

Use clean, good quality 8 1/2″ x 11″ white paper, one side only.

2. Margins

Leave margins of your essay 1″ (2.5 cm) at the top, bottom, left and right sides of each and every page. 1″ is about 10 typed spaces.  Exception is made for page numbers which are placed 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the top upper-right hand corner, flushed to the right margin.

3. Title Page

A title page is not essential for a research paper unless specifically requested by your teacher. The MLA Handbook provides a general guideline on writing a research paper and documenting sources. In case of conflict, you should always follow guidelines set down by your teacher.

If you don’t have a title page, you may begin 1″ from the top of the first page of your essay and start typing your name flushed against the left margin. Then under your name, on separate lines, double-spaced, and flushed against the left margin, type your teacher’s name, your course code, and the date.

If your teacher prefers the first page of your essay not be numbered, you will begin numbering with page 2.

Double-space after the date. On a new line, center the title of your essay. If you have a long title, double-space between lines of the title.

Example:
Jones 1
Tracy Jones
Ms. K. Smith
NRW-3A1-01
16 January 2006
Gun Control: Pros and Cons
Do not type your title all in capital letters. Do not put quotations marks before and after the title. Do not underline the title, or put a period at the end of the title. Proper names of people and places as well as important words should be capitalized in the title, but prepositions and conjunctions are normally shown in lower case letters, e.g. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. The same rule applies to headings and subheadings as well.

Follow the same capitalization rules for acronyms as you normally would in writing a text of the essay, e.g. FBI would be all in capitals as it is the acronym for Federal Bureau of Investigations. When using an acronym, especially an uncommon one, you must indicate what the letters stand for at the first occurrence in your essay. Example: The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is nearly finished converting from using standard desktop PCs to blade PCs.

If a Title Page is a requirement for your assignment, begin on a new page. Use a format preferred by your teacher. Otherwise, center each line and double-space every line on a blank page: name of school (optional), title of paper in upper and lower case, course code, course name (optional), teacher’s name, your first and last name, and date.

Your separate title page should appear as follows:
Gun Control: Pros and Cons
NRW-3A1-01
Ms. K. Smith
Tracy Jones
16 January 2006
The following example shows what NOT to do for a title page:
TITLE OF ESSAY: “GUN CONTROL: PROS AND CONS”
COURSE CODE: “NRW-3A1-01”
TO MY TEACHER: “MS. KATIE ELIZABETH SMITH”
FROM YOUR STUDENT: “TRACY MARIA CHRISTINA CARMELA JONES”
ASSIGNMENT DUE DATE: “MONDAY, JANUARY THE SIXTEENTH, IN THE YEAR 2006”
It is not necessary to describe or explain the title page by adding the words: Title, Course Code, To, From, or Due Date. More is not better. Minimal information providing simple identification is adequate.

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4. Numbering Pages and Paragraphs

Number your pages consecutively throughout the essay in the upper right hand corner, flush against the right margin and 1/2″ from the top. The MLA Handbook recommends that you type your last name just before the page number in case the pages get misplaced (134). On page 4 of your essay, for example, your top right-hand corner should show: Jones 4

Page numbers must be written in Arabic numerals. Do not add anything fancy to decorate a page number. Do not underline it, enclose it between hyphens, parentheses, asterisks, or precede it with “Page”, “Pg.”, “P.”, or add a period after the number. In other words, DO NOT use any of the following:

PAGE 4, Page 4, Pg. 4, P 4, pg. 4, p. 4, #4, ~ 4 ~, – 4 -, * 4*, (4), “4”, 4, or 4.

Simply write: 4

Remember, there is no period after the page number.

If you are submitting your essay to your teacher via e-mail, he or she may prefer that you number all your paragraphs consecutively with reference points by adding [1] at the beginning of your 1st paragraph, [2] before your 2nd paragraph, and so forth. Electronic submission of documents is becoming more common as e-mail is being used widely. This system will facilitate the citation of sources by identifying a specific paragraph for reference very quickly.

5. Spacing Between Lines

Whether your essay is handwritten, typed or printed, the entire essay should be double-spaced between lines along with 1″ margin on all sides for your teacher to write comments.

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Spacing Between Words

In general, leave one space between words and one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon. Traditionally, two spaces are required at the end of every sentence whether the sentence ends with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. Although it is not wrong to leave two spaces after a period, it is quite acceptable nowadays to leave only one space after each punctuation mark. However, NO space should be left in front of a punctuation mark; for example, the following would be incorrect: op. cit. or “Why me?”

For details on how to place tables, illustrations, figures, musical notations, labels, captions, etc. in your essay, please see the MLA Handbook (134-137).

6. Indentation

If a handwritten essay is acceptable to your teacher, remember to double-space all lines, and begin each paragraph with an indentation of 1″ from the left margin. Use the width of your thumb as a rough guide.

If you are using a typewriter or a word processor on a computer, indent 5 spaces or 1/2″ at the beginning of each paragraph. Indent set-off quotations 10 spaces or 1″ from the left margin.

Your instructor may give you a choice to indent or not to indent your paragraphs. No matter whichever one you choose to use, you must be consistent throughout your essay.

If you are NOT indenting, you will start each paragraph flush to the left margin. It is essential that you double-space between lines and quadruple-space between paragraphs. When paragraphs are not indented, it is difficult for a reader to see where a new paragraph begins, hence quadruple-space is called for between paragraphs. Set-off quotations should still be indented 10 spaces or 1″ from the left margin.

7. Right Justify and Automatic Hyphens:

Do not right justify your entire essay and do not automatically format hyphens if you are using a word processor to type your essay. Left justify or justify your essay and type in the hyphens yourself where needed. Left justification is preferred as it will not leave big gaps between words.

Sample Research Papers Database

Get FREE access to more than 500,000 hand-picked sample research papers and essays! Looking for inspiration? Search our giant database of original essays classified by topic

Stuck on your essay? Explore thousands of essay samples FOR FREE and get inspired!

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8. Titles of Books, Magazines, Newspapers, or Journals

When used within the text of your paper, titles of all full-length works such as novels, plays, or books, should be underlined, e.g. Shakespeare’s Theater.

Put in quotation marks titles of shorter works, such as newspaper, journal, and magazine articles, chapters of books or essays, e.g.: “Giving Back to the Earth: Western Helps Make a Difference in India.”

For all title citations, every word, except articles (“a“, “an“, “the“), prepositions (such as “in“, “on“, “under“, “over“), and conjunctions (such as “and“, “because“, “but“, “however“), should be capitalized, unless they occur at the beginning of the title or subtitle, e.g.: “And Now for Something Completely Different: A Hedgehog Hospital.”

Look it up in a dictionary whenever you are not sure whether a word is being used as a preposition, a conjunction, a noun, a verb, or an adverb. The word “near“, for instance, may be an adverb, an adjective, a verb, or a preposition depending on the context in which it is used.

For complicated details on how to cite titles and quotations within titles, sacred texts, shortened titles, exceptions to the rule, etc. please consult the MLA Handbook (102-109).

9. Writing an Essay All in Capital Letters:

DO NOT WRITE OR TYPE EVERYTHING ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS EVEN THOUGH THIS SAVES YOU TIME AND EFFORT NOT TO HAVE TO USE THE SHIFT KEY REPEATEDLY OR TO HAVE TO FIGURE OUT WHEN OR WHEN NOT TO USE CAPITAL LETTERS.SOME PEOPLE WRITE EVERYTHING IN CAPITAL LETTERS BECAUSE THEY HAD NEVER LEARNED TO WRITE SENTENCES IN UPPER AND LOWER-CASE LETTERS PROPERLY WHEN THEY WERE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.OTHER PEOPLE WRITE ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS BECAUSE THEY WANT TO MAKE WHAT THEY WRITE APPEAR IMPORTANT.READING A PAPER ALL WRITTEN IN CAPITAL LETTERS,ESPECIALLY ONE WITHOUT SPACES AFTER PUNCTUATION MARKS,SLOWS DOWN READING SPEED AND MAY EVEN REDUCE READER COMPREHENSION,BESIDES BEING EXTREMELY ANNOYING TO THE READER.REMEMBER THAT THE PURPOSE OF WRITING ANYTHING IS TO COMMUNICATE.MOST OF US ARE NOT CONDITIONED TO READ ALL TEXT IN CAPITAL LETTERS.WORD PROCESSORS ALSO TREAT WORDS STUCK TOGETHER WITHOUT SPACES AS SINGLE WORDS CAUSING OTHER PROBLEMS.

10. Table of Contents

A short essay or research paper requires no Table of Contents.

If your written report or research paper is extremely long, it may be helpful to include a Table of Contents showing the page number where each section begins.

For those writing a lengthy document, i.e. a book, here is the suggested order for placing items in a Table of Contents:

Acknowledgements, Foreword, Introduction, Body (Parts I, II, III), Summary or Conclusion, Afterword, Explanatory Notes, Appendices, Contact Organizations, Glossary, Endnotes (if not using Footnotes or Parenthetical citations), Bibliography, Index.

A less involved Table of Contents may include simply the following sections: Introduction, Body (use main section headings), Conclusion (or Summary), Works Cited (or References), along with the corresponding page number where each section begins.

Example:

CONTENTS

Introduction …………………………………………………………………  1
Government …………………………………………………………………  3
Economy ……………………………………………………………………… 6
Arts and Entertainment ……………………………………………….. 10
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….. 14
Works Cited ………………………………………………………………… 15

11. End of Essay

No special word, phrase or fancy symbol is needed to mark the end of your essay. A period at the end of your last sentence is all that is needed.

12. Keeping Essay Together

Sheets of paper should be stapled at the upper left-hand corner. Use a paper clip if no stapler is available. Do not use a pin or fold the paper. Unless specifically requested by your teacher, do not hand in your paper in a folder, a binder, a plastic jacket, rolled up with an elastic band around it, or tied with a ribbon or a string. Do not spray perfume or cologne on your paper or use scented paper. And NEVER hand in your research or term paper in loose sheets even if the sheets are numbered and neatly placed in an envelope or folder.

The condition of the paper you hand in is an indication of the respect you have for yourself and the respect you have for your teacher. Before handing in your paper, ask yourself, “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”

Final Note on Your Essay

The topics used for each research paper are inherently different, and even identical topics will appear to be unique based on the viewpoints and educational level of the author. Regardless of your grade level or the topic you’ve been assigned, a research paper outline can help you turn in a great essay. It should include a bulleted list of subheadings and headings, be sure to include as much detail as possible. Crossing out each section as you finish it will help you to stay thorough.

Here is a sample research paper outline .

INTRODUCTION

  1. A quick overview or introduction of the topic or issue
  2. The methodology being used
  3. The thesis statement
  4. A full review of every source used and all of the corresponding literature
  5. A brief explanation of the relevance of the research

BODY

  1. Detailed and thorough information about the main points of the argument
  2. Use as many paragraphs as necessary. Each paragraph should represent a different point.

CONCLUSION

  1. Brief summary of all of the main points or facts mentioned in the body.
  2. Reiteration of the thesis statement
  3. Closing remark or thought.

If you require help with formatting your paper, you can contact us Here .

Sample Research Papers Database

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Further reading:
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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement for a Research Paper
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Home   >   News   >   Meet the new boss: Warwick High School’s principal

Meet the new boss: Warwick High School’s principal

By Patrick Burns on September 7, 2016

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New Warwick High School Principal Kristy Szobocsan believes “technology is a tool, it is not the end all, be all” in educating students.

New Warwick High School Principal Kristy Szobocsan believes “technology is a tool, it is not the end all, be all” in educating students.

You could say Kristy Szobocsan knows what she wants and gets the most out of her students.

The new Warwick High School principal formerly served as assistant principal at the school and previously served middle school director at School District of Lancaster. She rose quickly, after spending her first teaching years as a health and physical education teacher with School District of Lancaster from August 2006 to January 2012.

The well-rounded Szobocsan also served as Elizabethtown College assistant women’s basketball coach from October 2006 to April 2009. She earned her bachelor’s degree from Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania and a master’s in educational leadership from Wilkes University.

Interestingly, her husband Steve Szobocsan, assistant high school principal, is serving as acting Warwick Middle School principal, stepping in for Michael Smith, who is on a leave of absence.

Last week during Warwick’s ninth-grade orientation program, the Lititz Record Express sat down for a brief interview with the new principal.

LR: What was your first thoughts when you heard you were considered for the principal job?

KS: “To know that the district and the school board had that much trust and believe me that I could take over as principal of the high school was very honoring and very humbling.”

LR: Is principal a job you consciously sought as a career path?

KS: “From the beginning, no. My mom is an educator, so education runs thick. I grew up in my mom’s classrooms. She taught elementary school. The school I went to was very small so I had access to her at all times. So during my study halls in high school I access to her classroom and volunteer so education was a passion and a love.”

“I went to school wanting to be a teacher. When I finished college I thought about school counseling and then decided to shy away from that and get a teaching job right away to begin with and during my first year teaching someone said that I should pursue your admin certification.”

“I enrolled my first year and I was at the School District of Lancaster County and I’m very grateful for all the experiences I had there. My principal right away noticed I had ability and let me sub in administration positions. So I really got my feet wet and experienced right off the bat and then I transferred here to Warwick.”

LR What are you positive about Warwick?

KS: I’m positive that we care about kids and we put kids first. I’m positive that it shows in everything we do, in every decision we make whether an easy decision like today celebrating our freshman or a tough decision like budget concerns, everything is through the lens of what’s best for students.”

LR: What do you see as your greatest challenge?

KS: “I think education is in a challenging state. There’s a lot of criticism outside the world of education. I think we have to continue to show why education is important for kids because it will really open all the doors to the future.”

LR: Where do you see how technology will affect teaching in the coming years?

KS: “Technology is a tool, it is not the end all be all. I’m pursuing my doctorate right now and actually just took a technology course which was very eye-opening. You don’t walk down the street without seeing someone with a phone in their hand having any information at their fingertips within seconds. Even my children at six and three know that the phone will tell them the answer to questions they don’t know. So I see it as a tool not a replacement of education. Do I see classrooms changing and looking different through the use of technology? Yes, but it’s not going to replace classrooms, it’s not going to replace teachers. We are still the most valuable asset to our students.

LR: Are you motivated by your predecessor Ryan Axe; anything significant you learned that you’ll continue?

“When I first got here Dr. Axe was not here there was an interim principal named Dave Davies and I’m forever grateful for the experience with him too. He came with a lot of seasoned knowledge that he shared with us all the time and then Dr. Axe came and the team we formed with Dr. Axe in the last two-and-a -half years was unbelievable. Sometimes they say in your career you’ll have a team you don’t ever want to give up and that was that team.

With Dr. Axe and Mr. (Sydnor) Harrison (assistant principal), Mr. Szobocsan and myself we clicked. We understood each other’s strengths and weaknesses and we were able to play off of them. So I will miss that part of it the positive is they’re all still here but in different positions.

LR: Can you talk about your family?

KS: “I’m married to Mr. Szobocsan. We have three children. One is in college pursuing a degree at Millersville. And then I have a six-year-old and a three-year-old. Our family absolutely comes first. It’s always been about kids for me. We’re blessed to have them here in this district and to be able to attend their events as well as fulfilling the roll as a high school principal.

We actually moved (to Lititz) in October specifically so out children could come to this district.

ER: Anything else you’d like people to know about you?

KS: “I just want people to know that I’ll work hard on what was built over the past two and a half years. And if anyone wants to come in and see what’s happening, we welcome that as well.”

Patrick Burns is social media editor and a staff writer for the Lititz Record Express. He welcomes your questions and comments and can be reached at [email protected] or at 721-4455.

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  • Hampton Inn & Suites College Station (USA) Deals


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    • Guest Reviews (82)


    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station


    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station


    925 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 , United States of America


    Great location – show map

    After booking, all of the property’s details, including telephone and address, are provided in your booking confirmation and your account.


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    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station



    Lock in a great price for Hampton Inn & Suites College Station – rated 8.7 by recent guests!

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    July 17, 2017


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    dffloresf

    Traveler photo of College Station by dffloresf
    July 17, 2017

    Lock in a great price for Hampton Inn & Suites College Station – rated 8.7 by recent guests!

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    Excellent


    82 reviews



    8.7


    • Cleanliness

      9.1

    • Comfort

      8.8

    • Facilities

      8.8

    • Staff

      8.7

    • Value for money

      8.5

    • Free WiFi

      8.6

    • Location

      8.5

    Located 2 miles from Post Oak Mall in College Station, this Hampton Inn has an outdoor pool and a fitness room with cardiovascular equipment.

    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station features guest rooms with white linens and wooden headboards. Each has cable TV and a tea/coffee maker.

    A breakfast buffet is served daily at Hampton Inn & Suites College Station. Nearby restaurants include Ninfa’s Mexican.

    Hampton Inn College Station provides a business center. Free Wi-Fi is available throughout the property.

    Couples in particular like the location – they rated it 8.2 for a two-person trip.

    This property is also rated for the best value in College Station! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city.

    We speak your language!


    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station has been welcoming Booking.com guests since Mar 10, 2011

    Hotel Chain:
    Hampton by Hilton

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    Brilliant!


    Most Popular Facilities


    Free WiFi

    Swimming Pool

    Free Parking

    Family Rooms

    Fitness Center

    Good for couples – they rated the facilities 8.7 for two-person stays.

    Hampton by Hilton

    Guests Love…




    Top Location: Highly rated by recent guests (8.5)




    Free WiFi


    Guests consistently rate the WiFi as excellent




    Free Parking Available On Site




    Great area for shopping!





    Lock in a great price for your upcoming stay

    Get instant confirmation with FREE cancellation on most rooms!

    SleepsRoom Type



    ×
    5


    Queen Room with Two Queen Beds


    • 2 queen beds


    Show prices

    Start of dialog content



    Private bathroom



    Room Size

    280 ft²


    This double room has a seating area, air conditioning and tea/coffee maker.


    Room Facilities:

    • • Tea/Coffee maker
    • • Telephone
    • • Air conditioning
    • • Hairdryer
    • • Iron
    • • Radio
    • • Desk
    • • Ironing facilities
    • • Sitting area
    • • Free toiletries
    • • Toilet
    • • Private bathroom
    • • Heating
    • • Cable channels
    • • Bathtub or shower
    • • Alarm clock

    Free WiFi!






    Select everything you want to know more about

    (Your response helps provide better info for travelers)



    Submit

    Cancel

    Thanks for your time!

    Your feedback will help us improve so you can book more easily next time.

    Close

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    Retry







    Missing some information?

    Yes

    /

    No
    Great! Thanks for your response.

    End of dialog content





    King Room


    • 1 king bed


    Show prices

    Start of dialog content



    Private bathroom



    Room Size

    280 ft²


    This double room features air conditioning, tea/coffee maker and seating area.


    Room Facilities:

    • • Tea/Coffee maker
    • • Telephone
    • • Air conditioning
    • • Hairdryer
    • • Iron
    • • Radio
    • • Desk
    • • Ironing facilities
    • • Sitting area
    • • Free toiletries
    • • Toilet
    • • Private bathroom
    • • Heating
    • • Cable channels
    • • Bathtub or shower
    • • Alarm clock

    Free WiFi!






    Select everything you want to know more about

    (Your response helps provide better info for travelers)



    Submit

    Cancel

    Thanks for your time!

    Your feedback will help us improve so you can book more easily next time.

    Close

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    Retry







    Missing some information?

    Yes

    /

    No
    Great! Thanks for your response.

    End of dialog content





    King Studio with Spa Bath – Non-Smoking


    • 1 king bed


    Show prices

    Start of dialog content



    Private bathroom



    Room Size

    280 ft²


    This studio features a seating area, tea/coffee maker and air conditioning.


    Room Facilities:

    • • Tea/Coffee maker
    • • Telephone
    • • Air conditioning
    • • Hairdryer
    • • Iron
    • • Spa tub
    • • Radio
    • • Desk
    • • Ironing facilities
    • • Sitting area
    • • Toilet
    • • Private bathroom
    • • Heating
    • • Cable channels
    • • Alarm clock

    Free WiFi!






    Select everything you want to know more about

    (Your response helps provide better info for travelers)



    Submit

    Cancel

    Thanks for your time!

    Your feedback will help us improve so you can book more easily next time.

    Close

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    Retry







    Missing some information?

    Yes

    /

    No
    Great! Thanks for your response.

    End of dialog content




    ×
    5


    Queen Studio with Two Queen Beds – Non-Smoking


    • 1 sofa bed


      and

    • 2 queen beds


    Show prices

    Start of dialog content



    Private bathroom



    Room Size

    280 ft²


    This double room features air conditioning, tea/coffee maker and seating area.


    Room Facilities:

    • • Tea/Coffee maker
    • • Telephone
    • • Air conditioning
    • • Hairdryer
    • • Iron
    • • Radio
    • • Desk
    • • Ironing facilities
    • • Sitting area
    • • Free toiletries
    • • Toilet
    • • Private bathroom
    • • Heating
    • • Cable channels
    • • Bathtub or shower
    • • Alarm clock

    Free WiFi!






    Select everything you want to know more about

    (Your response helps provide better info for travelers)



    Submit

    Cancel

    Thanks for your time!

    Your feedback will help us improve so you can book more easily next time.

    Close

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    Retry







    Missing some information?

    Yes

    /

    No
    Great! Thanks for your response.

    End of dialog content




    ×
    5


    Queen Studio with Two Queen Beds – Disability Access/Non-Smoking


    • 2 queen beds


    Show prices

    Start of dialog content



    Private bathroom



    Room Size

    280 ft²


    This studio has a seating area, tea/coffee maker and air conditioning.


    Room Facilities:

    • • Tea/Coffee maker
    • • Telephone
    • • Air conditioning
    • • Hairdryer
    • • Iron
    • • Radio
    • • Desk
    • • Ironing facilities
    • • Sitting area
    • • Toilet
    • • Private bathroom
    • • Heating
    • • Cable channels
    • • Bathtub or shower
    • • Alarm clock

    Free WiFi!






    Select everything you want to know more about

    (Your response helps provide better info for travelers)



    Submit

    Cancel

    Thanks for your time!

    Your feedback will help us improve so you can book more easily next time.

    Close

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    Retry







    Missing some information?

    Yes

    /

    No
    Great! Thanks for your response.

    End of dialog content





    King Studio with Sofa Bed


    • 1 king bed


      and

    • 1 sofa bed


    Show prices

    Start of dialog content



    Private bathroom



    Room Size

    280 ft²


    This double room has a seating area, air conditioning and tea/coffee maker.


    Room Facilities:

    • • Tea/Coffee maker
    • • Telephone
    • • Air conditioning
    • • Hairdryer
    • • Iron
    • • Radio
    • • Desk
    • • Ironing facilities
    • • Sitting area
    • • Free toiletries
    • • Toilet
    • • Private bathroom
    • • Heating
    • • Cable channels
    • • Bathtub or shower
    • • Alarm clock

    Free WiFi!






    Select everything you want to know more about

    (Your response helps provide better info for travelers)



    Submit

    Cancel

    Thanks for your time!

    Your feedback will help us improve so you can book more easily next time.

    Close

    Sorry – there was an error submitting your response. Please try again.

    Retry







    Missing some information?

    Yes

    /

    No
    Great! Thanks for your response.

    End of dialog content


    Just booked in College Station:

    10 hotels like Hampton Inn & Suites College Station were just booked

    3 Reasons to Choose Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    Why book with us?

    Prices you can’t beat!

    Manage your bookings online

    Booking is safe



    Area Info



    Great location – show map

    Closest Landmarks

    • Veterans Park and Athletic Complex

      0.9 miles

    • Oaks Park

      1.3 miles

    • Wolf Pen Creek Park

      1.5 miles

    • Thomas Park

      1.5 miles

    • Wolf Pen Creek Amphitheater

      1.5 miles

    • Raintree Park

      1.6 miles

    • Arctic Wolf Ice Center

      1.6 miles

    • Benjamin Knox Gallery

      1.6 miles

    • Viking Park Softball – Bryan High School

      1.8 miles

    • Viking Park Baseball – Bryan High School

      1.8 miles

    Most Popular Landmarks

    • Texas A&M University

      1.8 miles

    • Brazos County Park

      1.9 miles

    • Viking Stadium

      1.9 miles

    • Tanglewood Park

      1.9 miles

    • Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History

      2 miles

    • Bonfire Memorial

      2 miles

    • Kyle Field

      2.9 miles

    • C E ‘Pat’ Olsen Field

      3.1 miles

    • Reed Arena

      3.2 miles

    • George Bush Presidential Library and Museum

      4.3 miles

    What Travelers Love About This Location



    9.2


    “This is a nice hotel, especially for the price. There isn’t much around in walking distance, but you could drive to eat or shop, without having to go too far. It’s right off the highway so it was easy to get around. The hotel room was spacious and comfortable, but the furniture were a little dated. The building itself was nice and clean. The breakfast was basic, but good. There was a good mixture of hot foods, cereals, and baked goods. I didn’t watch much TV, but the satellite kept going out when I did. The front desk clerk was professional and friendly. I’d prefer a few more modern style room, but aside from that, it was a very comfortable, clean hotel with good service.”


    United States of America
    United States of America

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    Are you missing any information about this area?



    Brilliant!


    Facilities of Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    Great facilities! Review score, 8.8


    Most Popular Facilities


    Free WiFi

    Swimming Pool

    Free Parking

    Family Rooms

    Fitness Center





    Pool and Spa

    • Swimming Pool


    • Outdoor Pool


    • Fitness Center





    Pets
    • Pets are not allowed.





    Internet
    • Free!
      WiFi is available in all areas and is free of charge.

    • Free!
      Wired internet is available in the hotel rooms and is free of charge.





    Parking
    • Free!
      Free public parking is available on site (reservation is needed).





    Services

    • Baggage Storage


    • Fax/Photocopying


    • Dry Cleaning


    • Laundry


    • Business Center


    • 24-Hour Front Desk


    • Meeting/Banquet Facilities





    General

    • Air Conditioning


    • All Spaces Non-Smoking (public and private)


    • Shops (on site)


    • Heating


    • Safe


    • Elevator


    • Family Rooms


    • Facilities for Disabled Guests


    • Newspapers


    What topic(s) do you want to know more about?

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    Your opinion helps us figure out what kinds of info we should ask properties for.

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    Awesome!



    House Rules

    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station takes special requests – add in the next step!





    Check-in


    From 3:00 PM

    Guests are required to show a photo ID and credit card at check-in





    Check-out


    Until 12:00 PM





    Cancellation/
    prepayment

    Cancellation and prepayment policies vary according to room type.
    Please enter the dates of your stay and check what conditions apply to your preferred room.




    Children and Extra Beds

    All children are welcome.

    Free!
    All children under 18 years stay free of charge when using existing beds.

    Free!
    Any additional older children or adults stay free of charge when using existing beds.

    Free!
    One older child or adult stays free of charge in an extra bed.

    Free!
    One child under 2 years stays free of charge in a crib.

    The maximum number of extra beds/cribs in a room is 1.

    Any type of extra bed or crib is upon request and needs to be confirmed by management.




    Pets

    Pets are not allowed.




    Groups

    When booking more than 9 rooms, different policies and additional supplements may apply.







    Hampton Inn & Suites College Station accepts these cards and reserves the right to temporarily hold an amount prior to arrival.


    The Fine Print
    You must show a valid photo ID and credit card upon check-in. Please note that all special requests cannot be guaranteed and are subject to availability upon check-in. Additional charges may apply.

    Please note that carrying a weapon on hotel premises is prohibited and violators may be subject to arrest for criminal trespass under applicable law.

    Guests are required to show a photo ID and credit card upon check-in. Please note that all Special Requests are subject to availability and additional charges may apply.

    Or, take a look at these appealing alternatives:


    • La Quinta Inn & Suites College Station South has a location score of 9



    Guests’ Choice

    See the 15 best hotels in College Station , based on 4,681 verified hotel reviews on Booking.com.


    We Price Match

    17 people are currently looking for a place in College Station


    Show on map





























































































































































































    Like this one but not totally sure yet?

    Show similar properties

    What guests loved the most:


    “We were there for the State Trackmeet, it was extremely hot outside all day, but to be able to arrive to friendly staff and our room for showers and relaxation was awesome, not to MENTION location right next door to Ninfas. Amazing good.We thank you all, and if we’re ever in the area again, we’ll definitely stay at the Hampton…”

    Vickey

    Vickey

    United States of America

    “Very friendly staff. Excellent breakfast choices. Very clean. We would stay here again. ”

    Steven

    Steven

    United States of America

    “Easy check in. Room was clean and quiet. I would stay there again. Note that there is only one entrance/exit and it is not obvious.”

    Ggj

    Ggj

    United States of America

    “Would have liked more variety of meats. Didn’t really care for the eckrich type sausage for breakfast”

    Gary

    Gary

    United States of America

    “Friendly staff, lots of room in the suite. very clean, nice decor in the lobby”

    Kathy

    Kathy

    United States of America

    “Our room with the jacuzzi tub was huge, water was HOT, bed was comfy. We’ll be back for sure.”

    Brittany

    Brittany

    United States of America

    “Room was spacious, clean, and staff was amazing! The breakfast was to be expected, decent for a hotel breakfast.”

    Beverly

    Beverly

    United States of America

    “This was a wonderful place to stay. The staff was very friendly. Our beds were like sleeping on clouds! The sofa bed was very comfy too. It had a gel memory foam mattress. It was extremely clean. The breakfast was very good also. We had a great stay and would stay here again.”

    Tiffani

    Tiffani

    United States of America

    “All the staff extremely friendly. Very clean hotel. Beautiful property inside and out. Comfortable beds. Very good breakfast.”


    United States of America

    “The staff was friendly. The breakfast was good and had variety from day to day. The room was clean.”


    United States of America

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    See all guest reviews for Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    Newest Reviews for Hampton Inn & Suites College Station

    • Reviewed: August 1, 2018

      Barbara




      United States of America



      7.5

      “Stay was nice, breakfast was not great.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Couple

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Coffee and fruit was not refilled.

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 30, 2018

      Nelda




      United States of America



      7.5

      Good

      • Group of friends

      • King Room

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      It was kind of noisy…kids running down the hall.

      Everything was close by.

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 29, 2018

      Vickey




      United States of America



      9.0

      “Our stay was Fantabulous”

      • Family with young children

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      The only issue we had was the icemaker on the 2nd floor wasn’t working.

      We were there for the State Trackmeet, it was extremely hot outside all day, but to be able to arrive to friendly staff and our room for showers and relaxation was awesome, not to MENTION location right next door to Ninfas. Amazing good.We thank you all, and if we’re ever in the area again, we’ll definitely stay at the Hampton…

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 26, 2018

      Raj




      United States of America

      Age group: 45 – 54



      7.5

      “stay was fine and breakfast was horrible.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 1 night

      Breakfast was bad no one there to re fill buffet bread has become so hard and old bread served.

      Hotel was nice

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: July 15, 2018

      Steven




      United States of America



      10

      Exceptional

      • Leisure trip

      • Couple

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Very friendly staff. Excellent breakfast choices. Very clean. We would stay here again.

      Stayed in July 2018

    • Reviewed: June 18, 2018

      Gerardo




      United States of America



      5.4

      “Will not stay there again.”

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Studio with Two Queen Beds – Disability Access/Non-Smoking

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Pool was dirty, elevator sounded like it was going to break. Ceiling roof had water damage everywhere and looked like it was going to fall through. Room needs to updated.

      Softball tournament

      Stayed in June 2018

    • Reviewed: June 13, 2018

      Kim




      United States of America



      7.5

      “Good location, nice accomodations”

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Studio with Two Queen Beds – Non-Smoking

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Little hard to access the hotel from higjeay

      Nice pool area, updated decor, nice big room.

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: June 7, 2018

      Gary




      United States of America



      9.6

      Exceptional

      • Business trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Location

      Stayed in June 2018

    • Reviewed: June 4, 2018

      ggj




      United States of America

      Age group: 55 – 64



      9.6

      “Very nice, quiet room close to where I needed to be.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Solo traveler

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Highway access.

      Easy check in. Room was clean and quiet. I would stay there again. Note that there is only one entrance/exit and it is not obvious.

      Stayed in June 2018

    • Reviewed: June 2, 2018

      Sonya




      United States of America



      7.5

      “Graduation accommodations ”

      • Leisure trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      The OJ served for breakfast was terrible, it tasted like it was old. I reported it and they checked, but it was not out of date.

      Everything else was great.

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: May 7, 2018

      Anonymous




      United States of America



      9.2

      Awesome

      • Leisure trip

      • Solo traveler

      • King Room

      • Stayed 1 night

      A/C was loud and a little awkward to operate.

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: May 6, 2018

      Gary




      United States of America



      9.6

      “Was a good stay, will be returning in a month for another two nights.”

      • Business trip

      • Family with young children

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 2 nights

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      Location was okay but getting to the location was difficult. If you didn’t have a general knowledge of the area you could get frustated

      Would have liked more variety of meats. Didn’t really care for the eckrich type sausage for breakfast

      Stayed in May 2018

    • Reviewed: April 30, 2018

      Kathy




      United States of America



      7.5

      “We had a good visit with family the hotel was very near thier home.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Couple

      • King Room

      • Stayed 2 nights

      no resturant or lounge

      Friendly staff, lots of room in the suite. very clean, nice decor in the lobby

      Stayed in April 2018

    • Reviewed: April 26, 2018

      Damion




      United States of America



      10

      Exceptional

      • Leisure trip

      • Family with young children

      • King Studio with Sofa Bed

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      I liked everything

      Overall experience

      Stayed in April 2018

    • Reviewed: April 14, 2018

      Anonymous




      United States of America



      10

      “I will stay there again and looking forward to other Hampton stays.”

      • Leisure trip

      • Solo traveler

      • Queen Room with Two Queen Beds

      • Stayed 1 night

      • Submitted from a mobile device

      There was nothing I didn’t like.

      All the staff extremely friendly. Very clean hotel. Beautiful property inside and out. Comfortable beds. Very good breakfast.

      Stayed in April 2018

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      581897,553677,584257,585667,578107,588337,541597,557967|3,577747|1,590827,491447,584907,579747,538797,577747,591567,581407,537657,547037,585257,589387,600087,565597,584257|1,596927,586947,574507,596947,510427,576247,533337,587067|1,584447,598117,584137,581907,553717,600617,597777|1,515987,275824,598497,595967,547047,586947|1,565537,593317,597127,596467,581327|1,582897,601147,587067,582777,581327,566947,587067|2,594487,583267,588917,566947|3,577777,557967

      aboriginal school based training guidelines

      Skip to main content

      Home

      VET for secondary students

      VET delivered to secondary students

      The Department works with the education sector, the School Curriculum and Standards Authority and industry to support the delivery of quality VET programs to Western Australian secondary students.

      Here you will find a range of useful resources and information for schools, teachers and VET practitioners, including:

      • strategic documents and guidelines;
      • the VET qualifications register for secondary students;
      • good practice models; and
      • an overview of VET programs delivered to secondary students.

      1499673021

      Strategic directions

      The Joint Ministerial Statement establishes a clear strategic direction for VET delivered to secondary students.

      View the Joint Ministerial statement

      The VET delivered to secondary students guidelines support the implementation of the Joint Ministerial statement and provide an operational framework to guide schools delivering VET programs to secondary students.

      View the guidelines

      1530148266

      VET qualifications register for secondary students

      The VET qualifications register for secondary students provides industry advice for schools and RTOs on the suitability of qualifications for secondary students and delivery requirements to meet industry standards. The register aims to assist schools and RTOs to select qualifications that are more likely to be completed by secondary students or help them to transition effectively to further training or employment.

      Please note that the register is of an advisory nature only and does not override or replace training package requirements.

      View the VET qualifications register for secondary students for the 2019 school year

      Visit the training.gov.au website for training package information.

      1523258742

      Auspicing research tool for schools

      The Department of Training and Workforce Development, in collaboration with the WA Department of Education and the Training Accreditation Council, has developed an RTO auspicing research tool.

      This useful tool provides schools with prompts and questions to help them research and choose suitable RTOs to enter into auspicing arrangements with to deliver VET qualifications to their students. It includes:

      • a focus on VET sector regulatory requirements;
      • a checklist of information that should be included in an auspicing agreement; and
      • links to VET sector resources to help schools easily access this information and understand the sector’s requirements.
      Download the RTO auspicing research tool

       

      You may also find these two fact sheets helpful.

      • Fact sheet – How to find information on RTOs
      • Fact sheet – How to find information on VET qualifications and units of competency
      1523244095

      VET programs for secondary students

      The Department funds the following VET programs to provide opportunities for full time secondary students to start training while at school.

      • Aboriginal school-based training program

        The Aboriginal school-based training program has two pathways:

        • employment based training (school-based apprenticeships and traineeships); and
        • institutional based training.

        View the 2018 business rules that apply to the ASBT

        View the 2018 ASBT employment-based training pathway fact sheet

        View the 2018 ASBT institutional pathway fact sheet

      • Pre-apprenticeships in schools

        Pre-apprenticeships in schools are Certificate II programs that have been nominated by industry training councils as valid pathways from school to related apprenticeships. Students attend school, train at an RTO and complete mandatory work placement. Completion of a pre-apprenticeship may also contribute to a student’s Western Australian Certificate of Education.

        View the business rules that ​apply to pre-apprenticeships in schools in 2018.

        More information is available in the Pre-apprenticeships in schools fact sheet and course listfor schools and RTOs.

        There is also a Pre-apprenticeships in schools fact sheet for students that you may find useful.

      • School-based apprenticeships and traineeships

        School-based apprenticeships and traineeships are paid employment based training programs for full time school students who are generally 15 years of age and over. Students are required to enter into a training contract with their employer.

        Qualifications that are available as school-based apprenticeships or traineeships are listed on the Register of Class A and B qualifications ​.

        Information on school-based apprenticeship and traineeship requirements is available in the School-based apprenticeship and traineeship policy ​.

        A good practice guide​ is also available to support schools and RTOs.

      1515548573

      Critical success factors

      Five critical success factors underpin successful VET programs delivered to secondary students:

      • leadership, continuity and partnerships;
      • student cohort and parent liaison;
      • vision, place and configuration;
      • flexibility; and
      • course content, structure and evaluation.

      Read more details about applying the critical success factors .

      Good practice models

      The following good practice models are available to help schools plan and deliver quality VET programs. These models showcase selected schools that embed critical success factors in their planning and highlight how these schools help their students achieve quality outcomes.

      Metropolitan schools

      • Clontarf Aboriginal College GPM
      • Gilmore College GPM
      • John Curtin College of the Arts GPM
      • John Forrest Secondary College GPM
      • La Salle College GPM
      • Mater Dei College GPM
      • St Stephen’s School GPM
      • Woodvale Secondary College GPM

      Regional schools

      • Busselton Senior High School GPM
      1505272455

      Career advice

      Quality career advice and guidance are an important part of helping students to:

      • make decisions about their preferred career pathways;
      • decide which School Curriculum and Standards Authority courses and VET qualifications they should take at school; and
      • maximise their successful outcomes at school and post school.

      Resources for school career practitioners and VET coordinators are available in the Career practitioners section of the Jobs and Skills WA Career Exploration website .

      1524529522

      Further information

      Further information about VET programs for secondary students is available from the:

      • Association of Independent Schools of Western Australia (Inc) ;
      • Catholic Education Western Australia ;
      • School Curriculum and Standards Authority ; and
      • WA Department of Education .

      Please direct any queries to [email protected] .

      1499673589
      Page last updated March 08, 2017
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      washington monthly college guide 2016

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      The 2016 Washington Monthly College Guide and Rankings are Out!

      These are America’s top schools — for low- and middle-income students, for adult learners, and for the country.

      by Paul Glastris

      Political Animal

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      The Washington Monthly magazine today is releasing its annual College Guide and Rankings , an increasingly influential alternative to U.S. News & World Report’s much-criticized college rankings. The Guide also features a first-ever “ Best Colleges for Adult Learners ” ranking plus profiles of the “ Sixteen Most Innovative People in Higher Education .”

      Whereas U.S. News relies on crude and easily manipulated measures of money and prestige for its rankings, the Washington Monthly measures schools based on what they are doing for the country—by improving social mobility, producing research, and promoting public service.

      The Washington Monthly’s unique methodology —strengthened by new federal data on the average earnings and loan repayment rates of students from specific colleges—yields striking results:

      • While 19 out of U.S. News’ top 20 national university rankings are private schools, the majority of Washington Monthly’s top 20 are public institutions, including University of California-San Diego, Texas A&M, and Utah State University, schools that rate nowhere near the top at U.S. News.
      • While a few elite schools, such as Stanford and Harvard top the Washington Monthly list, others underperform. Columbia, Northwestern, and Washington University in St. Louis, which rank 4th, 12th, and 15th respectively, on the U.S. News list, come in 24th, 40th, and 99th in the Washington Monthly rankings.
      • Berea College, ranked 67th on U.S. News’ list of liberal arts colleges, comes in 1st in the Washington Monthly.

      While nearly half of all college students today are adults, no national publication has ever ranked colleges based on which serve adult students best— until now . To put together its exclusive ranking of the best four-year and two-year colleges for adult learners, the Washington Monthly compiled reams of data on which schools best meet these students’ unique needs, such as plenty of weekend, evening, and online classes to fit busy work schedules.

      The top five four-year colleges for adults are:
      • Golden Gate University—San Francisco (CA)
      • University of Utah (UT)
      • Park University (MO)
      • Concordia University—St. Paul (MN)
      • University of Colorado-Denver (CO)

      Absent from the top 100 best-for-adults list are any of the private elite institutions that crowd the top of U.S. News’s rankings, largely because such schools enroll too few adults. For the most part, these elite schools simply aren’t in the business of educating adults.

      The 2016 Washington Monthly College Guide also includes an updated “ Best Bang for the Buck ” ranking of colleges that are doing the best job of helping non-wealthy students attain marketable degrees at affordable prices. While a few well-known elite schools score well, including Amherst and Georgetown, many of the highest-ranking “Best Bang” schools are ones other publications seldom celebrate, such as the University of Mount Olive (NC), Cal State-Bakersfield, and College of the Ozarks (MO).

      In addition, the new issue features mini-profiles of the “ Sixteen Most Innovative People in Higher Education. ” These administrators, researchers, nonprofit leaders and startup entrepreneurs are finding better ways of providing quality degrees to more students at lower cost. They include Charles Isbell of Georgia Tech, Candice Thille of Stanford, Nichole Hurd of College Advising Corps, and Kai Drekmeier of Inside Track.

      The issue also includes in-depth feature stories on:
      • The False Promise of “Free” College
      • How the Internet Wrecked College Admissions
      • Michael Sorrell, the Man Reinventing the Urban College

      Enjoy the issue!

      Paul Glastris

      Paul Glastris is the editor in chief of the Washington Monthly.

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      2016 College Guide and Rankings

      Posted by Anne Kim

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      Since 2005, the Washington Monthly has released an annual College Guide and rankings, where we rate schools based on what they are doing for the country. It’s our answer to U.S News & World Report, which relies on crude and easily manipulated measures of wealth, exclusivity, and prestige to evaluate schools.

      We rate schools based on their contribution to the public good in three broad categories: Social Mobility (recruiting and graduating low-income students), Research (producing cutting-edge scholarship and PhDs), and Service (encouraging students to give something back to their country). We also offer our “Best Bang for the Buck” rankings – our exclusive list of schools that help non-wealthy students attain marketable degrees at affordable prices. This year, we are also debuting the nation’s first-ever ranking of the best colleges for adult learners. More rankings information, including methodologies, can be found here .

      Click the cover to read our 2016 College Guide issue online. You can also read last year’s issue. And be sure to check out our book,  The Other College Guide .

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      We are deeply grateful to the  Lumina Foundation ,  The Kresge Foundation , and the  Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation  for their support.


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      Donald Trump cannot assure Manafort’s silence by pardoning him.

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      Text editor to open big (giant, huge, large) text files [closed]

      Ask Question


      up vote
      1023
      down vote

      favorite

      412

      I mean 100+ MB big; such text files can push the envelope of editors.

      I need to look through a large XML file, but cannot if the editor is buggy.

      Any suggestions?

      windows xml editor text-editor large-files
      share

      edited Mar 14 ’10 at 20:24


      community wiki

      6 revs, 5 users 56%
      Dave Jarvis

      closed as not constructive by Kev Jan 27 ’12 at 1:47

      As it currently stands, this question is not a good fit for our Q&A format. We expect answers to be supported by facts, references, or expertise, but this question will likely solicit debate, arguments, polling, or extended discussion. If you feel that this question can be improved and possibly reopened, visit the help center for guidance. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center , please edit the question .

      locked by Matt Sep 2 ’15 at 20:08

      This question’s answers are a collaborative effort: if you see something that can be improved, just edit the answer to improve it! No additional answers can be added here

      • 166

        Actually, text files of 100+ MB or even 1+ GB is not as uncommon as you may think (i.e. log files from busy servers).
        –  Anders Sandvig
        Dec 19 ’08 at 19:18

      • 15

        Sneakyness: And not exactly text. I think the requirements of reading text files and reading binary files differ somewhat. You might pass it through base64 or uuencode, though.
        –  Joey
        Aug 16 ’09 at 10:24

      • 2

        This should be at least a similar question or even linked as it was asked 18 months prior… stackoverflow.com/questions/102829/…
        –  ONDEV
        Jan 19 ’12 at 0:49

      • 1

        I was also looking for the answer to this exact question in order to read some huge log files that I’ve generated!
        –  HorseloverFat
        Jul 20 ’12 at 16:19

      • 1

        @BlairHippo I feel the same way, I’m almost nervous when asking a question because chances are high that someone will say "Close this, it should go in WhateverExchange instead"
        –  Rodolfo
        Dec 17 ’13 at 18:04

      comments disabled on deleted / locked posts / reviews  | 
      show 12 more comments

      2 Answers
      2

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      up vote
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      The 010Editor on Windows will open GIANT (think 50 GB) files in binary mode and allow you to edit and search the text.

      Community wiki:

      Suggestions are

      • HTMLPen.com is a free online editor that can open and highlight syntax TB+ files instantly, supports UTF-8, and can run on a modern browser in any OS. (read-only for big files)
      • Liquid Studio Large File Editor Opens and edits TB+ files instantly, supports UTF-8, Unicode, etc. It is free and covered by the community edition (Windows Only).
      • SlickEdit
      • Large Text File Viewer (read only)
      • glogg (read only, read the file directly from disk, handle multi-GB files).
      • HxD hex editor, but good for large files.
      • LogExpert ( download ) did a swell job for more than 6 GB log files. It is free.
      • UltraEdit can open files of more than 6 GB, but the configuration must be changed for this to be practical (menu AdvancedConfigurationFile HandlingTemporary Files“Open file without temp file…”).
      • wxHexEditor can open such files instantly, working on Linux, Windows, MacOSX
      • EmEditor handles very large text files nicely, officially up to 248 GB but up to 900 GB in my experience.

      Or, if you just want to peek at the start of the file, the Windows built-in more command might be good enough.

      share

      edited Jun 30 at 21:04


      community wiki

      31 revs, 22 users 23%
      Kais

      • 52

        VIM, or Emacs… pick your poison, both will handle any file you throw at them. I personally prefer Emacs, but both will beat notepad without so much as a hiccup.
        –  Mike Stone
        Oct 2 ’08 at 8:46

      • 24

        Emacs has a maximum buffer size, dependent on the underlying architecture (32 or 64 bits). I think that on 32 bit systems you get "maximum buffer size exceeded" error on files larger than 128 MB.
        –  Rafał Dowgird
        May 8 ’09 at 13:45

      • 64

        I just tried Notepad++ with a 561MB log file and it said it was too big
        –  barfoon
        Jun 2 ’09 at 14:12

      • 9

        @Rafal Interesting! Looks like on 64bit it is ~1024 petabytes. The reason has to do with the fact that emacs has to track buffer positions (such as the point)
        –  baudtack
        Jul 1 ’09 at 23:31

      • 70

        But be careful, vim will only work as long as the files in question have enough line breaks. I once had to edit a ca. 150 MB file without any line breaks, and had to resort to gedit because vim couldnt handle it.
        –  Benno
        Jan 29 ’10 at 16:47

       | 
      show 53 more comments


      up vote
      167
      down vote

      Why are you using editors to just look at a (large) file?

      Under *nix or Cygwin , just use less (“less is more”, only better, since you can back up). Searching and navigating under less is very similar to Vim , but there is no swap file and little RAM used.

      There is a native Win32 port of GNU “less”. See the comment below.

      Piggybacking off of some of the comments below, Perl’s “..” (range flip/flop) operator makes a nice selection mechanism to limit the crud you have to wade through, as well.

      For example:

      $ perl -n -e 'print if ( 1000000 .. 2000000)' humongo.txt | less

      (start at line 1 million and stop at line 2 million, sift the output manually in “less”)

      $ perl -n -e 'print if ( /interesting regex/ .. /boring regex/)' humongo.txt | less

      (start when the “interesting regular expression” finds something, stop when the “boring regular expression” find the end of an interesting block — may find multiple blocks, sift the output…)

      Finally, 100 MB isn’t too big. 3 GB is getting kind of big. I used to work at a print & mail facility that created about 2 % of U.S. first class mail. One of the systems for which I was the tech lead accounted for about 15+ % of the pieces of mail. We had some big files to debug here and there.

      Community Wiki Suggestions:

      Use LogParser to look at the file:

      logparser.exe -i:textline -o:tsv "select Index, Text from 'c:\path\to\file.log' where line > 1000 and line < 2000"
      logparser.exe -i:textline -o:tsv "select Index, Text from 'c:\path\to\file.log' where line like '%pattern%'"

      share

      edited Apr 29 ’15 at 14:37


      community wiki

      6 revs, 4 users 48%
      Roboprog

      • 7

        +1, I recently had some really huge xml files (+1 gigabyte) that I needed to look at. I’m on windows and both vim, emacs, notepad++ and several other editors completely choked on the file to the point where my system almost became unusable when trying to open the file. After a while I realized how unnecessary it was to actually attempt to open the file in an -editor- when I just needed to -view- it. Using cygwin (and some clever grep/less/sed-magic) I easily found the part I was interested in and could read it without any hassle.
        –  wasatz
        Apr 23 ’10 at 11:56

      • 8

        you don’t need cygwin for less, you can also use it under windows: gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/less.htm
        –  ChristophK
        Nov 2 ’11 at 9:33

      • 2

        This XML editor here has also a large file viewer component and does provide syntax coloring also for huge files. The files are not loaded completely into memory so a multi-GB document shouldn’t be a problem. In addition this tool can also validate those big XML documents … In my opinion one of the best approaches to work with huge XML data.
        –  lichtfusion
        Apr 21 ’13 at 12:38

      • 5

        OK so I just fixed my own issue. less with word wrap is slow. less -S without word wrap is lightning fast even on large lines. I’m happy again!
        –  Andy Brown
        Jul 20 ’15 at 9:41

      • 3

        Great answer. I want to note that if you have Git for Windows installed, you probably have Git bash as well, which includes less.
        –  transistor1
        Jun 24 ’16 at 12:24

       | 
      show 5 more comments

      protected by Community Sep 9 ’11 at 3:11

      Thank you for your interest in this question.
      Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count ).

      Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?

      Not the answer you’re looking for? Browse other questions tagged windows xml editor text-editor large-files or ask your own question .

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      Large Text File Viewer iconA fast and simple application that allows you to view large text files of more than 1GB and it opens files that are currently being written by other programs

      Large Text File Viewer is an application designed to open large text documents with sizes that exceed 1GB.

      Although opening such a document usually needs a lot of time and hardware resources, Large Text File Viewer promises to do everything faster and without stressing up the computer too much.

      And truth is, it pretty much manages to do this, although the interface may disappoint some of the users.

      With a clean but a way too simple look, Large Text File Viewer shows the content of a text document, while performing file indexing in the background to make sure you can browse the content without any interruption.

      In addition, it provides an advanced search utility that works like a charm on larger documents, despite the fact that most applications usually need much more time to perform such a task.

      A settings menu is also available, allowing you to change the default font, style and size, but also the colors of the main window. For a bit more tweaking power, Large Text File Viewer also offers a dedicated feature to change the background image and thus make the interface more user friendly.

      With drag and drop also supported, Large Text File Viewer indeed runs blazing fast, without hampering system performance at all. It all goes very smooth on all Windows versions.

      Overall, Large Text File Viewer is clearly a handy tool that manages large documents in an unique way. Still, it needs some improvements, especially in the interface department, as users always prefer more appealing layouts with eye-candy elements.

      Text Viewer Open Text View Text Viewer View Text Document

      New in Large Text File Viewer 5.2u:

      • Several bugs from version 5.1 have been fixed. Once again, many thanks to the prompt bug reports from the LTF Viewer users. One major bug is:
      • The program hangs while reading files with large average line length.

      Read the full changelog

      Large Text File Viewer was reviewed by Bogdan Popa

      3.0/5

      DOWNLOAD Large Text File Viewer 5.2u for Windows

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      Exercise Set 2.1



      57.

      Function

      1 answ



      58.

      Not a function

      1 answ



      59.

      Not a function

      1 answ



      60.

      Not a function

      2 answ



      61.

      Function

      1 answ



      62.

      Not a function

      1 answ



      63.

      Function

      1 answ



      64.

      Function

      1 answ



      65.

      -4

      1 answ



      66.

      1 answ



      67.

      1 answ



      68.

      1 answ



      69.

      1 answ



      70.

      1 answ



      71.

      1 answ



      72.

      1 answ



      73.

      1 answ



      74.

      1 answ



      75.

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      76.

      1 answ



      77.

      1 answ



      78.

      domain: (negative infinity,infinity)
      Range: (negative infinity,4]
      X intercepts: -3 and 1
      Y intercept: 3
      f(-2)=3
      f(2)=-5

      1 answ



      79.

      See solution for explanation

      1 answ



      80.

      See solution for explanation

      1 answ



      81.

      See solution for explanation

      1 answ



      82.

      See solution for explanation

      1 answ



      83.

      See solution for explanation

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      84.

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      85.

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      86.

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      [math]\sinh[/math]

      [math]\sinh[/math]
      [math]\cosh[/math]
      [math]\tanh[/math]
      [math]\operatornamesech[/math]
      [math]\operatornamecsch[/math]
      [math]\coth[/math]
      [math]\in[/math]

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      GREEK SYMBOLS
      [math]\alpha[/math]
      [math]\beta[/math]
      [math]\Gamma[/math]
      [math]\gamma[/math]
      [math]\Delta[/math]
      [math]\delta[/math]
      [math]\epsilon[/math]
      [math]\varepsilon[/math]
      [math]\zeta[/math]
      [math]\eta[/math]
      [math]\Theta[/math]
      [math]\theta[/math]
      [math]\vartheta[/math]
      [math]\iota[/math]
      [math]\kappa[/math]
      [math]\Lambda[/math]
      [math]\lambda[/math]
      [math]\mu[/math]
      [math]\nu[/math]
      [math]\Xi[/math]
      [math]\xi[/math]
      [math]\Pi[/math]
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      GREEK SYMBOLS
      [math]\alpha[/math]
      [math]\beta[/math]
      [math]\Gamma[/math]
      [math]\gamma[/math]
      [math]\Delta[/math]
      [math]\delta[/math]
      [math]\epsilon[/math]
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      [math]\mu[/math]
      [math]\nu[/math]
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      [math]\Pi[/math]
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      [math]\therefore[/math]
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      [math]\BbbN[/math]

      [math]\BbbZ[/math]
      [math]\BbbQ[/math]
      [math]\BbbR[/math]
      [math]\in[/math]

      [math]\in[/math]
      [math]\notin[/math]
      [math]\subset[/math]
      [math]\subseteq[/math]
      [math]\cap[/math]
      [math]\cup[/math]
      [math]\exists[/math]
      [math]\forall[/math]
      [math]\Leftarrow[/math]

      [math]\Leftarrow[/math]
      [math]\Rightarrow[/math]
      [math]\Leftrightarrow[/math]
      [math]\sum\limits_n=a^b[/math]

      [math]\prod\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigcap\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigvee\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigwedge\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\left[\beginarrayca & b & c\\d & e & f\\g & h & i\endarray\right][/math]
      GREEK SYMBOLS
      [math]\alpha[/math]
      [math]\beta[/math]
      [math]\Gamma[/math]
      [math]\gamma[/math]
      [math]\Delta[/math]
      [math]\delta[/math]
      [math]\epsilon[/math]
      [math]\varepsilon[/math]
      [math]\zeta[/math]
      [math]\eta[/math]
      [math]\Theta[/math]
      [math]\theta[/math]
      [math]\vartheta[/math]
      [math]\iota[/math]
      [math]\kappa[/math]
      [math]\Lambda[/math]
      [math]\lambda[/math]
      [math]\mu[/math]
      [math]\nu[/math]
      [math]\Xi[/math]
      [math]\xi[/math]
      [math]\Pi[/math]
      [math]\pi[/math]
      [math]\rho[/math]
      [math]\varrho[/math]
      [math]\Sigma[/math]
      [math]\sigma[/math]
      [math]\tau[/math]
      [math]\Upsilon[/math]
      [math]\upsilon[/math]
      [math]\Phi[/math]
      [math]\phi[/math]
      [math]\varphi[/math]
      [math]\chi[/math]
      [math]\Psi[/math]
      [math]\psi[/math]
      [math]\Omega[/math]
      [math]\omega[/math]

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      Review Exercises



      38.

      500 minutes

      1 answ



      39.

      60

      1 answ



      40.

      10,000

      1 answ



      41.

      invested 2500 at 4 percent
      invested 6500 at 7 percent

      1 answ



      42.

      invested 4500 at 2 percent and invested 3500 at 5 percent.

      1 answ



      43.

      length: 126
      width: 44

      1 answ



      44a.

      1 answ



      44b.

      See the explanations

      1 answ



      45.

      1 answ



      46.

      1 answ



      47.

      1 answ



      48.

      1 answ



      49.

      1 answ



      50.

      1 answ



      51.

      1 answ



      52.

      113

      1 answ



      53.

      1 answ



      54.

      1 answ



      55.

      Simplify.

      1 answ



      56.

      1 answ



      57.

      1 answ



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      1 answ



      59.

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      60.

      1 answ



      61.

      1 answ



      62.

      1 answ



      63.

      1 answ



      64.

      1 answ



      65.

      1 answ



      66.

      x=9 or x=3

      2 answ



      67.

      1 answ



      68.

      1 answ



      69.

      1 answ



      70.

      1 answ



      71.

      There are two imaginary solutions.

      1 answ



      72.

      There are two rational solutions.

      1 answ



      73.

      1 answ



      74.

      1 answ



      75.

      1 answ



      76.

      x=-3 or 3

      1 answ



      77.

      x=8 and x=-2

      1 answ



      78.

      1 answ



      79.

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      80.

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      81.

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      82.

      14

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      [math]\sinh[/math]

      [math]\sinh[/math]
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      [math]\tanh[/math]
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      [math]\int_a^b f(x)\,dx[/math]
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      [math]\left[ \right]_a^b[/math]
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      [math]\varphi[/math]
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      [math]\psi[/math]
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      [math]\omega[/math]

      GREEK SYMBOLS
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      [math]\prec[/math]
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      [math]\sum\limits_n=a^b[/math]

      [math]\prod\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigcap\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigvee\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigwedge\limits_n=a^b[/math]

      [math]\mapsto[/math]
      [math]\oplus[/math]
      [math]\odot[/math]
      [math]\therefore[/math]
      [math]\because[/math]

























      [math]\BbbN[/math]

      [math]\BbbZ[/math]
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      [math]\forall[/math]
      [math]\Leftarrow[/math]

      [math]\Leftarrow[/math]
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      [math]\sum\limits_n=a^b[/math]

      [math]\prod\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigcap\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigvee\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\bigwedge\limits_n=a^b[/math]
      [math]\left[\beginarrayca & b & c\\d & e & f\\g & h & i\endarray\right][/math]
      GREEK SYMBOLS
      [math]\alpha[/math]
      [math]\beta[/math]
      [math]\Gamma[/math]
      [math]\gamma[/math]
      [math]\Delta[/math]
      [math]\delta[/math]
      [math]\epsilon[/math]
      [math]\varepsilon[/math]
      [math]\zeta[/math]
      [math]\eta[/math]
      [math]\Theta[/math]
      [math]\theta[/math]
      [math]\vartheta[/math]
      [math]\iota[/math]
      [math]\kappa[/math]
      [math]\Lambda[/math]
      [math]\lambda[/math]
      [math]\mu[/math]
      [math]\nu[/math]
      [math]\Xi[/math]
      [math]\xi[/math]
      [math]\Pi[/math]
      [math]\pi[/math]
      [math]\rho[/math]
      [math]\varrho[/math]
      [math]\Sigma[/math]
      [math]\sigma[/math]
      [math]\tau[/math]
      [math]\Upsilon[/math]
      [math]\upsilon[/math]
      [math]\Phi[/math]
      [math]\phi[/math]
      [math]\varphi[/math]
      [math]\chi[/math]
      [math]\Psi[/math]
      [math]\psi[/math]
      [math]\Omega[/math]
      [math]\omega[/math]

      Enter your math below


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      decline or rise in english proficiency in malaysia

      Din Merican: the Malaysian DJ Blogger

      Vitaque mancipio nulli datur, omnibus usu. – Lucretius (To none is life given in freehold; to all on lease)

      English Proficiency in Malaysia: Time for Urgent Action

      by dinobeano

      20

      January 7, 2014

      English Proficiency in Malaysia: Time for Urgent Action

      by BA Hamzah*

      ba-hamzah English proficiency in Malaysia has reached a critical level that it can undermine the well-being and international prestige of this country in the absence of genuine efforts to curb its decline. It is impossible, for example, to conduct diplomacy and commercial relations without a strong command of English.

      In 2011, more than forty- thousand Malaysian graduates from public Universities could not get jobs in the private sector because they were not proficient in English. A large number of them were Malays from the rural areas. Their “unemployability” puts a drag on the country’s economic growth.

      The poor, especially those living in rural areas, will suffer from the lack of proficiency in English. Not only English has become the world’s lingua franca, it is also the language for science, mathematics, finance, diplomacy, trade as well as in other fields of humanities and social science.

      English proficiency provides access to the international job market, which can help the poor get a decent, good paying job.

      Since the Asian financial crisis (1997-1998), economic growth in Malaysia has not recovered fully. Whether the country can achieve a more robust economic recovery if the workforce has higher proficiency in English is debatable.

      There are, however, empirical studies, which correlate proficiency in English with higher economic productivity.To move out of the middle- income trap Malaysia needs a work force with innovative skills to take nation to the next level.

      Higher proficiency in English could probably increase the much-needed innovative skills to handle the ever-complex enabling technologies.

      According to the Economist Intelligence (2012), 70 per cent of the executives surveyed said to expand their corporate vision they needed more than fifty per cent of their work force to be proficient in English. The same study shows a positive relationship between employability and English proficiency, worldwide.

      The strong correlation between gross national income and proficiency in English is now an accepted dictum. Many maintain that the correlation between English proficiency and gross national income is a virtuous cycle, each mutually reinforcing each other. One study shows that proficiency in English can increase job employability and better salaries.

      English proficiency among the poor can level the uneven playing fields and close the income gap between the ethnic groups in this country. It could even unite the diverse communities, which have been gravely polarised by narrow ethnic interests.

      Admittedly, language can be emotive as it is cultural specific. This essay does not suggest that we do away with vernacular schools and the national language. On the contrary, the essay calls for the nation to embrace a productive global language that can complement the national language.

      The decline of English proficiency in Peninsular Malaysia is traceable to the Razak Report in 1956, which recommended Malay as the medium of instruction. Had our political masters adopted the recommendations in Barnes Report (1951) to use Malay in primary schools and English for secondary and tertiary education, we could have avoided the current predicament.

      The recently proposed changes to the teaching of English in the National Education Blueprint are too shallow, myopic and cosmetic in nature; no real structural changes, such as reinstating English schools, for example.  Without deep structural changes to the teaching and application of English, more people will just lose confidence and trust in our education system. Such cosmetic changes are insignificant; good only for cheap publicity.

      In fact, poor command of English has begun to erode academic excellence in public Universities. Before 1971, when English was the medium of instruction, our public Universities were highly rated for their academic scholarship. They were at par with the best in the British Commonwealth.

      Today is a different story altogether. Universiti Malaya, the pride of the nation, managed 156th place in the QS World University ranking for 2013. Compare this with the National University of Singapore (24), Seoul National University (35) and Nanyang Technological University (41). Surely, something is amiss with our education system for the international academic community to rank our public Universities so lowly.

      The Government must do more to reverse the decline in English proficiency, and has to do it with utmost urgency. Do it now in the national interest.

      *BA Hamzah is a keen student of political pedagogy. He can be contacted at [email protected]

      20 thoughts on “English Proficiency in Malaysia: Time for Urgent Action

      1. Decades later, we are still debating on the need for better command of the English language amongst Malaysians while our neighbours are all striding forward… what is there to argue?

        And do I really care any more? I am proficient in English and so are my children and they are holding good jobs elsewhere in Australia and Singapore and they are never going to come back here… the rest of the population especially the Malays from the rural areas, God bless them because their leaders think for them and they can only follow blindly…. all the good and successful Malays do not care either…. soon this country will go down the gutter fast…. so what?

        We need to let this country be destroyed completely so that we can start anew… so please bring it on…

        Reply

      2. SiangMalam, there is no debate on this issue. It is the unwillingness of the UMNO-led government to accept the reality that English is a universal language.For some reason or other, this government is scared to upset the Malay language nationalists who want to make Malay the global lingua franca. Both can keep on dreaming while Malaysia will continue to suffer from the self imposed language isolation. There is no political will to change.

        Only the dumbest cannot understand that proficiency in English and other important languages such as French, Japanese, Mandarin, German, Spanish, Portuguese and Korean will be good for our people. Translations tend to be unreliable because what is being translated reflects the understanding of the translator of the subject. Goethe is best read in German, Charles Dickens in English, Victor Hugo in French, and Tolstoy in Russian. –Din Merican

        Reply

      3. It’s not that easy to improve our system when we have an Education Minister who doesn’t seem to understand the reality of today’s world.

        It’s pathetic to note in schools on how the English teachers teach children at Primary and Secondary levels. To some teachers, English period has become a ‘free period’ within the classroom because children have to do their own work, referring to dictionaries to find the meaning of words written on the board.

        Many students aspiring to improve English Language skills in the private institutions today have openly criticized English Language teachers teaching English without even knowing the use of verb in its proper tense > e.g. when teacher takes time off to go to the the washroom, teacher tells children in class > ” Do your work, I went to the toilet and I came back soon” and another e.g to note > ” Tomorrow when you came to class” etc. etc. My gosh! it’s atrocious!

        It’s horrifying to note that certain teachers don’t even know the use Present Perfect in their speaking and writing skills. Many students, be it at College or University levels, don’t even know the Present Participles and the Past Participles and their use in writing and speaking skills. How can we expect them to understand the language use in its proper perspective.

        Grammar is the key to learning English to master the four components of the language > Reading, Speaking, Listening and Writing. Our Education System will have to seriously view of going back to our yesteryear on teaching of these basics of the language and not by just employing some Europeans or Americans to perform miracles. It’s rubbish and a complete waste of tax payers money to venture into such business and please don’t make education as your business partner. Muhyuddin has spent few millions on employing foreigners and would the Ministry dare to give the statistics on the progress of these schools for the public to view the outcome?

        It is of my view that nothing can be done with this present government because the ministers are stubborn lot and they don’t care a damn for what taxpayers say after they’re elected. Look at the PM !!!!!!!! It’s the clear example of elected representatives in our system of UMNO Government.

        Reply

      4. All these people who lament about the standard of English language among Malaysians are missing the point.

        Malaysians are exactly where UMNO wants them to be … ill-equipped to compete with the rest of the world and perpetually depending on the hand-outs from UMNO. The UMNO government should continue with this education policy for another 30 years. By then, we will have tens (if not hundreds) of millions of Malaysians who are ready to be exported to elsewhere in the world as unskilled or low-skilled labours (you guess what jobs these will entail). Indonesians, Filipinos, Cambodians, Bangladeshis, etc. will be hiring Malaysians by the dozens to work for them in harsh working conditions and low wages.

        Meanwhile, the UMNO people will continue to send their children for studies overseas. They will continue to rule Malaysia for time-eternity …

        Reply

      5. I believe we already missed the boat on many technologies. We ARE NOT going to be a technological country. Period. Catching up on English is not going to make us technological, its actually the basis only. Going up the technological ladder require so much more – supporting industries especially manufacturing, entreprenuers, financing etc. We have allowed the necessities of these things to fend for themselves and ramble along in the name of “social justice” and short-cuts for economic growth. These opportunities don’t always come around, they come in waves and we missed likely at least a couple of waves.

        Truth is we need English just to remain relevant no matter what. We have too much ignorance not to allow English, the language of the world, to enlightened the bigots and the haters. Not communicating in English gives places for these people to hide and ferment their poison.

        Reply

      6. Honestly, do these Umno bigots care? So long as the gravy train is running in their direction proficiency in English language or whatever languages is of no consequence. After all their command of English is equally bad let alone their ability to think intelligently. This is the making of a failed state and a failed race. And they don’t give a hoot. Period.
        ——-
        Tok Cik, don’t give up.–Din Merican

        Reply

      7. I think there is a misunderstanding. I doubt UMNO strategists truly believe Malay can be built into a global (ok, regional) lingua franca. If this were so, they would logically be cooperating intensively with Indonesia to create such a ‘market’ of over 350 million people.. For example, when I visit Indonesian bookshops like say Gramedia (and not only in Jakarta but all over the nusantara) I am always struck by the plethora of interesting foreign books of all kinds, translated into Bahasa Indonesia for the benefit of the masyarakat. Huge diversity of scientific, political, literary, historical titles from the US, UK and European countries. Yet not one of these easy-for-Malays-to-understand books makes it to Malaysian shores! I suppose all this fresh air would terrify the Malaysian censors.

        No, I think the real reason is that for UMNO to retain power it must keep Malays ignorant and “on their reservation”, believing they are dependent on UMNO to protect them from all those Christian/Chinese/Israeli/now also Shia! threats to their tempurung. Educating rural Malays in English will lead directly to exposure to non-UMNO-controlled, non-TV3, non-Utusan views, to critical thinking, in short to dangerous challenges to UMNO power. Better don’t let either Bahasa Indonesia or Bahasa Inggeris into the rural akal. It’s a simple and as depressing as that.
        —–
        How long can they keep the Malays down in this internet world? Not forever. It will just be matter of time.–Din Merican

        Reply

      8. Corrigendum: when I said 350 million I was including the Philippines which ok, is a bit of a stretch. Say 250 million.

        Reply

      9. I am not for the improving of the young Malaysian’s english. Their success will be my failure. I am now 52. They will take away my job if they are versed in the language. Let this UMNO govenment ferment them more in the illiteracy of this language. Let the govenment enhance their spirit of Nationalism via the Malay language. The very people who are for the changing of the medium of education in Malaysian schools are sending their own children to western countries to be educated. Has the rural Malays seen that ? Has the urban Malays who are better educated seen that ? PLEASE KEEP IT THAT WAY. NO TO ENGLISH IN OUR SCHOOLS !!

        Reply

      10. Are you all sure our ministers are qualified to manage the ministries they are assigned. I strongly doubt so. So how the hell you expect them to run it efficiently. To me the entire Malaysia institution is a joke. We have cave men running in suit.

        Reply

      11. Like some South American countries, due to decades of bad leadership and gross mismanagement, our country’s middle income trap is PERMANENT and LONG TERM.

        Reply

      12. Would you vote for a party that has in its manifesto an Education policy that

        1. Abolishes vernacular schools?
        2. Replaces them with English medium national schools?
        3. Mandarin and Tamil made available in these schools?
        4. Bahasa must be a compulsory pass?

        This is the only Education policy that will make “Malaysia, Truly Malaysia”.

        Reply

      13. Education should never be left to the mercy of politicians. There is no reason why we cannot have two co-equal languages – Malay and English. Canada, for example, has done well with both English and French as co-equal national languages. China, too, realizing the importance of English, is aiming to be a bilingual nation. They have already achieved impressed results in English.

        Reply

      14. Like a stewardess in the national airlines (I didn’t say which country) whose command of the English language was just good enough to serve the passengers. This was told to me sometime back by an airline pilot.
        After the meatballs were served in the First Class, the stewardess walked around the cabin with the sauce and to one of the man passengers, she asked:
        “Sir, would you like me to sauce your balls?”

        Reply

      15. Wan, Din Merican manages a ‘quality’ blog here. Most commentators’ contributions are thoughtful and constructive. Please keep it that way.

        Reply

      16. Swedes, Dutch, Finns, Norwegians — in addition to their respective national languages, they are fluent in English. Road signs in Helsinki are in both Finnish and Swedish (language of the largest minority group)

        Switzerland — French, German, Italian, Romansch + English

        Canada — French and English

        Francophone Africa, Anglophone Africa

        Portuguese in Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Brazil

        Endless possibilities.

        Reply

      17. What England. In 1990 I was told by a very senoir PTD officer that ability to speak and write in England does not make you a good officer. And I missed my promotion. And that came from an officer who entered the Malayan Civil Service in 1965 and by that it means that he had compete with others Malayans for a his place in society.

        We have convoluted every principle in the book. And continue to do so. Until we get out of that syndrome and stop this talk of setting up of a ‘Batu Keras Cafe’ in Putrajaya our journey to join the ranks of Third World countries has been clearly determined..

        Reply

      18. It is quite shameful to note that banks and other business outlets can’t even differentiate between “CLOSE and CLOSED” by putting up the sign infront of the door entrance

        Reply

      19. I agree that Malaysia is WEAK in English. Thus, even Gen-Y tends to speak more crap than good things in MALAY. Face it. IF we don’t improve our ENGLISH, WE WILL BE A DOWNGRADED COUNTRY NO MATTER EVEN IF WE HAVE THE MEN AND THE TECHNOLOGY THAT IS COMING IN 2020 BUT LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY IN MALAY AND ENGLISH A MUST. 80% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION IS DOMINATED BY ENGLISH!

        Reply

      20. I am especially worried that the introduction of PPSMI and other haphazard policies and conditions regarding English in Malaysia have ‘severed’ ties between the masses and the English language. I believe many Malays are upset that they have to use local banking or retail websites (i.e. meant for local use only) in English. If this is a way to encourage the use of English, then it’s a very rude one. English is envisioned as an “international” language only meant for use in foreign correspondence, not a “national” one between one’s own countrymen. Thus it is the perceived misplacement of the use of English that could be an underlying reason for that ‘French attitude’ – the resistance against the use of English by locals. And consequently, low proficiency.

        I know there are many Malaysians who speak English primarily, and I’m one of them. I fear that we are part of the reason of Malaysia’s English woes. The rest of the country thinks we’ve forsaken our supposed mother tongues for the spoils of English, and with that our Eastern cultural identity. Every time I balik kampung for CNY I confront criticisms by relatives, even those about my age, because I don’t speak Chinese as well as English. So I know firsthand the angst is real.

        Our English problem also happens in many Commonwealth countries (former British colonies), where today good English remains the preserve of the elite to divide them from the pidgin-speaking masses (in contrast to those small, rich European countries where everyone’s taught the language at an equal level). It could be linked to how English was introduced to countries. I’ve been to some English African websites and see comments that reflect begrudgence toward English as a colonial legacy, as if these people speak English because they’re ‘forced’ to.

        The world economic balance is rapidly tipping in favour of Asia, where English proficiency is low and progress on it is slow. Soon all this English proficiency talk could be worthless as we’ll all get by well by speaking bad or primary-level English. I’ve read about that non-native speakers communicate more effectively between non-native speakers when no native speaker is around.

        Reply

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      Christopher Teh

      Extraordinary minds discuss ideas

      Few Malaysians need to be convinced on the importance of learning English, but are they mastering the language? (photo from umlib.um.edu.my)

      Decline or rise in English proficiency in Malaysia?

      by Christopher Teh Boon Sung

      Update (Dec 8, 2011): A modified form of this blog entry was published today in the New Straits Times newspaper.

      Few people would argue against the importance of English language today. It is the lingua franca in cyberspace and in international science, politics, business, and entertainment.

      Standard of English proficiency in Malaysia, as evidenced by this rather famous house sign (photo from engrish.com)

      A study in 2011 by English First (EF) showed just how important English is to a country. This study was conducted on 44 countries (including Malaysia) where English was not their first or native language. The study found that English proficiency generally correlates (relates linearly) with a country’s wealth and export-dependency. EF study suggests that when the people in a country become increasingly more proficient in English, the wealthier the country becomes and the more the country could participate in international trade.

      English proficiency correlates with a country’s income (chart from EF report)

      Surprisingly, Malaysia scored the highest in English proficiency in the Asia region. Unfortunately, Singapore could not be included in the final analysis due to the inadequate sample size from that country. Overall, Malaysia ranked ninth in English proficiency among the 44 countries!

      Malaysia’s high score is certainly surprising considering the much talked about decline of English proficiency among Malaysians and the issue of reverting to Malay from English language as a medium of instruction in schools. One complain about the EF study is the possibility of a large sampling error. English tests were carried out online by people who were interested in testing their English proficiency. Volunteers also tended to be younger than the average population age. Since the tests were all carried out online, I suspect this kind of tests would most probably attract more urbanites than the whole population.

      Consequently, this possibility of biased representation of Malaysia’s population by the urbanites may explain Malaysia’s inflated high score in English.

      However, I do not doubt the overall validity of EF study results. As stated earlier, English is an important global language. But back in 2004, David Graddol, in an opinion article in Science (Feb 27, 2004) , delivers a startling news: English is in decline in the world. In the 19th century, people once believed in the indomitable embrace of English and that the entire world would eventually speak in English.

      The changing percentage of the world’s population speaking English (chart from sciencemag.org)

      Graddol’s study, however, show that the population growth among speakers of languages other than English is increasingly more rapidly than speakers of English as their first language. In 1950, for example, nearly nine per cent of the world’s population spoke in English as their first language. But this proportion of English speakers is declining at a rate of about 0.4 per cent for every ten years. By 2050, it is estimated that only 5 per cent of the world’s population would be speaking in English as their first language.

      In contrast, Spanish, Hindi/Urdu, and Arabic languages see an increase every year in the number of speakers in the world. By 2050, Graddol predicts, Mandarin, Spanish, Hindi/Urdu, and Arabic would be equally ranked with English as the world language. Mandarin remains the native language by more than a billion people in the world. China’s population is about one-sixth of the world’s population, and when China’s economy overshadows that of the U.S., Mandarin may likely be the new must-learn language. Together with China, countries such as Russia, Brazil, and India are expected to be in the top six largest economies in the world by 2050. In such a scenario, would English language remain as useful as today?

      The decline of one language and the rise of another is not new.  Latin, for example, was the language of science before it was gradually replaced by English.

      Consequently, I wonder if Malaysia is fighting a losing war in improving English proficiency among the people. Malaysia’s neighboring countries, Philippines and Hong Kong, also witness an alarming decline in English proficiency. A recent official survey showed that nearly half of the Filipino high school graduates could not speak English at all. And although Hong Kong high school students study English for several hours a day, only slightly more than half of the 16-17 year olds could pass the English language exams.

      In Malaysia, there is unfortunately a stigmata attached to some people speaking in English. A Chinese who speaks in English is sometimes called a “banana” – he or she may look yellow on the outside but is actually white inside. I once had a Malay research student who was brave enough to speak in English to her Malay friends. For that, she was treated as a pariah because her friends thought it abnormal and queasy to have a Malay person speak English to another Malay.

      Consequently, Malaysia’s problem with declining English proficiency is not unique. The fundamental problem in Malaysia is English would always remain a remote or foreign  language, used only by the elite minorities or used only in official or international purposes. For most Malaysians, English is not an everyday language. A survey done in 2001 revealed that only less than 2 per cent (about 380,000 people) of Malaysia’s population spoke in English as their first language.

      So, unless Malaysians can somehow internalize English as a language spoken by all races used in everyday life, Malaysia would continue to see a fall in English proficiency no matter what and how much the government tries to promote its use.

      The current challenge for individual Malaysians is to be proficient not only in English but in several languages. Malaysia is quite unique in this case. Malaysians, made up of many races, can already speak in English, Mandarin, and Hindi – three languages identified to the major languages of the future.


      I like to end this blog entry by reporting a little survey I carried out throughout this month of November. I visited some shopping malls (some more than once) in the Klang Valley (Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur area) and took down the number of people speaking in English, Chinese, or Indian.

      I like to make it clear this study of mine is in no way a scientific experiment. I was merely curious to determine the proportion of languages being spoken by urbanites in the Klang Valley. I chose shopping malls because there were enclosed areas and easier to collect my data in relative comforts than on the streets (too hot!).

      However, to reduce sources of errors in my data collection, I followed the following rules in my data collection:

      1. I only counted the number of languages upon confirmation. It is tempting to assume Chinese or Malay people would be speaking in Chinese and Malay, respectively. I have to listen and confirm the language in which they are speaking.
      2. I did not count people speaking in business transactions such as a customer talking to a cashier. I was interested in languages used only in conversations between families or friends.
      3. I also did not count languages spoken involving any foreigners. I was interested only in Malaysians.
      4. I avoided counting in places where certain races tend to aggregate. A Chinese Book Fair, for example, would attract the Chinese to the fair and taking down the languages spoken there would probably inflate the proportion of people speaking in Chinese.
      5. Lastly, my data collection must be for at least one hour. This is to ensure that I cover the mall adequately.

      Before I report my results, I like to make it clear that I only recorded down the language spoken by Malaysian shoppers. My results does not show their language proficiency or whether they can speak in other languages. For example, I may record a person speaking in Chinese to his friends, but this does not mean he cannot speak in English. He could well speak in English better than his Chinese (or not).

      My little study assumes that a language I record is the preferred language of the people in a shopping group. Whether this assumption is true is one possible source of error. Consequently, you can take the results from this study as only a rough estimate of the proportion of languages spoken by Malaysian shoppers in the Klang Valley.

      Okay, after a month of data collection, I covered 11 malls. On average, 50 per cent of Malaysia shoppers spoke in Chinese (Mandarin making up nearly 50 per cent of this total and Cantonese 47 per cent). 24 per cent of Malaysian shoppers spoke in Malay. Likewise, an equal amount spoke in English. Only 2 per cent of Malaysian shoppers spoke in Indian. In short, the majority of Malaysian shoppers spoke in Chinese and about one quarter Malaysian shoppers spoke in English.

      Proportion of languages spoken by Malaysian shoppers in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya

      Nonetheless, the distribution of languages varied according to the mall. Malls, 1Utama, Sri Hartamas, Midvalley, and IPC, showed similar proportion of languages with one another. Nearly 60 per cent of Malaysian shoppers spoke in Chinese and about one quarter to one fifth spoke in English in those four malls.

      Being further away from the city center meant that malls such as Jusco Cheras Selatan and Mines had very few English-speaking Malaysian shoppers (in the case for Jusco, I did not find any English speaking shoppers). Surprisingly, however, Pavilion mall, being in the city center, had very few English-speaking shoppers too. This could be due to the small sample size (only 18), or could this be an indication of the people in the city center? From experience, my visits to other malls in the vicinity had few English-speaking shoppers too. A repeat of data collection at Pavilion is probably warranted.

      The mall with the largest proportion of English-speaking shoppers is Bangsar Village. This area (Bangsar) is a well known area where wealthy and high socio-economic status people live. This is an area where a lot of expats live too. It is no surprise then to find most shoppers here speak in English. Remember that I did not include the language spoken by expats in my data collection. Unlike other malls, I recorded most Malays here speaking in English rather than in Malay.

      At the end, I learn something from my own survey and gain a slightly deeper understanding on the situation of English in the world. English may be important now, but it may have to share its dominance with other languages in the near future.

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      – Personal / Rants and raves / Science / Cantonese / English / language / Malaysia / malls / Mandarin / reading / school / shopping

      Comments

      1. intersting research, have you been to Indonesia and see how often we spoke it? very seldom. is it a localisation?

        Reply
        • Yes, I have been to Indonesia and I have met several Indonesians too in Malaysia. Malaysia’s command in English is better but really, our level isn’t all that fantastic, so our proficiency isn’t something we are proud of.

          Reply
      2. Dear Mr. Teh,

        I am 20 years old. I can vouch that the standard of English of my generation has reached an all new low. I don’t mean to criticise (okay, maybe a little), but from my humble observations, I have identified a few moot causes of such vast degradation in language (including spelling, grammar, etc.):

        1. Very, very, very few of us READ, in the true sense of the word.
        – I don’t consider drivel such as “Twilight” to be books. There are only a handful of us who actually read quality books. When my parents were young, children as young as 12 would have already enriched their minds with the likes of Dickens, the Bronte Sisters, Austen and others. Nowadays, however, most teenagers tackle the aforementioned when forced to, as part of their school curriculum, perhaps. Even then, the abridged and simplified versions are preferred, over the original masterpieces.

        2. There are much too many distractions around us for us to engage in quality reading.
        – Social media, bad television (Jersey Shore, anyone?) and “smartphones” (which I personally find to be a conspiracy against my generation because they are decidedly heading in the opposite direction)

        3. Labels
        – This may be a bit of a presumption, but the terms “nerd”, I believe, acts as a major hindrance for those who which to be socially accepted to engage in fruitful activities such as reading. Others do “cool” things like flit around in malls.

        I don’t mean to sound like a killjoy or that I have no faith in my peers. I’m sure there are many, many of them out there who believe in knowledge empowerment. I grew up in Subang Jaya, and I think it is unfortunate that the younger generation there have grown up extremely shallow. I truly hope that I am proven wrong.

        Reply
        • You are right. Reading as a hobby is declining because reading requires slower and more concentration — which would never be popular today.

          Literature is not for everyone, and it wouldn’t be fair to berate anyone who don’t read literature. The important thing is find books which fit someone’s interest — be it romance, sports, or science fiction. The most important is to cultivate a strong reading habit. It can be difficult to achieve this if we are reading on topics that don’t interest us.

          I remember someone who hates reading with passion. His mother tried to encourage him to read but to no avail. It was only by chance that she bought him a book on football one day. This was because he loved football.

          Well, it turned out that he loved the story so much that he bought more books on football. One book lead to another and another. Recently, this guy (now an adult) won an award for a book he wrote for youths! Fancy that. 🙂

          Reply
          • Point taken, Sir, Literature isn’t for everyone. But reading as a hobby should be. Knowledge empowerment is crucial for our generation and the ones to come.

            I know my kids are going to have the biggest library on the block! 😀

            Reply
            • The best library are those floor-to-ceiling book shelves, covering all walls in a room.

              Reply
      3. Thanks for the good article. If compare with your neighbouring counrty such Thailand (my country). I have nothing to say…

        Reply
        • I have been to Thailand a few times. My favourite is Chiang Mai. Yes, I agree English is more seldom spoken there than in Malaysia.

          Reply
      4. lolz, at least they try to use english

        Reply
        • Are you referring to the broken English on the signboard? Yes, very funny! Thanks for your visit!

          Reply

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